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BRODART. CO. Cat. No. 23-221 003 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 




by Melvil Dewey A M LL D 






19 4 2 

Decimal Clasification and Relativ Index 

Copyryt by 

Melvil Dewey 
1876, 1885, igii, 1913, 1915. 1919 
Library Bureau 
1888, 1891. 1894. 1899 
Lake Placid Club Education Foundation 
1922, 1927, 1932, 1942 

Modifying D C numbers 

Confuzion and annoyance to thousands of uzers cauzd by printing unauthorized 
variations force the publishers to insist strictly on f ul copyryt protection. Every library 
and individual uzer has, however, entire freedom to make such variations as he thinks 
he needs, under the simpl restrictions found necesary to protect the ryts of others. 
See p. 35 2 -38', Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions. 

Note on spelling of Ed 14 

In response to the exprest sentiment of many D C users, the Decimal Classifica- 
tion Committee voted 16 May 1941 to adopt conventional spelling for the index of Ed 14. 
In deference to the lifelong convictions of the author, however, his statements regard- 
ing simpler spelling are reprinted in this edition without alteration. Statements 
regarding D C usage wil be understood, therefore, as applying to Tables and prefatory 
matter, but not to Index of Ed 14 ^ 


This Clasification divides knowlej into 9 main clases numberd 1 to 9. 
Cyclopedias, periodicals etc. so jeneral as to belong to no one of these 
clases ar markt o (naught) and form a 10th clas. Each clas is similarly 
separated into 9 divisions, jeneral works belonging to no division having 
o in place of division number. Divisions ar similarly divided into 9 sec- 
tions. This process is repeated as often as necesary. Thus 512 means 
clas 5 (Pure syence), division 1 (Mathematics), section 2 (Aljebra), and 
every aljebra is numberd 512. 

Books on shelvs and cards in a clast catalog ar arranjed in simpl numeric 
order, all clas numbers being regarded as decimals. These Tables sho 
order of subjects. Thus 5 1 2 Aljebra follows 5 1 1 Arithmetic and precedes 
513 Jeometry. Since each subject has a definit number, all books on any 
subject stand together. 

Summaries 1st summary shows the 10 clases. 2d shows the 9 divisions 
of each clas, and is useful as a i-paje birdseye view of whole skeme. Then 
folio 10 pajes, 1 for each clas, giving the 9 sections of each of its 9 divisions, 
and showing scope of the clas on a singl paje. 

Tables These 3 summaries ar followd by ful Clasification Tables, 
which present in numeric order all clases, divisions, sections and sub- 
sections. Sinonimus terms, exampls, brief notes, dates and cachwords 
ar often aded to simpl heds to giv fuller and clearer idea of scope of each 
number. Therefore all references to numbers shud be lookt up in ful 
Tables, never in Summaries, which ar in effect a contents table of the 
ful Clasification. 

Index After the Tables an alfabetic Index of all heds givn in Tables 
refers by clas number of each to its exact place in Tables. This Index 
includes also sinonims and many other entries likely to help a reader 
find his subject eazily. Even a uzer who knows just where to turn to his 
subject in Tables, may, by consulting the Index, be put on trak of valuabl 
allyd matter which he wud otherwize overlook. 

Ful explanations Ilustrations and suggestions for numerus applications 
of this sistem, and ful explanations of its nemonic and other important 
features ar givn in the Introduction on following pajes. 

Supplementary tables Following the Relativ Index are 4 Supplementary 
tables giving lists of (1) subjects, with clas number of each, which may be 
subdivided geografically ; (2) form divisions, which may be applied thruout 
the main Tables as needed; (3) languages, with their clas numbers, which 
may be further subdivided by adding figures given in Supplementary 
table 4; and literatures, with their clas numbers, which may be sub- 
divided by adding numbers for literary forms as given under English 
literature ; (4) philologic divisions, with figures to be added in subdividing 
any language in Supplementary table 3. 







Description . 9-23 

Orijin and growth ........ 9-10 

Extent of use ........ 10-11 

What is the sistem ? . . . . . . .11 

Notation . . . . . . . .12 

Best known decimal form . . . . . .12 

Relativ Subject Index ....... 12-14 

What Relativ Index includes . . . . . .14 

Explanation of tables ....... 14-15 

Coordination . . . . . . . .16 

New subjects ........ 16 

Choice and arranjement of heds . . . . .16 

Sequence of ally d subjects . . . . . .16 

Cachtitles ......... 16-17 

Form distinctions . . . . . . . 1 7 

Minute clasing ........ 17-18 

Tentativ tables ........ 18-19 

Nemonics ......... 19-20 

Decimalism ......... 20-21 

Relativ location ........ 21-23 

Sizes on shelvs ........ 23 

Catalogs .......... 23-24 

Name catalog ........ 23 

Shelflist ......... 23 

Clast catalog ........ 23-24 

Dictionary catalog . . . . . . . .24 

Advantajes ......... 24-27 

Shelvs .......... 24 

Shelflist ......... 24 

Accession book ........ 24-25 

Pamflets ..... .... 25 

Sale duplicates . . . . . . . .25 

Charjing sistem . . . . . . . .25 

Subject references ........ 25-26 

Recataloging or reclasifying ...... 26 

Adaptability ......... 26 

Arabic numerals . . . . . . . .26 

Endowment of special departments ..... 26-27 

Summary . . . ... . . -27 




Sugjestions to uzers ........ 27-33 

Numeration ......... 27 

Plan of Tables 27 

Index ........ 47-28 

Familiarity with Clarification ...... 28 

How to find subject of book ...... 28-29 

Assyning clas numbers ....... 29-3 1 

Number of figures uzed in clas number . . . -31 

Bilding numbers ........ 31-32 

Book numbers ........ 32-33 

Variations practicabl ........ 33-40 

Cautions . . . . . . . . . .34 

Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions . . 35-38 

Fiction . . . . . . 35 

Juvenils 35-36 

Biografy . ' 36 

Paralel libraries ....... 36-37 

Combining languaj and literature . ... . 37 

Reference library . . . . . . 37 

Contractions for specialists . . . . . -38 

Alfabet or cronolojy for final subdivisions . . . 38-39 

Broken order ........ 39 

Pro and con division of topics ...... 39-40 

Bibliografic modifications . . . ... . 40-43 

Accretion syn +•••••••• 41 

Cupling syn - ........ 41 

Relation syn : ........ 41-42 

Form syn (o) ........ 42 

Universality syn °o ....... 42 

Place syn (3M9) 42 

Languaj syn = ........ 42 

Time syn " " ........ 42 

Jeneral points of view syn 00 . . . . . .42 

A to Z 42 

Sequence of syns ........ 43 

Other uses ......... 43-45 

Bookstores . . . . . . . . 43 

Offis files ......... 43-44 

Scrapbooks ......... 44 

Index rerums ........ 44-45 

Topical indexes ........ 45 

Separates ......... 45-46 

Aknowlejments ........ 46-48 

Future of D C 48 



Reazons .......... 49-56 

Disgrace of present usaj . . . . . -51 

Criminal waste of money . . . . . .51 

skool time . . . . . .51 

Adling brains ........ 51-52 

English as world languaj ....... 52-53 

Disregard of pedants rules ....... 53-54 

Consistency ......... 54 

Conciseness ......... 54-55 

Can it be dun? ......... 55—56 

Rules .......... 56-63 

N E A 12 words ........ 57 

Simplifyd Speling Board 30 words . . . . -57 

alfabetic rules .... 57-59 

18 rules ..... 59 60 

Aded rules uzed in D C ....... 60-61 

U S Jeografic Board rules ...... 62 

Filolojists 10 joint rules ....... 62-63 

Sugjestions ......... 63 




Volume i : Tables 

First summary: the 10 main classes . 
Second " the 100 main divisions 

Third " the iooo sections 

Tables of subsections of General works 

Philosophy . 


Social sciences 

Philology . 

Pure science . 

Useful arts . 

Fine arts 

Literature . 


Volume 2 : Relativ Index 


Explanatory note to the Relativ Index 1133-36 

Abbreviations used in Index and Supplementary Tables . 1136-38 

Relativ Index 1 139-1876 

Table of topics divided geographically 1876-79 

uniform subdivisions 1880-87 

languages and literatures 1888-90 

philologic divisions 1891-92 

' Universal Decimal Classification ', Systematic Botany . 1893-1927 

1 page 

1 1 

10 pages 



1 1 



Dorkas Fellows died on October 10, 1938. She had been largely 
^sponsible for the memorial edition of the D C which was published in 
1932. Her incapacity for service during her later years and her death, 
following that of Dr Melvil Dewey on December 26, 1931, brought to 
a close some of the policies and practices which had guided the revision 
of this monumental work. 

The Lake Placid Club Education Foundation has always considered 
the D C an instrument of service to libraries, and to all persons interested 
in the organization and use of knowledge. It has not been a money 
making enterprise, tho it has, fortunately, received enough income to 
enable the work of revision to go on. In 1937 the Foundation desired 
to place the control of the work on a continuing basis involving not only 
its own membership but the Library profession. Accordingly, plans were 
devised for the creation of a new Committee to be in charge of the 
D C. That Committee, as then appointed, consisted of the following 

Milton James Ferguson, Chairman 

Arthur E Bestor . 

Godfrey Dewey 

T Harvey Ferris 

Harriet D MacPherson 

Ruth D McCollough 

Margaret Mann 

Deo B Colburn, Secretary 

The professional members of the above Committee were nominees of 
the American Library Association; the others represent the Lake Placid 
Club Education Foundation. The Committee has remained without 
change except for the resignation of Miss Mann. 

One of the early duties devolving upon the Committee was the selection 
of an editorial staff. Myron Warren Getchell has been continued in his 
former position as associate editor. Constantin J Mazney, formerly on 
the staff of the University of Michigan Library, was selected as editor. 
The staff has necessarily been kept at a minimum but has had the 
co-operation of librarians and especially of members of the staff of the 
Library of Congress. 



The ideal the Committee has in mind is to produce a work which shall 
be of the utmost value to the Library profession, and to other classifiers 
of knowledge. The fourteenth edition cannot be called the final edition 
of the D C ; a final edition will never be possible until men quit thinking 
and knowledge ceases to expand. It is the hope of the Committee, how- 
ever, that this revision will prove to be acceptable to the profession, 
both through the extensions which have been incorporated and also 
through the reductions of sections which seemed to be needlessly elaborate. 
Certain supplementary tables which have lost their original importance 
or uses have been omitted in an effort to give the work greater cohesion. 

Simpler or simplified spelling, a device which had the enthusiastic 
support of Dr Melvil Dewey, has been discarded in the Index, which had 
to be completely reset. Many plates have not been changed and could 
not be changed at this time without involving an expense beyond the 
power of the Committee to meet. In such tables the simplified spelling 
continues. Opinions rather widely expressed by librarians would seem to 
lead us to believe that standard spelling will facilitate the use of this 
publication. If such impression is in error, the Committee would be 
grateful for advice to the contrary. 

The Committee looks forward to the publication at some future date 
of a so-called Library Standard Edition of the Decimal Classification. 
Much work must be done prior to its issuance. When it is published, 
it is contemplated that the entire .work must be reset. At that time 
uniform spelling will, no doubt, be used thruout. The Library Standard 
Edition does not appear to be a possibility within the next several years. 

It may not be appropriate to attempt a list of the expansions which 
this new edition of the D C presents, but the following notations will 
assist the enquirer: 301.15; 312; 325; 330-339 expanded to 38 pages; 
355-359. 12 pages; 364-365, 10 pages; 659.1, 4 pages; 700-770, 147 pages; 
931 and 951; and important expansions from 975 to 979. All in all we 
believe that Edition 14 of this work will prove itself to be a worthy and 
dependable successor of its predecessors. 

The Committee considers this work a co-operative effort, published 
mainly for the benefit of the Library profession. It is grateful to the 
librarians who have helped make it what it is and earnestly solicits their 
continued interest and assistance. The hospitality of the Library of 
Congress, which houses the Decimal Classification Editorial Office, is 
gratefully acknowledged. 

Milton James Ferguson, 


March 11, 1942 


'[Simpler spelings ar strongly recommended for jencral adoption by both American 
and English filolojic associations, including nearly all prominent skolars in English 
now living. 

The speling of this introduction has many more chanjes than we recommend for 
jeneral use at once. For convenient reference we hav included in ' Simpler speling rea- 
zons and rules' (p. 49-63) the famus 12 words adopted in 1898 by the National Edu- 
cation Association for all its official printing and correspondence, and adopted later by 
hundreds of periodicals, colejes and normal skools; also the 30 words, as a better tipical 
list with which to begin simpler speling; also the S S B rules, from which one shud select 
those which most appeal to him; also the 10 joint rules of American and English filol- 
ojists, and selections from rules of U S Geographic Board. From these one may choose 
chanjes he is willing to make, knowing how arapl authority is behind them. We recom- 
mend that each one convinst of the importance begin with a few of these chanjes, ading 
others from time to time as he and hi 3 correspondents becum familiar with the new forms. 
That it ' looks queer ' is admittedly the only argument left to objectors. This introduc- 
tion is speld to show how it wil look if practicaly all these recommendations ar uzed. 
Sum with specialy strong vizual prejudis wil hav attention distracted from the matter 
to the speling, but if with an open mind they wil try to concentrate on the meaning, they 
wil be surprized to find how quikly the new forms wil cease to annoy. Then if they con- 
tinue reading them they wil soon be surprized to find that the old absurd common spel- 
ing wil annoy. There ar comparatively few simpler spelings in Tables or Index but we 
decided to show in Introduction how extreme chanjes wud look] 

Orijin and growth The plan of this Clasification and Index was 
developt erly in 1873, the result of long study of library economy as found 
in hundreds of books and pamflets, and in over 50 personal visits to 
libraries. This study convinst me that usefulness of libraries myt be greatly 
increast without aded expense. Only a fraction of the servis posibl cud 
be got from them without clasification, catalogs, indexes and other aids, 
to tel librarians and readers what they containd on any givn subject; 
yet, by methods then uzed, this cud be dun satisfactorily only at a cost 
so great as to be prohibitiv to all but a few welthy libraries. With rare 
exceptions, libraries wer growing rapidly. Catalogs, made at great cost, 
soon became antiquated. Methods uzed involvd frequent rearranjement, 
renumbering and remarking of books, and of necesity remaking of catalogs 
and indexes, as the only escape from a confuzion that seriusly cripld 
usefvilness. In this costly repetition, work of previus librarians was larjly 
lost. The great need was a sistem which wud enable each to stand on 
the sholders of his predecessors, and fully utilize their labors ; which wud 
make work dun today permanent, insted of sumthing to be superseded 
in so few years as not to be worth doing in the best way; which wud 
supply the best applyances, insted of leaving yung librarians not only to 
lern how to work, but to make all their own tools. 

Practical use for 54 years proves that this sistem wil accomplish this 
result; for with its aid catalogs, shelflists, indexes and references, essential 
to this increast usefulness, can be made faster and cheaper than by any 
method not having its essential features, and, when dun, they ar better 
and vastly more permanent. Practical utility and economy ar its keynotes 
and no theoretic refinement has been allowd to modify the skeme, if it 
wud detract from usefulness or ad to cost. 

» See note on spelling of Ed 14 on back of title-page 




It was chiefly necesary to find a method that wud clas, arranje and 
index books and pamflets on shelvs, cards of a catalog, clippings and notes 
in scrapbooks and index rerums, references to all these items, and indeed 
any literary material in any form, as redily as an ordinary index gyds to 
proper paje of a bound book. This difficult problem was solvd by uzing 
no reference marks except the simplest simbols known to the human 
mind, arabic numerals with their uzual arithmetic values, and by aiding 
their unequald simplicity by many practical nemonic [mnemonic] devices. 

Tho the importance of clasification was recognized, the filosofic sistems 
proposed wer so difficult fully to understand or apply that not i person in 
iooo cud uze them practicaly. Decimal Clasification simplicity and even 
more its Relativ Index hav made this work io-fold eazier. In recent years, 
U6e of the sistem has spred rapidly in all civilized cuntries, meeting suc- 
cess in thousands of different applications. In its simpl form a skoolboy can 
quikly master it and keep for instant reference not only his books but every 
note, clipping or pamflet. Almost every profession and occupation has 
lernd its wonderful laborsaving powers. It is in daily use by miriads of 
business and professional men who wud never even attempt to understand 
or uze the old sistems. 

By mere adition of figures, without chanjing this shorter form, this 
very simpl sistem is redily made to record the utmost refinements of 
specialists, and the Relativ Index, as simpl as a, b, c, sends the novis 
to the exact place where the expert has clasifyd the matter sought. Thus 
942 is history of England, and 942.99055 is history of County Pembroke 
in Wales, under Elizabeth, 5th of the Tudors. A colon between 2 numbers 
to mean 1 in relation to ', and other combining simbols for time, languaj 
etc. make of the sistem a compact shorthand for each fact. (See p . 40 3 - 
43 1 .) But this brevity is les important than the eaz with which matter 
so markt can be arranjed (giving figures and decimal point their common 
arithmetic value), stored as compactly as wisht and found again in the 
least posibl time. 

The sistem has been found equaly valuabl for cataloging, indexing, 
analyzing and summarizing, and for clasifying, numbering and arranjing 
books and pamflets on shelvs. For notes on other uses, see p. 43 2 ~45 8 . 

The 1st edition, publisht in 1876, 12 pajes of tables containing 1000 
sections, was criticized as altogether too elaborate for even a larj library. 
As fast, however, as the Relativ Index with its remarkabl powers became 
known, the rapidly increasing uzers askt for further subdivisions, til 
Tables hav grown from 2600 entries in Index of 1876 to 43,000 in this 
edition 12, becauz it has been found so eazy to gain the admitted great 
advantajes of close clasification, and yet, by means of this Index, avoid the 
old difficulties. 

Extent of use The rejister of libraries which hav actualy adopted it, 
tho growing rapidly, is incomplete. Libraries often uze the sistem for 
many years before we lern the fact. We rejister all byers of the Clasifica- 
tion, so far as known, but do not assume that a library has adopted the 



sistem becauz it has ordcrd the book. ALA Bulletin, Sep. 1926, p. 167, 
estimates a use by about 14,000 libraries. There is also an immense 
use (for which not even approximate statistics can be furnisht) by 
individuals, with their private, business and professional colections of 
books, pamflets etc., and in their correspondence and notes files. The 
sistem has been adopted, not only thruout U S, but in other parts of 
North America, in South America, in many European cuntries, and, stil 
more distant, in Asia, Hawaii, Philippines, Java, Australia and Africa, 
and the Tables ar known to hav been translated, either wholy or in part, 
into French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Norwegian, Russian, 
Hungarian, Bohemian, Chinese and Japanese. 
The table below shows the growth of the 1 2 editions. 

Number of pajes 



Preface, etc. 


Index, etc. 



Copies printed 















































'•' T 

191 1 




























940 1 


















8000 s 

What is the sistem? A Subject Clasification with a Relativ Index' 
so numberd or letterd that reference is compact, accurate and quik, is 
the essential feature ; anything beyond this is merely applying this plan 
with varius helps and accessories. Any subject clasification with a relativ 
index in which the entry indexes a book in the ordinary way, and also 
indexes shelvs, cards, clippings or any other literary material, is a form 
of this sistem. 

1 Thru mistaken numbering printed as 936. 

2 Tho the author is interested only in the usefulness of the sistem, not in questions of 
priority of its invention, extended investigation by others fails to show that this most 
important feature of the sistem — the Relativ Index, on which all else hinjes — had 
ever before been uzed as here to index by a singl reference most diverse material. Relativ 
location had been uzed, but not in the present combination with the subject index, 
which givs it most of its value. The Clasification Tables, while adopting sugjestions 
from many sources, ar orijinal in their sistem of arranjement and notation, and in many 
minor features. The decimal form and many nemonic features hav not been found in 
erlier use, tho since their invention in 1873 these as wel as the Subject Index and other 
features hav been very frequently copid, often with, but oftener without, aknowlej- 
ment of their source. But we ar glad to find this sistem, which has cost so much labor, 
doing good servis even for those who neglect to mention where they found so valuabl 
a laborsaving literary tool. 

' 1340 aditional copies printed in 1930; edition 13, 8000 copies — Editor 



Notation We devized and experimented with several notations by 
means of numbers, letters, and combined numbers and letters, with 
bases of 26, 35, 50, 100 and 150, yet none seemd good enuf to warrant 
publishing details, except that here printed, based on simpl arabic numerals 
with their uzual decimal powers. International adoption of this sistem is 
larjly becauz no one ever complains that any clasification is too simpl, 
while there is constant complaint of complexity. Decimal simplicity 
has so commended itself that many think of it as the only form, tho 
obviusly it wud be just as much a ' relativ index sistem ' if the clasifica- 
tion wer wholy markt by letters or other simbols. 

The Subject Index is the simplest application of a, b, c, the simbols next 
in simplicity to 1, 2, 3. This use of the simplest 2 sets of simbols known, 
with their common meanings, has givn our notation its worldwide reputa- 
tion as the simplest yet devized. 

Best known decimal form Decimal form means simply that heds ar 
groupt and numberd with common arithmetic figures uzed decimaly. • This, 
the only decimal form thus far carefuly elaborated and publisht, is com- 
monly spoken of as if it wer the only posibl form of our orijinal plan; tho 
obviusly an infinit variety of ' relativ index sistems ' in decimal form 
cud be made by filling the outline with different heds, or with the same 
heds in different order. 

To make out new heds involvs labor and cost vastly beyond the dreams 
of any person who has not tryd exactly this work. Time actualy spent on 
tables here printed, by varius committees and individuals, totals hundreds 
of years and has cost an immense sum. Uniform and urjent advice 
of the experienst is to adopt a poorer skeme alredy made rather than 
undertake so herculean a labor. When dun, the maker may posibly be 
better suited with it, but few if any others wil be. It is wizer for anyone 
whose time is of value, to uze it in sumthing more practicaly useful to him- 
self and his library than in trying to construct a 'satisfactory' skeme 
of clasification. No one yet ever wholy suited himself or anyone else, 
and probably no one ever wil. By adopting this alredy workt out he 
saves much time and money, and gains the immense advantaj of uzing a 
sistem in common with thousands of others, so that he may utilize their 
labors and investigations and share with them economies of cooperation. 

Relativ Subject Index This alfabetic Index, the most important 
feature of the sistem, consists of hedings gathcrd from a great variety of 
sources, as uzcrs of the sistem hav found them desirabl in 54 years expe- 
rience. After all these efforts, many new heds ar aded in each new edition. 

The Index gyds in both numbering and finding books. In assyning 
numbers, the most specific hed that wil contain the book having been 
determind, reference to that hed in Index givs proper clas number. Con- 
versely, in finding books on any givn subject, reference to Index givs 
number under which they ar found on shelvs, in shelflist, or in clast catalog. 
When any new subject cums up, interline it and its sinonims in Index ( 



with clas number decided on, so clasifyer may be uniform with himself 
in future work. 

The Index givs similar or sinonimus words, and the same words in dif- 
ferent connections, so any intelijent person wil surely get the ryt number. 
A reader wishing to know sumthing of the tarif looks under T, and, at a 
glance, finds 337 as its number. This gyds him to shelvs, to all books and 
pamflets, to shelf catalog, to clast subject catalog on cards, to clast record 
of loans, and, in short, in simpl numeric order, thruout the whole library 
to anything bearing on his subject. If he turns to Tables, he sees that it 
means clas 3, Sociolojy; division 3, Economics; section 7, Protection and 
free trade; but the number alone is enuf to clas the book or find it, for 
either clasifyer or reader. If he had lookt under P for protection, or F for 
free trade, or D for duties, or C for customs, or under any other leading 
word relating to his subject, he wud hav been referd to 337, or sum 
one of its subdivisions. 

Had he lookt for 'railroad' he wud hav found after it 22 separate 
entries, each preceded by a word or fraze indicating the faze of the sub- 
ject in the skeme. A book on railroads may treat of the desirability of 
government ownership, control etc. and then is clearly a question of social 
syence; or it may be a practical handbook for an employee, explaining busi- 
ness methods of railroading, running trains, handling freight, etc. when 
it is as clearly one of the useful arts. The clasifyer knows to which of these 
heds his book belongs, and the reader knows in which of its fazes he wishes 
to examin the subject. Moreover, 3 and 6 beginning the numbers clearly 
indicate caracter of each clas. But even if significance of these figures 
is entirely disregarded, no confuzion results, for, on consulting the 
numbers in catalog, in skeme, or on shelvs the difference is clearly seen. 
In other cases, it is more useful to keep books on the same subject together, 
tho treated from different standpoints. A glance at the Index tels either 
reader or clasifyer which plan has been adopted. 

All topics in blakface typ in Index ar further divided in Tables, where 
one may see the subheds. This saves reprinting all these subdivisions, 
which wud increase Index bulk many-fold; e. g. if one having a book on 
1 prison labor ' looks in the Index for 1 Convict labor ' or ' Prison contracts ', 
he finds at once its special number 331.51; but if, on the other hand he thinks 
to look only for jeneral subject 'Labor', he finds in blakface typ the 
entry ' Labor, political economy, 33 1 ', and turning to Tables he finds under 
331 the subdivision ' 331.51, Convict labor ', the exact topic in hand. 

The greatest objection to a clast catalog has always been the difficulty 
in knowing just where to clas a book and just where to look for it when 
again wanted. Different librarians, or the same librarian at different 
times, clast the same or similar books in widely different places. Where 
one man did all the work for many years, there was a degree of uniformity; 
but even then there was danjer of looking at the same book at different 


times from different viewpoints, thus cauzing confuzion. When the daily 
pres is ful of one faze of a subject, tendency is strong to clas all books on 
this subject from current viewpoint; and next year, if a different side of 
this same subject is before the public, there is same tendency to clas books 
from new viewpoint, thereby separating similar books and bringing 
together books on different fazes. But fortunately, practical usefulness does 
not require that the ideas of this or that one be followd, but only that books 
of same caracter be always put in same place, and that there be sum means 
of knowing redily what that place is. The Relativ Index, with its each- 
words, was desynd and is found in use to meet both these requirements, 
for it insures that books on same faze of any subject cuming before the 
clasifyers shal be assynd to same place, and that any reader seeking these 
books shal be referd instantly to that place. If this is dun, all requirements 
of a good clasification ar fild. If it is not dun, the sistem is a failure; for 
the only real test of any skeme is its helpfulness to its uzers. 

Sum prominent opponents of clast catalogs admit that the Rejativ Sub- 
ject Index, in deciding where to clas a book at first and where to look for 
it ever afterwards, has removed their strongest objections. Certainly it 
wud be imposibl to make an Index more compact or eazier of reference. 

This Index allows a great part of the work of clasifying to be dun in 
advance by experts in larj central libraries with ampl resources, thus 
securing, at a mere fraction of uzual cost, better and more uniform results 
than wud be posibl to the ordinary clasifyer and reducing labor to 
much narrower limits than ever before. 

To these thousands of subjects hav been carefuly assynd their individual 
numbers, many of them after long consideration and consultation with 
specialists. No one person is lerned enuf to clas wizely books on all sub- 
jects and syences; but botanists can assyn all botanic subjects to the ryt 
number, mathematicians all mathematical topics, and thus the Index 
wil in time becum as accurate as the best skolarship of the day can make it. 
Even if the decision reacht is not always wizest, all practical purposes ar 
servd, becauz, as each clasifyer copies the number from same Index, all 
books on that subject ar together; and, as each reader gets his number 
from this same Index, he goes directly to the book he seeks. 

What Relativ Index includes The Index, containing 43,000 entries 
and constantly being enlarjd by ading new subjects, aims to include all 
topics exprest or implyd in Tables, together with every corresponding 
sinonim likely to be sought, but does not include most names of cuntries, 
towns, animals, plants etc. except when mentiond in Tables; e. g. it can 
not enumerate all species of trilobites, but when clasifyer has found from 
proper reference books that Remopleurides is a trilobite, the Index sends 
him to 565.393, and he can clas his monograf on that subject. 

Tables The essential complement of the Subject Index is the Tables 
of Clasification, so mapt out as to show in 4 ways — i. e. by size of typ, 


face of typ, indention, and number of figures prefixt — each subject's 
rank in the Clasifi cation. 

The field of knowlej is divided into 9 main clases, numberd 1 to 9, and 
cyclopedias, periodicals etc. so jeneral as to belong to none of these 
clases ar markt o (naught) and form a 10th clas; e. g. clas 1 is library of 
Filosofy; clas 5, library of Syence; clas 9, History, etc. These special clases 
or libraries ar then considerd independently, and each is separated again 
into 9 special divisions of the main subject, numberd 1 to 9, as wer the 
clases, jeneral works belonging'to no division having o for their division 
number. Thus 59 is division 9 (Zoolojy) of clas 5 (Syence). A 3d division 
is then made by separating each of these divisions into 10 sections, numberd 
in same way with o and the 9 dijits; and this decimal subdivision is 
repeated, til it secures as many subsections as may be needed in any topic. 
Thus 513 is section 3 (Jeometry) of division 1 (Mathematics) of clas 5 
(Pure syence). This number, giving clas, division, section and sub- 
section, if any, is cald the clas number, and is applyd to every book and 
pamflet belonging to the library. All jeometries ar thus numberd 513, 
all mineralojies 549, and so thruout the library all books on any givn sub- 
ject bear the number of that subject in this skeme. 

Where o occurs before the decimal point in a clas number, it has its normal 
zero value. Thus a book numberd 510 is clas 5, division r, but no section; 
i. e. treats of division 51 (Mathematics) in jeneral, and is limited to no 
1 section, as is jeometry, markt 513. 500 indicates a treatis on syence in 
jeneral, limited to no division, o occurring in the 1st place wud in the 
same way show that the book was limited to no clas ; e. g. a jeneral cyclo- 
pedia which treats of all 9 clases. 

With the same ' jeneral ' sense, o is often uzed to indicate chanje in 
caracter of subdivision, meaning in this case ' basis of subdivision chanjes 
at this point ', i. e. figure (or figures) following o apply to what precedes 
in jeneral, e. g. 505 indicates syence in jeneral treated in the form of a 
periodical. In history, clasification is by cuntries (i. e. jeografic) and as 
minute jeografic divisions ar needed for travels, gyd books, and varius 
other uses, the figures 1-9 ar jeneraly uzed for jeografic subdivisions and 
again for further jeografic subdivisions, as far as needed, and o followd 
by another figure for time division, i. e. the figures before the o indicate 
the locality as a whole, while figures after the o indicate the special time 
at which the history of the locality is being considerd; e. g. 942.06, con- 
sisting of 942 {jeografic division) and 06 {time division), means history of 
England in jeneral in time of the Stuarts, while 942.6 and 942.67 mean 
respectivly history of eastern England and history of Essex co., to which 
the same time division may be aded, giving 942.606 and 942.6706 as the 
history of those localities under the Stuarts. As any subdivision may, 
by ading figures 1-9, be givn 9 further subdivisions, any desired degree 
of minuteness may be secured in clasing special subjects. 

First subdivision under many rubrics is used for General and theoretic 
questions to provide for such specific topics as ar common to all or most 
of the principal subdivisions of a relativly broad subject. 



Coordination Theoreticly division of every subject into just 9 parts 

is absurd. Practicaly it is desirabl to clas as minutely as posibl, without 
use of aded figures; and decimals, on which our skeme hinjes, allow 9 divi- 
sions as redily as fewer. This has proved wholy satisfactory in practis, 
tho apparently destroying proper coordination in sum places. 

Where more than 9 divisions ar needed the difficulty is commonly obviated 
by grouping on singl numbers the subjects most closely allyd, or by assyning 
1-8 specificly to most important subjects and grouping minor subjects 
on 9 as ' Other.' Since any of these groups may be further subdivided 
for specific topics as needed, provision is thus made for an unlimited 
number of subjects. 

As in every skeme, many minor subjects ar under jeneral heds to which 
they do not strictly belong. In sum cases, these heds ar printed in distinctiv 
typ; e. g. 829 Anglo-Saxon, under English literature. The rule has been 
to assyn these subjects to the most nearly allyd heds, or where it was 
tho't they wud be most useful. The only altcrnativ was to omit them 
altogether. If any such omission occurs, it wil be supplyd as soon as dis- 
coverd, for we intend to provide in the Tables a place for every known 

New subjects A new topic is always closely related to sum existing 
hed. If there is no blank number availabl it is combined with the hed 
nearest allyd, and, when important enuf, distinct provision for the new 
cumr is made by ading another decimal. The sistem is thus capabl of 
unlimited expansion, and can never break down for lak of room for growth. 

Choice and arranjement of heds Dctaild explanation of selection and 
arranjcment of the many thousand heds wud be tedius; but everywhere 
filosofic theory and accuracy hav yielded to practical usefulness. The 
imposibility of making a satisfactory clasification of all knowlej as pre- 
servd in books, has been appreciated from the first, and theoretic harmony 
and exactness hav been repeatedly sacrificed to practical requirements. 

Sequence of allyd subjects Wherever practicabl, heds hav been so 
arranjed that each subject is preceded and followd by most nearly allyd 
subjects, and thus aded convenience is secured both in clast catalogs and 
on shelvs; e. g. Bilding (690) follows Mekanic trades (680) at end of 
Useful arts, and Arkitecture follows at beginning of Fine arts. 

Students of Biolojy (570) find fossil life or Paleontolojy (560) before, 
and vejetabl life or Botany (580) after, this followd in turn by animal 
life or Zoolojy (590), ending with Mammals (599); while Useful arts (600) 
begin with human Anatomy (611) under Medicin, thus giving a regular 
growth from fossil plant thru vejetabl and animal kingdoms to living man. 

Cachtitles In naming hedings, strict accuracy has often been sacrificed 
to brevity, for short familiar titles ar more important than that terms 
chosen shud express fully and exactly caracter of all books clast under 
them. Many subjects, apparently omitted, wil be found in the Index, 



assynd, with allyd subjects, to a hed which bears the name of the most 
important only. Reference to the Index wil decide at once most doutful 

Form distinctions The clasification is mainly by subject or content 
regardless of form (see p. 29 s ) but an aded form distinction for jeneral 
treatises is found practicaly useful. 

Thus, in Syence there ar many compends, dictionaries, essays, peri- 
odicals and socyeties, treating of Syence in jeneral, and so having o for 
the division figure, but treating it under different forms, and therefore 
divided into sections according to this form: 501 for filosofy or theories 
of Syence, 502 for compends, 503 for dictionaries, etc. This treatment is 
as nearly as practicabl, uniform in all clases. Creasy's ' 1 5 decisiv battles ' 
is 904, the 1st figure being 9, becauz the book is clearly history; the 2d 
figure o, becauz limited to no division of clas 9 ; and the 3d figure 4, becauz 
the book is a colection of essays. 

The 10 main clases ar regularly divided by form, e. g. 809, history of 
literature in jeneral. For divisions, sections or subsections having ennj 
jeneral material to make such division advizabl, form numbers, preceded by 

0, may be uzed (e. g. 820.9, history of English literature; 821.09, history of 
English poetry) , except when o and the following number hav been other- 
wize assynd, e. g. 821.04 English liric poetry, not essays on English poetry; 
942.05 England in time of the Tudors, not a periodical on English history. 
A history of English literature is 820.9, not 809, becauz every book belongs 
to the most specific hed that wil contain it; so 809 is limited to histories of 
literature in jeneral. Books treating of many clases, such as jeneral cyclo- 
pedias or periodicals, go in clas o and ar then divided by form into cyclo- 
pedias, periodicals, socyeties or newspapers. 

Do not confuze form number 07, meaning ' methods of study or teach- 
ing', with number for same subject under 375, which is for its value as a 
means of education, or for its curiculum place. 

These form distinctions ar introduced at the beginning of the clas 
becauz the number of jeneral works is larj, and these 1st numerals wud 
otherwize be unuzed. 

Form divisions always hav the same set of numbers, preceded by o, 

1. e. 1 filosofy, theories etc.;2 compends, outlines: 3 dictionaries, cyclo- 
pedias; 4 essays, lectures, letters etc.; 5 periodicals, magazines etc.; 6 
socyeties, associations, transactions, reports etc.; 7 education, study, teach- 
ing, training etc. ; 8 poligrafy, colections etc. ; 9 history. Thus a periodical 
on a subject has the subject number followd by 05 ; e. g. a periodical on 
public helth, 614.05. 

But if the number alredy ends in o, o is not repeated before form-divi- 
sion figures; e. g. a zoolojic magazine is 590.5, not 590.05. 

Minute clasing On first publication in 1 8 7 6 , a common criticizm was that 
1000 heds cud never be successfuly uzed, however desirabl so close clasi- 
fication myt be. As soon, however, as actual experience proved it as 

1 8 


eazy to uze iooo heds in the new sistem as 100 in the old, the obviusly 
great practical value of close clasing led one uzer after another to urj 
strongly publication of more subdivisions. Minute as ar many now givn 
there ar none that sum hav not askt for and almost none that others hav 
not declared needless. Subdivisions ar made in such a way that one may 
uze all, or any part and ignore the rest without difficulty or confuzion, 
thus allowing each to uze minute subdivisions where he wishes or needs 
them, without being forst into refinements in subjects where he has few 
books or litl interest. Since the degree to which any skeme shal be applyd 
is optional with each clasifyer and close analisis is useful to everyone in 
defining content or in clarifying differences between related subjects, 
even elaborate skemes ar printed in ful if no essential objection has been 
bro't against them by the best qualifyd critics. The ist 3 figures only may 
be uzed when preferd, and the rest show the scope of the subject. On 
many topics minute subsections ar printed simply for this purpose, and 
for use in indexing periodicals and socyety transactions, and in keeping 
notes. Note typ is uzed for topics clearly useful only to specialists or 
as showing scope. Many others probably belonging in same category, 
if doutful ar in regular typ of their grade. 

The advantaj of close clasing is unquestiond, if the uzer knows just what 
it is. With this plan it is not only practicabl, but comparativly eazy. If 
there ar only 10 books on a givn topic, it is useful to hav them in groups 
amung themselvs, for otherwize they wud hav only accidental order, 
which is of servis to no one. A reader wishing a specific book shud go, 
not to shelvs, but to catalog, where he can find its place quickest. If he 
wishes a specific subject, he is sent instantly to its exact place by the 
Subject Index. If he wishes to study the library's resources at the shelvs, 
he wil be greatly helpt by minute clasing. A teacher showing his pupil the 
material on any subject wud, if there wer only 20 books, surely put 
together those covering same points, even if there wer only 2. Much more 
shud librarians group closely their greater colections, that readers may 
gain sumthing of the advantajes of an experienst gyd. 

Thus every specialist has his own special library. If a student of syence 
in jeneral, he is sent to clas 5; if his department is zoolojy, his library is 
59; if his specialty is shels, he finds all works and references on that subject 
in library 594. Whether a specialist needs it or not, every subject, being a 
library by itself, shows resources and wants as no catalog can. A catalog 
can not be made to take satisfactorily the place of handling books themselvs. 
This advantaj weighs most in a colej or socyety library, where many go to 
the shelvs; but even if only librarians ar admitted, close clasing is worth 
its cost becauz of aded power givn. 

Tentativ tables More and more minute subdivisions hav been specialy 
cald for til the 1000 heds of 1873, with 2600 index entries in edition 1, 



hav increast til they command 43,000 index entries, in edition 12. After 
getting many suggestions, sumtimes hundreds, for aditions or further 
subdivisions of sum subject, we draft a skeme and test it on a sampl 
colection. To get larjer cooperation in perfecting it we sumtimes print 
the new draft in Tables without including its new words in Index, so every 
uzer wil see what is proposed and if interested may test it on his own work 
and submit sugjestions for improvement. Then in the next edition, with 
this great help, needed revisions can be made and all new words inserted 
in Index. 

As result of agreement between Institut International de Bibliographie 
and ourselvs (see p. 40) we hav included in edition 12 many I I B expan- 
sions, while sum other expansions recently prepared by us hav not yet, 
for lak of time, been submitted to I I B and must therefore, strictly 
speaking, be regarded as tentativ til accepted by that body, but as these 
expansions wer developt with view to such acceptance we look for litl 
chanje, and their larj number has made it impractical to designate them. 

Nemonics [mnemonics] Heds hav sumtimes been arranjed to secure 
nemonic aid in numbering and finding books without the Index; thus 
China has always number 1. In Ancient history, it has the 1st section, 
931; in Modern history, under Asia, it has 951. Similarly the Indian 
number is 4; English, 2; German, 3; French, 4; Italian, 5; Spanish, 6; 
Russian, 7; European, 4; Asian, 5; African, 6; North American, 7; South 
American, 8; and so for all divisions by languages or cuntries. Italian 5, 
for instance, is in 035, 055, 065, 450, 850, 945, and many others. This 
nemonic principl is specialy prominent in Filolojy and Literature, and their 
divisions, and in form distinctions uzed in the 1st 9 sections of each clas. 
Filosofy, methods or theory, occurring as a hed, is always 1 ; dictionaries 
and cyclopedias ar 3 ; essays, 4 ; periodicals, 5 ; associations, socyeties and 
institutions, 6; education, 7; poligrafy or colections, 8; history, 9. In 
numerus cases several minor heds ar groupt together as Other, uzualj 
numberd 9. 

While Italian is always 5, 5 is by no means always Italian. Grammar 
is 5, Periodicals ar 5, Asia is 5, Oratory is 5, etc. Even wer it posibl, to 
limit 5 to Italian wud waste numbering material, and results wud not 
justify cost. The purpose is to giv practical aid, not to follow fanciful 
theory. A clasifyer marking a French grammar, remembers that all 
Filolojy begins with 4, and, as French is always 4 and grammar 5, he 
knows the number must be 445. Italian (5), poetry (1), is plainly 851 
with no danjer of being mistaken for ' poetry of grammar ' or 1 theory of 
Asia,' becauz the numbers also hav those meanings. This feature is an 
aid, not regular method; and in all doutful cases one refers at once to 
Index or Tables. Sugjested difficulties ar uzualy creations of injenius 
theorists and not outgrowth of practical experience. 

Wherever practical, this nemonic principl is uzed in subdividing sec- 
tions. 558, Jeolojy of South America, is subdivided by ading the sections 



of g8o, History of South America. Jeolojy of Brazil then must be 558.1: 
nemonicly, the 1st 5 is Syence; 2d 5, Jeolojy; 8, South America; and 1, 
Brazil. Any library attendant or regular uzer of the skeme recognizes 
558.1 at a glance as Jeolojy of Brazil. This nemonic feature occurs in several 
hundred places, and is of great practical utility in numbering and finding 
books without catalog or index, and in determining caracter of any book 
simply from its call number. Extent of use is shown in 5 tables appended to 
main Index, giving alfabetic lists of (1) subjects, with clas number of each, 
which may be subdivided jeograficly; (2) form divisions, with figures to 
be aded in making such division; (3) languajes, with their clas numbers, 
which may be further subdivided filolojicly by ading figures givn in Index 
table 4; (4) filolojic divisions, with figures to be aded in subdividing any 
languaj in Index table 3; (5) literatures, with their clas numbers, which 
may be further subdivided by ading form divisions from English literature. 

As in close subdivision, wish for nemonic correspondence has never out- 
weighd any claim of greater usefulness. In many cases choice between 
numbers was hardly perceptibl : e. g. whether in filolojy order shud be 
French, Spanish, Italian, or French, Italian, Spanish. In such cases 
nemonic numbers wer givn preference, and 54 years use has proved this 
wizest. Great gain, beside eaz of remembering, results from this uniform 
use of same numbers with same meaning whenever similar division is 
made. Wherever division by languajes or cuntries is made, it follows 
filolojy or history numbers, and in Tables, the note 4 Divided like 900 ' 
fully takes the place of reprinting all history subdivisions. This saving 
justifys use of these numbers in sum cases, even where a sum what 
different order myt seem more nearly fitted to the special case; e. g. in 342, 
constitutional history of Canada (342.71) and Australia (342.94) next that 
of England (342.42) wud be better than our order, which separates them 
both from England and from each other. Stil by following the uzual 
' procrustean ' numbers, many topics can be subdivided minutely without 
further study, by simply applying history or languaj subdivisions. A 
singl ilustration of the astonishing power this principl givs wil suffice, tho 
thousands myt be givn: 016 is ' Bibliografy of special subjects, divided 
like main clasification ', therefore by aid of tables under 581, 
016.581974742 rcdily translates itself to all uzers into ' Bibliografy of 
flora of Albany co., N Y '. While these 12 figures myt never be uzed, 
if a specialist wishes minute division, it is redy to his hand, conforms to 
Index, and wil be clearly understood by anyone familiar with our plan. 
A specialist wud in such cases probably adopt a contraction for his long 
number, and uze in ful only the minute divisions. See p. 38 2 for such 

Decimalism Utility has not been sacrificed in order to force sub- 
jects on the ' decimal procrustean bed '. Decimals hav been uzed as serv- 
ants, not as masters. When subjects ar combined or separated into just 


2 I 

10 heds, it has been from no necesity of the skeme, but becauz it secmd 
most useful, all things considerd. In many cases there wer orijinaly 
only 3 to 7 heds insted of io; but uzualy, during years of testing before 
publication, it proved advizabl to divide sum of these heds, as it took no 
aded space or labor. On the other hand, there wer cases where more than 
io heds seemd more natural; and, as any number up to ioo is provided 
for by ading one decimal, this was dun in most cases. As only iooo sec- 
tions wer first printed, it was often necesary to put 2 or more closely allyd 
topics together under the same number, as must stil be dun whenever a 
library limits number of figures uzed to 3 ; but during 54 years use subdivi- 
sions hav multiplyd, til now nearly every topic has its own special number. 
The skeme givs us for each topic, as it wer, a case of 9 pijeonholes, with 
a larj space at the top; and we uze them as every practical business man 
uzes such pijeonholes about his desk. If, as in 220, there ar les than 9 
main topics, it is often convenient to uze the extra spaces for subdivisions. 
Thus we keep separate, under Old Testament, historic, poetic, and profetic 
books; and under New Testament, the Gospels, Epistls and Apocalips. 
Spaces ar there, and it is convenient to uze them for jeneral works on those 
groups — a reason that experience proves a good anser to the charj of 
lak of coordination, tho indention and typ in Tables make that charj 
baseless. Then in 280, having more than 9 topics, if we ar uzing only 3 
figures we put Congregational in same space with Presbyterian, and 
small denominations together in the last box, just as a business man puts 
his papers in his pijeonholes. If he insisted on having a different case 
made to order for each use, it wud cost over twice as much; he cud not 
group them together or interchanje them, and they wud not fit offis shelvs. 

There has been perverse misapprehension of this feature, and critics 
of ten est stumbl over ' procrustean 10'. In fact, this is an element of use- 
fulness. A railroad also has the fault that it is procrustean in its path and 
in its times. It can not cum to yur door nor wait yur convenience, as 
does the automobile; it can not go to the fields for its loads of produce; 
it can not turn out for obstacls; but becauz it is procrustean it can do its 
larj-scale work much better and quicker and cheaper. The paralel cud 
be fairly extended to many other cases, but any tho'tful mind wil 
recognize that the economy and eaz of working the Decimal sistem ar 
larjly dependent on its being procrustean. To this we owe much of the 
great simplicity of the Relativ Index, many nemonic correspondences, 
and the useful o to indicate form and period divisions. Our intersecting 
lines of space and time in History, etc., of languaj and form in Filolojy 
and Literature, and scores of similar advantajes, depend wholy on ' pro- 
crustean 10 ', or else on sum other number equaly procrustean, but lacking 
the advantajes of exact correspondence to our arithmetic. 

Relativ location Economy and simplicity cald not only for the Sub- 
ject Index, but also for sum plan of consolidating the 2 sets of marks 

a a 


previusly uzed; one teling what subject a book treated, the other where 
the book was shelvd. By relativ location and decimal clas numbers we 
make our simpl arabic numerals tel of each book and pamflet, both what 
it is, and where it is. 

In fixt relation, to find book, pamflet, clipping or note is like finding a 
man when yu know his town, street, hous and room. 

In relativ location it is like finding a soldier if yu know his army, divi- 
sion, rejiment and cumpany. If John Smith is 3d man in 2d row of Cum- 
pany B, rejiment 69, 4th division, whether the rejiment is in camp, on 
parade or on march, his place is not determind by the bit of ground on 
which he stands, but by his relation to the rest of the army. If soldiers 
ar dcd and in the cemetery they ar as eazily found by fixt as by relativ 
location. But if the army is alive and militant, as every library or private 
working colection o't to be, its resources shud be findabl whether in 
camp, on march or in action. 

In arranjing books on shelvs, the formerly common absolute or fixt loca- 
tion by shelf and book number is wholy abandond, relativ location by clas 
and book number being our chief feature. Accumpanying clas number is 
the book number, which prevents confuzion of different books on the same 
subject. 1 In finding books, numbers markt on baks ar followd, the upper 
being the clas and the lower the book number. Clas is found in its numeric 
order amung clases, just as shelf is found in fixt sistems. Shelvs ar not 
numberd, as increasing different departments, opening new rooms, and any 
arranjing of clases to bring books most circulated nearest delivery desk, 
wil at different times bring different clas numbers on any givn shelf. New 
books, as recievd, ar numberd and put in place, in same way that new 
titles ar aded to card catalog. 

Thus all books on any givn subject stand together, and no aditions or 
chanjes ever separate them. Not only ar found together all books on 
subject sought, but most nearly allyd subjects precede and follow, 
they in turn being preceded and followd by other allyd subjects as far as 
practicabl. Readers not having access to shelvs find short titles arranjed 
in same order in shelflist, and ful titles, imprints, aded subject entries, 
references, notes etc. in clast catalog. 

Parts of sets, and books on same or allyd subjects, ar never separated 
as they ar sure to be, sooner or later, in a library arranjed on fixt 
plan, unless it be frequently rearranjed and recatalogd, a procedure too 
expensiv even for very wclthy libraries. Relativ sistem clas and book 
numbers remain unchanjed thru all chanjes of shelving, bildings or order 
of clases. 

Amung hundreds of points raizd by librarians as to its practical workings 
and usefulness, the only one in which it was not shown to be equal or superior 
to erlier sistems was that in this relativ location a book which this ye ar 

1 For suggestions regarding best forms of book numbers see p. 32 s ~33'. 


stands, e. g. at the end of a certain shelf, may not be on that shelf at all 
another year, becauz of uneven growth of parts of the library. This slyt 
objection, however, inheres in any sistem where books ar arranjed by sub- 
jects, rather than by shelvs, windows, doors, and similar non-intelectual 

Sizes on shelvs Most libraries hav abandond close distinction of sizes. 
It is true that this distinction saves a litl space, but at far too great a 
cost; for every distinction of sizes makes a paralel clasification. If books 
ar groupt in 5 sizes, one must look in 5 places before he can be sure of having 
seen them all. 

It is better to shelv octavos and all smaller books together in 1 series, 
and arranje in paralel libraries only quartos and folios, which ar too larj 
to stand on regular shelvs, showing series in which any oversize book is 
put by a size letter prefixt to the book or clas number; e. g. 749 qA or 
q749 A shows that book A on Artistic furniture is too larj for regular 
shelvs, and so is placed in q or quarto series. Or uze a wood or pasteboard 
dummy to show location of a book not in its regular place. But, however 
solvd, size problems ar no more trublsum with Decimal than with any 
other clasification. 


Any sistem of catalogs may be uzed with this skeme, but the 2 essentials 
of even the simplest sistem ar name or author catalog and shelflist. The 
chief uses of this sistem for catalogs ar for shelflists and for clast catalogs 
on cards. 

Name catalog In this, arranjed strictly by names of authors and of 
persons or places writn about, the clas number holds a subordinate place, 
yet is constantly useful. If printed, it appears in a singl colum as in the 
Relativ Index, and where there is no subject catalog one can rapidly pik 
out books on any topic by glancing down colum for clas number wanted. 

Shelflist Here clas number is again hyly important, as it makes this 
list the most useful form of brief subject catalog, giving author's name 
and brief title of every book on specific subject bearing that clas 

Clast catalog In the clast card catalog the clasification is mapt out 
abuv the cards by projecting gyds, making reference almost instantaneus. 
Subjects ar arranjed in 1, 2, 3 order of their decimal subject numbers 
exactly as in clas tables, and cards of each subject ar then subarranjed 
alfabeticly by authors (or, in sum cases, e. g. biografy or local history, 
by subjects) or cronolojicly, or by book numbers. 

The printed subject catalog on this plan is also most compact and satis- 
factory in use. Under each clas number ar givn the library's resources 
on that subject, the heding giv ing, for convenience, name as wel as number 
of subject; e. g. '513 Jeometry'. Jeneral notes ar printed in finer typ under 


jeneral heds, and a relativ index at the end shows just where to open the 
book to find any topic. As clas numbers ar put in place of paje numbers, 
this index servs for any catalog, list or library arranjed on this plan. 

Dictionary catalog The dictionary catalog is as eazily uzed with this 
sistem as with any other, and is at present on the crest of its wave of 
popularity. Its failure to meet skolars' requirements has often been pointed 
out. While far the best for an index, it stil leavs much need of a good clast 
catalog. But difficulties both of making and of uzing a clast catalog 
wer formerly so great that there was a conviction amung many librarians 
that notwithstanding its great advantajes, the idea must be abandond 
as impracticabl, tho other eminent authorities ably argued that the 
poorest clast catalog was better than one unclast, and that any use of such 
a catalog was in itself a lesson in bibliografy. Now that the serius difficulties 
of making a good clast catalog hav been so larjly removed by the simpl 
arabic numerals and Relativ Index of this decimal plan, the merits of clast 
over the more common dictionary sistems ar dubly prominent. 

The Subject Index of this sistem is a skeleton dictionary catalog, cover- 
ing everything not fully coverd by the ' name catalog '. Insted of giving 
book titles under each hed, the number refers to all those titles simply and 
directly. The index may be made on any of the varius dictionary plans, 
with all the advantajes it may possess. To us, simplest seemd best. We 
giv only short heds with brief indication in doutful cases of viewpoint 
taken in assyning clas numbers. 

We therefore unite advantajes of dictionary and clast catalogs, not by 
mingling them and so losing much of simplicity of one and as much of 
excelence of the other, but by realy uzing both, each with its own merits. 
Only one set of titles is needed, for our clas numbers make this availabl 
for both catalogs. 


Shelvs The sistem on the shelvs is the simplest form of relativ location. 
Many libraries hav adopted it for shelf arranjement. where catalogs recently 
printed, or larj investment in another plan, made it too expensiv to chanje 
anything else. For its great advantajes for shelvs see p. 2i 9 -23 1 , Relativ 


Shelflist By simply printing the shelflist at any time an admirabl 
subject clas list is made for any topic on which there may be present interest ; 
e. g. if a town contemplates a new water supply, interest is greatly stimu- 
lated, and everything about waterworks is wanted. The librarian has only 
to open his shelflist to 628.1 and 352.6 and print it. This great advantaj 
is gaind with but slyt variation from the form found best in its regular 
use as a shelflist for examination of shelvs to detect losses and misplace- 

Accession book Where shelf mark colums ar uzed, tables of number of 
books aded on each subject ar redily made. A glance shows caracter, 


by subjects, of books aded during any givn period; for, wherever, this clas 
number occurs, it tels not only where the book is shelvd but also whaU it is 

Pamflets These clas numbers applyd to pamflets, whether catalogd or 
uncatalogd, hav proved specialy satisfactory. Number is writn on 
upper left corner, and pamflets ar shelvd in pamflet boxes, side by side 
with books on same subject, or they may be kept in vertical files or 
on special shelvs divided every 10 cm by perpendicular partitions, or, if 
preferd, each pamflet may be put in exact place as if bound. Litl expense 
is incurd, and yet entire pamflet resources of the library on any subject 
can be produced almost instantly. The immense advantajes of this 
clast arranjement, both in economy and usefulness, wil be appreciated by 
every keeper of a pamflet colection. A name or author catalog is made 
on slips if time allows. The pamflets themselvs ar the best subject catalog. 
Placing all material under its clas number on regular shelvs, has the great 
advantaj of enabling anyone examining a subject to see all resources in 
i place, so far as posibl. 

Sale duplicates The same arranjement is admirabl here. Duplicates 
ar so constantly chanjing that a catalog can hardly be afforded, and a 
subject arranjement on any other plan than this is difficult to maintain. 
Stil, it is very important that there be sum means of knowing what duplicates 
there ar on any givn subject. By simply penciling clas numbers on books 
and arranjing these numericly, it is posibl to giv the information more 
quikly, cheaply and satisfactorily than in any other way. 

Charjing sistem Clas numbers may be uzed for charjing with the fol- 
lowing advantajes: Minutest statistics of circulation can be made by 
simply counting charjes and entering the number for each clas on a report 
sheet. If filing is dun by call numbers, as either a primary or a secondary 
consideration, whereabouts of any book lent or amount of use of any 
subject is quikly found , file givs an up-to-date record of all books lent in 
any subject; e. g. cards filed under 52 show for Astronomy or those under 
822 for English drama just how many and what books ar out and who 
hav them. Such a circulation table, always at hand, and with no extra 
expense or labor, since it is a natural part of the sistem, is hyly prized by 
all interested in caracter of jeneral use of the library, while it can by 
trifling labor be converted into a permanent record by entering on a 
report sheet. If a reader's card is uzed, caracter of the individual's reading 
is here shown and never before has so much attention as now been givn to 
educating readers' tastes. 

Subject references For these it has peculiar advantajes. Many uzers 
ar undertaking analises and cros references to an extent hitherto tho't 
wholy or almost imposibl. These few figures tel as clearly as a long hed- 
ing exactly what the reference is, while gain in eaz of use is even greater 
than in time and space saved in recording. The clearness and directness 



of the method aid wonderfuly in this work. References to transactions, 
or chapters in essays, may be made in the most compact and uzabl form. 
See also p. 4o 8 -43 1 Bibliografic modifications. 

Recataloging or reclasifying When Amherst College in 1873 first adopted 
this plan and began torecatalog its library, it was found (as in hundreds of 
cases since) entirely practicabl to chanje to the new sistem gradualy, as 
means allowd, without interfering in any appreciabl degree with circulation. 
Methods employd for thus chanjing without interrupting use must vary 
according to different conditions. The essential feature is enuf distinction 
between old and new call numbers to be eazily recognized by attendants. 
If old call numbers consist wholy of figures, the initial letter of the Cutter 
author numbers furnishes this reqaisit. All numbers of figures only ar 
then recognized as old, and all numbers containing a letter as in the new 

Adaptability The sistem is so flexibl that it adapts itself to almost any 
circumstances. It may be uzed with proportionate results in almost any 
one of its applications without the others. It may be applyd to pamflets 
alone, bringing order out of caos, and solving this vext and vexing prob- 
lem; or it may be uzed for catalogs, leaving shelf arranjement as before; 
or it may be applyd to shelvs, while the catalog is dictionary or any other 

Arabic numerals Arabic numerals can be writn and found quicker 
and with les danjer of confuzion or mistake than any other simbols. There- 
fore roman numerals, capitals and small letters, and similar simbols found 
in most clasification sistems ar entirely discarded, and by exciusiv use of 
arabic numerals thruout shelvs, and indexes, catalogs and other records, 
there is secured the greatest accuracy, economy and convenience. This 
advantaj is specialy prominent in comparison with sistems where author's 
name or the title must be writn, in calling for or charjing books and in 
making references. 

Endowment of special departments Another great advantaj is peculiar 
adaptability to special endowments. One specialy interested in any sub- 
ject can often be induced to endow that subject, thus providing for bying 
each year all the best publications. 

If John Doe is specialy interested in opera, the library says: 1 Giv us 
$1000 as endowment of 782, and we wil call it the ' Doe Library of Dramatic 
Music '. There wil be found every book, pamflet, newspaper clipping, or 
manuscript that the library has or can get on this subject. Gifts from 
others wil be placed in the Doe Library, the donor's name being givn 
on the bookplate, and for jenerations to cum every person interested in 
opera wil be grateful for yur foundation '. In this way 782 is assynd to 
John Doe, and his pride is stimulated in developing it. If another man 
with larjer means and interest wil endow the whole subject of music 780, 
there is no difficulty or impropryety in including 782, the Doe Dramatic 
Music Library, as the 2d section of 780, the Roe Music Library. 


This is one of the most promising fields for development, for almost 
every library has amung its readers sum specialy interested, who if properly 
approacht wud endow sum topic, even if a small one, and this relativ 
location, with its definit number expressing just the ground coverd, may be 
of great servis in working up these special endowments. 

Summary To sum up its claims: It is by far most inexpensiv; eazily 
understood, rememberd and uzed; practical rather than theoretic; brief 
and familiar in nomenclature; susceptibl of partial and gracTual adoption 
without confuzion; convenient for arranging pamflets, sale duplicates, and 
notes, and for indexing, and in keeping statistics and cheks for books off 
shelvs; a satisfactory adaptation of card catalog principl to shelvs. It 
shelvs books compactly; uzes simpl and few simbols; can be expanded, 
without limit and without confuzion or wasted labor, both in catalogs 
and on shelvs or in catalogs alone ; cheks thuroly and conveniently against 
mistakes; admits redily numerus cros references; is unchanjeabl in its 
call numbers, and so givs them in all places where needed; in its Index 
affords an anser to the greatest objection to clast catalogs, and was the 
1st satisfactory union of the advantajes of clast and dictionary sistems. 

Sugjestions to uzers 

Hold book in ryt hand and turn with left, then both clas numbers 
and index heds show most plainly on left marjins and reference is quicker 
when eye follows left pajes only. 

Numeration In thinking or speaking of clas numbers, to avoid confuz- 
ion always divide at the decimal point, and name it; e. g. read 942.27 
' nine forty-two, point twenty-seven ', never ' ninety-four two twenty- 
seven '. If 'point' wer omitted, the ear myt redily interpret 270.2 
(two seventy, two) as 272, while ' two seventy, point two ' can never be 

Plan of book 

Tables First paje shows 10 clases into which all topics ar divided. 
Next paje shows 9 divisions of each of these 10 clases, in a birdseye view 
of the whole skeme on a singl paje. Then follows a sinoptic view 
of 10 pajes, one for each clas, showing the 9 sections of each division of 
each clas. 

Following these sinopses is the complete clasification, which repeats 
in proper order, clases, divisions and sections, with all subsections. For 
convenience of uzers, who thus get fuller and clearer ideas of the field which 
each number covers, sinonimus terms, exampls, brief notes, dates and 
varius each words ar often aded to main heds. Therefore all references to 
numbers shud be lookt up in the ful tables of subsections, uzing summaries 
only when a merely sinoptic view is wisht. 

Index Next an alfabetic index of all heds refers by clas number to 
exact place of each in Tables. This Index includes also, as far as found, 



all sinonims or alternativ names for heds, and any other entries likely to 
help a reader find his subject more redily. Even a uzer who knows just 
where to turn to his subject in the Tables, may, by consulting the Index, be 
put on the trak of valuabl allyd matter which he myt otherwize overlook. 

Use of Tables and Index 

Familiarity* with Clasification Get a jeneral knowlej of the skeme by 
lerning the 10 main clascs [yu wil soon know the 100 divisions also without 
special study], so that yu can tel to what subject a givn number belongs 
from its ist figure, without referring to Tables. Specific knowlej of minute 
divisions wil cum gradualy, but rapidly, from use. Assyn numbers by uzing 
Tables alone, and then always verify yur result by the Index. Thus 
yu wil more rapidly acquire knowlej of the Clasification and facility in 
its use. To do this, decide first to which of the 10 clases the subject belongs ; 
next, take that clas as if there wer no other, and decide to which of its 
10 divisions the subject belongs; then, in the same way, select section and 
subsection, thus running down yur topic in its groovs, which becum 
10-fold narrower at each step. As a chek against error, even tho familiar 
with the skeme, uze Index freely. 

Subject of a book To find this out, consult : 

1 Title, since it is jeneraly chosen to show what the book is about, 
but as many titles ar vague or misleading, never clas from title alone 
but always examin also 

2 Contents table, which is best gyd to true subject. If there is no 
contents table read 

3 Hedings of chapters, or marjinal topics 

4 Preface Unless alredy certain, glance thru this to each author's 
viewpoint and verify impressions gaind from title and contents 

5 Reference books If preceding means fail, consult relyabl bibliografies, 
clast and annotated catalogs, biografic dictionaries, histories of literature, 
cyclopedias, reviews etc. for information about caracter of book. 

6 Subject matter If 5 shorter methods abuv fail, examin subject 
matter of book itself, and if stil in dout, to avoid mistakes, put aside on 
an ' under consideration ' shelf til yu can examin more thuroly or consult 

7 Specialists Experts ar uzualy glad to examin any new books in their 
departments, enuf to clas them, i. e. to define their true subject and rela- 
tions. Old ones they know where to put alredy. 

Be specialy careful when dealing with flexibl terms, e. g. child welfare, 
to make sure of the caracter of its application in that individual book. 

After deciding what the book is about, find this subject in Tables, 
either thru Index or by uzing Tables directly, which for beginners is a 
longer process, seldom to be trusted without subsequent reference to 
Index ; e. g. Pollock's Land laws myt naturaly be clast from Tables alone 



as ' 333, Land: ownership; ryts; rent ', which seems exactly to fit this book. 
Index, however, shows 2 numbers, both referring to land laws, but 
from different viewpoints; i.e. 347.2, legal, and 333, economic. The object 
of tin's book, as seen in the preface, is to giv a popular presentation of 
English statutes pertaining to landholding, not to discuss history and theory 
of land laws from economist's viewpoint. It should be clast ' 347.2, Realty ', 
which myt hav been overlookt but for Index. 

Assyning clas numbers 1 Practical usefulness controls. Put each book 
under the subject to the student of which it is most useful , unless local 
reazons 1 attract ' it to a place stil more useful in yur library. See p. 30 3 . 

2 Content or real subject of which a book treats, and not form or acci- 
dental wording of title, determins its place. Following this rule, put a 
filosofy of art with Art, not with Filosofy; a history of mathematics with 
Mathematics, not with History; for filosofy or history is simply the form 
which these books hav taken. Their true content or subject is Art or 
Mathematics, and to the student of these subjects they ar most useful. 
(See also p. 17 1 .) 

3 Always remember that the question is not ' where wil one probably 
look for a certain book ', but ' under what subject is the book of greatest 
value ' ; e. g. it is of litl consequence whether ' one wud be apt to look ' 
under 595.16 for Darwin's Formation of vegetable mould, but of much conse- 
quence that one studying erth worms shud find that book in 595.16 Erth- 
worms, since it is chiefly valuabl as a study of erth worms' habits. Anyone 
wanting that special book shud look for it in catalog under Darwin. 

4 Giv every book most specific number which wil contain it. This 
varies in different libraries according to number of figures uzed, e. g. 
specific number for ' compulsory vaccination ' is 614.4738 ; but in a library 
uzing only 3 figures, 'most specific' number posibl is 614, which must 
take everything on Public helth. 

Sumtimes a library unwizely puts all books of a division together, 
if but few; e. g. all mathematical works ar markt 510. It takes just as 
many figures and in most cases just as much labor and if a man wants 
the 1 calculus in the whole library he has to serch thru perhaps 100 volumes 
in 510, when otherwize he wud instantly find it standing alone as 517. 
See also p. 3 1 1 , Number of figures in clas number. 

5 ' Predominant tendency ' or obvius purpose of a book uzualy decides 
its number at once. Stil a book often treats of 2 or more subjects. In 
such cases put it where it wil be most useful, and make aded entries for 
all subordinate subjects. For a clast catalog giv the aded entry numbers 
on both bookplate and main subject card as wel as on aded entry cards. 

It is a markt advantaj that these aded entries, notes etc. may be made 
from time to time at convenience. It is necesary at first to determin 
only predominant tendency of book in order to clas it; aded entries ar 
made whenever found desirabl. 



Supply these numbers indicating more closely caracter of book as 
rapidly as posibl, and invite all specialists, in connection with their reading, 
to call attention to every desirabl aded topic notist. The numbers take 
litl room, ar eazily aded, and in most cases ar very valuabl. 

6 If 2 subjects hav distinct paje limits, jeneraly clas under ist and make 
analitic entry under 2d; but if 2d is decidedly more important or much 
greater in bulk, clas under that, with analitic entry under ist. Always 
put a book under ist subject, unless there is good reazon for entering it 
under another. 

7 Consider not only scope and tendency of each book, but also nature 
and specialties of each library. 

Any subject of which a library makes a specialty naturaly ' attracts ' 
allyd subjects. This influence is strongest in minute clasing. To admit 
this variation, many subjects hav in this skeme 2 or more places, according 
to these different sides; e. g. abockon' skoolhyjiene', whichamedical library 
puts under 613, has also a place in 371.7, where education specialists require 

8 If a book treats of a majority of the sections of any division, giv it 
division number, insted of most important section number with aded 
entries. Unless sum one section is so prominently treated as to warrant 
placing the book in it, clas a book covering 4 or more sections under divi- 
sion number; e. g. clas a volume on lyt, heat and sound, under hed most 
fully discust, with aded entries for the others; but if it treats also of 
mekanics, hydrostatics and neumatics, clas as 530, or jeneral fizics, tho no 
mention be made of electricity, magnetism or molecular fizics. 

9 When a book deals with 2 consecutiv and closely allyd subjects, jen- 
eraly clas with ist and regard this as including 2d, but if 2d is decidedly 
predominant, clas with this and either disregard ist or make aded entry, 
according to importance of that portion. 

10 To secure uniformity, make for future reference ful notes of all 
difficulties and decisions, for it is more important to put books on same 
subject together than to put them in a more nearly absolutely correct 
place. These notes shud be writn on broad marjins of the Clas Tables 
or in an interleavd copy or on P slips arranjed by clas numbers like a 
clast catalog. . 

1 1 Keep colected works, libraries etc. together, and assyn, like individual 
books, to most specific hed that wil contain them; or assyn to most promi- 
nent of varius subjects treated, with aded entries for others; or, better, 
separate and clas parts as independent works. 

This last practis constantly grows in favor, and many librarians now 
larjly disregard uniform bindings and 1 series ' lettering, and, unless con- 
tents of volumes ar so connected that they can not be separated, clas 
each under most specific hed that wil contain it. 


12 Clas translations reviews, keys, analises, ansers and other books 
about specific books with orijinal book, as being there most useful. 

Number of figures uzed in clas number Decide this according to cir- 
cumstances in each library. Small libraries often uze minute subsections 
beyond 3 figures only in certain divisions like Travel, 913-919, where 
closer jeografic division is specialy needed, and in 400 and 800, when a 4th 
figure is needed to separate different languajes. 

In very small colections 2 figures myt do til growth required further 
division; but it is economy, and saves handling books again, to uze at least 
3 figures at first, even in smallest colections. In larjer or rapidly growing 
libraries all subdivisions may be uzed for same reazon, tho number of books 
may not then seem to justify it. Whether there ar 1 or 1000 books on any 
topic, they take no more shelf space if clast minutely, and work is dun 
once for all. When larj accessions cum, even if a century later, this number 
wil not hav to be alterd. A library having but 20 books on Education 
myt think it unwize to uze the ful skeme, but the whole 20 wud go on 
a singl shelf, and take no more room, and the Index wud refer more 
exactly to what was wanted. Number of books yu hav on any subject 
has in this sistem no special weight. In relativ location, any number of 
consecutiv topics without a book wastes no space on shelvs or in catalogs. 
Numbers ar merely skipt. This not only does no harm, but has great 
negativ value, as looking for a number and finding it blank or skipt shows 
that yu hav nothing on that subject — information 2d in value only to find- 
ing sumthing, for one need no longer serch. 

The practical objection to close clasing is that it givs a longer number, 
when this is uzed to charj by in a lending library. In a reference library 
ful subsections shud always be uzed. Where short numbers ar imperative 
giv ful clas number on another part of the bookplate, not to be uzed in 
charjing, but as a gyd to contents. Thus when a clasifyer has once examind 
a book and found out just what it is about, he records it to benefit others. 

Bilding numbers 

Jeografic divisions In dividing by cuntries according to note ' Divided 
like 930-999', found so often in Tables, ad only the number following initial 
9, for this 9 means not locality but simply clas 9, History; e. g. 942, history 
of England, analyzd is 9 history, 42 England (4 Europe, 2 England). 
If jeolojy of England is wanted, ad to 55 (jeolojy number) 42 (number for 
England) and yu hav 554.2. History of N Y state is 974.7, of which 747 
is locality number; 353.9747, number for N Y state administration, is 
bilt by ading to number for state administration, 353.9, number for 
N Y state, 747. 

Languaj and literature In 890, where directed to ' divide like 490 ', 
note that 890, Minor literatures, and 490, Minor languajes, correspond 
exactly, so that only figures following 49 ar to be aded to 89 to bild a minor 
literature number; e. g. Polish languaj is 491.85; ading 185 to 89, Minor 



literatures, givs 891.85 Polish literature. In brief, to form literature 
from filolojy numbers substitute 8 for 1st figure, 4; e. g. Sanskrit languaj 
491.2, Sanskrit literature 891.2. Under 490, the filolojic divisions (diction- 
aries, grammar etc.), and under 890 the form divisions (poetry, drama 
etc.) shud be uzed only when clas number represents a' specific languaj 
or literature, e. g. 491.7 Russian, but not 497 North American, awaiting 
further division by languaj. 

If directed to ' divide like main clasification ', as in 016, number for 
required subject is aded exactly as it stands in Tables; e. g. bibliografy of 
Polish poetry, 016.891851. 

Combining numbers in a way not printed in Tables must be dun with 
great care, or confuzion results. Many uzers, fascinated with the posi- 
bilities of the sistem, make combinations more injenius than useful; e. g. 
'The horse's foot and how to shoe it ' was once markt 636.1682, i. e. 
blaksmithing number, 682, aded to horse number, 636.1. Horseshoeing 
is now in Tables as 682.1, while 636.168 means American ponies. 

Often a clasifyer ads a figure to show sum distinction. It seems short 
and desirabl, but later he may find he has shut himself off from uzing sum 
other division greatly preferd. For his personal aditions, letters or other 
simbols not numbers shud be uzed. Every aded simbol must be clearly 
writn in Tables and Index. Never trust memory for decisions. 

See also p. 35 1 ~38 1 , Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions. 

Book numbers 

The call number of a book (number by which it is cald for) jeneraly 
consists of both clas and book numbers. The same clas number applys to 
all books on same subject ; the book number distinguishes each individual 
work from all others in that clas, and is the same for all volumes or copies 
of same work. When a specific volume is wanted the number for that 
volume must be aded to clas and book numbers to complete the call number. 
Most important methods of assyning book numbers ar: 

Author numbers Invention of translation sistems by which a name is 
represented by its initial, with remaining letters translated into numbers, 
e. g. Freeman, F85, has led most libraries to arranje books under each 
clas number alfabeticly by authors, or in local history by towns, or in 
individual biografy and bibliografy by biografees and bibliografees. This 
keeps together all works by same author or on same town or same biografee, 
etc. and even in larj clases enables one to find any book redily without con- 
sulting catalogs. One great advantaj is that same author has same book 
number in every subject; i. e. figures ar ' significant ' like our clas numbers, 
and translate themselvs into names. Great practical nemonic convenience 
results from this form of book number. Most widely uzed of these trans- 
lation sistems is C. A. Cutter's, known as ' Cutter numbers', publisht by 
Library Bureau. 



Special author tables A 2d method, for authors having special 
numbers, e. g. Shakspere, 822.33, or Milton, 821.47, is uniform use for 
such authors, of book numbers A-N, with O-Z assynd on basis of their 
individual works, as ilustrated under ' Special author tables', on pajes 
following Relativ Index. 

Time numbers A 3d arrangement of books under clas numbers is crono- 
lojic by date of 1st publication. Its advantaj is in presenting historic 
development of subject, the book writn erliest being on the left, the latest 
work on the ryt, and then of any givn book it is evident that all those on 
the left wer writn before it, all those on the ryt after it. In syence and useful 
arts this has special value, while in literature author arranjement is better. 
W. S. Biscoe's translation sistem of dates givs a more compact and satis- 
factory mark for year than date writn in ful. (For ful explanations 
and table see ' Biscoe time numbers ', on pajes following Relativ Index) 

Accession order A 4th arranjement, simpler but otherwize les desirabl, 
is in accession order; 1st book put in a clas being numberd 1, the 2d 2, 
the 3d 3. 


It is entirely practicabl to uze 2, 3 or all 4 of these methods at same 
time in same library, one peculiarity of the sistem being the eaz with which 
it may be adapted to almost any special circumstances. The advantajes 
of the cronolojic numbering ar most markt in syence and useful arts ; the 
alfabetic is best in clases where names of authors or subjects outrank 
dates; and special author numbers in cases where clas number alredy 
indicates author, so corresponding indication in book number wud be 
useless duplication; while the old accession-order plan is good in special 
colections which must be kept separate and ar no longer aded to, since 
here the extreme simplicity of 1, 2, 3 order is secured with no sacrifice. 
It is stil better, if this last method is uzed, to adopt A, B, C, insted of 1 , 
2, 3, as 26 insted of 9 books may be markt with 1 caracter, and chiefly 
becauz it is hyly desirabl that each book number begin with a letter, which 
can not be mistaken for end of clas number if writn on same line; e. g. 
1st book under 513, if numberd 1, myt be so writn as to confuze with sub- 
section 513.1, but 5 13 A cud not be misinterpreted. If figures ar uzed, 
take care to write them as a fraction or with separating dash; e. g. 513 
or 513-1. 1 

Variations practicabl in adjusting to special local 

Sum uzers assume that adopting Decimal Clasification and Relativ 
Index carries with it other parts of the sistem uzed by the author at 
Amherst, Wellesley or Columbia colejes or in New York State Library. 
In fact, the plan in each differd sumwhat from all the others, and many of 
the thousands of public and private libraries now uzing it hav adopted stil 
other variations; for special constituency, circumstances and resources of 
each library must be considerd in deciding what is best for it. This decision 



shud be made by one familiar, not only with the library and its needs, 
but also with all methods of any merit and with comparativ eaz and cost 
of introducing them into any givn library. 

Cautions Having decided to adopt this sistem in its decimal form as 
workt out and printed, determin whether to adopt certain variations, 
noted in 1-5 below as practicabl, and in sum cases useful and desirabl. 
The inexperienst uzer is very likely to feel entirely competent, without 
reading more than a singl paje of the Tables, regardless of its bearings on 
hundreds of other places, and without so much as looking at the author's 
explanations, to institute a series of 1 improvements '. Experience shows 
that nothing cud be more disastrus. It seems a simpl matter to put 
a topic a line hyer or lower, but in sum cases this may affect over 100 
Index entries, and there is no posibl way to be sure of correcting them except 
by examining each of 43,000 heds. Proposed chanjes, carefuly studid out 
and submitted as improvements, ar frequently shown by our old records 
to hav been adopted and uzed in the exact form proposed til unforeseen 
considerations forst us to chanje to the form as printed. Even after years 
of experience one is not safe in pronouncing on an apparent improvement 
without consulting voluminus records of previus experiments. 

Even sum who hav uzed the sistem longest hav been misled into adopt- 
ing chanjes which on tryal they wer compeld to reject, going bak to 
orijinal form at cost and confuzion of 2 chanjes. In so apparently simpl 
a thing as introducing subdivisions on blank numbers, mistakes ar often 
made; and when too late to correct them the makers regret their neglect 
to consult the editor and secure advice and cooperation of those most 
familiar with the manifold interrelations. Even wer the independent 
divisions equaly good, they do not agree with those which wil later be 
printed in Tables and Index, so that every copy of the printed skeme 
wil hav to be corrected in manuscript before it is uzabl in that library. 
The only safe rule is to make no chanjes or subdivisions without submitting 
them to the editor, who wil gladly advize on such matters without charj, 
not on ground of any superior wizdom, nor even becauz of larjer experi- 
ence in this special work, but becauz in this way only can it be lernd if 
corresponding subdivisions hav been alredy assynd sum what differently. 

A uzer who adopts printed form avoids criticizm sure to be aimd at 
any posibl skeme. The moment he makes 1 ' improvement ' he must 
defend all his heds or alter them to suit each critic. . Much time is saved by 
saying that the skeme is uzed as printed, and blunders ar the author's, 
not the uzer's. A list of chanjes made by others without consultation was 
writn for this caution, but is omitted lest it seem invidius. It ilustrates 
how eazy it is for able men to make what no one questions after explanation 
to hav been outryt blunders, in 1 improving and ading to ' the printed skeme. 
We ar always grateful for sugjestions from anyone, and, having alredy 
spent so much time in efforts to improve this sistem for the common good of 
all uzers, invite cooperation of those interested in completing needed sub- 
divisions and eliminating any errors that remain in either Tables or Index. 



Sugjested variations 

The following brief notes show the most important variations found 
practicabl in the ' relativ index and location sistem,' oftcner cald the 
Decimal Clasifi cation or ' Dewey sistem ', or oftenest simply 1 D C '. 
For its essentials see p. 1 1 6 . 

i Letter or simbol notations for chanjes or aditions To protect other 
uzers from confuzion, the publishers insist, as entitled to by copyryt, 
that D C numbers shal not be printed with chanjed meanings or aditions, 
without sum clear indication of the fact in the number itself. If reazons 
which led to adoption of form printed ar not conclusiv to another, we 
wish to remove any obstacls to his use of the sistem with such chanjes as 
shal satisfy him. This can redily be dun by uzing a letter or sum other 
caracter than the 10 dijits, to mark chanjes; e. g. if yu wish a different set 
of subdivisions under any number, make it out to suit, and letter it a, 
b, c, etc. It wil arranje in its exact place and exact order without difficulty, 
and no other uzer of the sistem wil be confuzed by yur forms. In Index, 
cancel r, 2, 3, etc. yu hav discarded, and write in a, b, c, etc. adopted. 
Whenever yu uze our exact numbers, uze also our exact and universal 
meanings for them as indext. For any aditions or chanjes of yur own, 
uze letters or simbols of yur own which can not be mistaken for ours, uzing, 
of course, our figures to the place where difference begins; e. g. if yu want a 
new heding next to 551.34, Icebergs, it can not properly go as decimal 1. 
Mark it 551.34a, and it arranjes as wisht. If yu wish to chanje a hed from 
one place to another, cancel it where it stands, and leav that number blank 
in Tables. Then insert the hed in its new place as abuv, as if it had never 
been in our Tables. Unuzed decimals ar often alredy appropriated for 
authorized subdivisions, tho they may not be printed til several editions 

This plan of introducing letters or other simbcls wherever each uzer 
pleazes, wil giv all needed freedom to the personal equation and desire 
for 1 orijinality ', and meet all real wants for peculiar clasification in 
peculiar cases. 

Fiction In sum cases it is uzualy best to modify clas numbers by 
letters as abuv. In popular libraries half the circulation is often fiction. 
It is a great saving to omit clas number entirely and uze merely book 
number, it being understood that no clas number means 'fiction '. Sum 
libraries go stil further and for fiction omit book number as wel as clas 
number. Sum even omit book numbers in other clases. 

Juvenils After fiction, great circulation makes juvenils a good place 
to economize, if they ar kept separate, as is uzualy desirabl in popular 
libraries. Books ar clast as if for adults (except that a short number 
may be uzed) J being prefixt to show their special caracter. This givs J 
alone as clas number for juvenil fiction ; J942 is a child's history of 
England. These books ar arranjed in a paralel library by themselvs, 
so J942 cums between J941, juvenil history of Scotland, and J043. juvenil 
history of Germany. 



The separate J library can at any time be abandond by distributing J 
books amung the regular clases, either ignoring J entirely, or preferably 
by putting all J books by themselvs at end of each clas number. In 
former case, if shorter numbers hav been uzed for juveniis than for 
adults they shud be extended to correspond ; in latter case, numbers may 
either be extended and the books shelvd at end of exact subdivision, or 
the shorter numbers may be retaind and the books groupt at end of 
entire section, e. g. all juvenil works on English history may be kept 
under short number J942 and shelvd after all adult works on English 
history, both 942 alone and 942 with subdivisions. 

There ar thus 3 methods: 1, to hav a separate J library; 2, to hav 
J books by themselvs at end of each clas number; 3, to hav J books in 
alfabetic order amung other books on same subject. In this last case 
J is useful only to call attention plainly to their juvenil caracter. 

Unless shorter numbers ar uzed for juveniis than for adults the same 
marking is uzed for all these plans, and one can be chanjed to another 
by simply distributing books the other way and teling attendants. 

Biografy For this larj clas, opinions differ as to best treatment. Beside 
the plan printed in Tables the following methods ar widely uzed. 

For individual biografy, i. e. that relating to a singl person (including 
books containing biografies of not more than 4 persons) 

1 Put all biografies in one alfabet of names of persons writn about, 
uzing 92 for clas number, and indicating the subject or biografee by a 
Cutter book number; e. g. life of Grant, 92 G76. This is most compact 
for charjing, and is preferd in popular libraries of larj circulation. Insted 
of 92 for clas number, B is often uzed, but is les desirabl, since it has no 
lojical place in a numeric arranjement on shelvs and is sumtimes confuzed 
with the author's initial in fiction. 

2 Distribute biografy as far as posibl to subjects it ilustrates, leaving, 
of course, under 920 the lives not bearing specialy on any subject; e. g. all 
lives of musicians go under 780 and its subdivisions, life of Wagner being 
782 . 2 insted of 927 . 82 as in Tables. When 9 is uzed to indicate history 
of a special subject, 92 may be uzed for its biografy; e. g. 780.9 History 
of music, 780.92 Biografy of musicians. 

Collectiv biografy may be clast in a singl group under 920, or by subject 
under 920-928, as in Tables, or distributed thruout the clasification, 
according to 2d plan givn abuv for individual biografy, subarranjement 
with any of these methods being alfabetic by author. 

Paralel libraries This treatment of fiction, juveniis and biografy ilus- 
trates the principl. Its other chief application is for languaj colections. 
Sum libraries hav a constituency not reading English, and so need a 
paralel library in Italian or Swedish, etc. This is most eazily made by 
simply prefixing languaj initial to clas number. If arranjed in one scries 
of subjects this initial is ignored, or all books in the special languajes 
may be groupt under initial letters at end of each clas number. The 



paralel library is made by simply putting together all books having same 
languaj initial and then arranjing by clas numbers. Initials uzed ar F, 
French, G, German, I, Italian, Sp, Spanish, Sw, Swedish, Dn, Danish, Du, 
Dutch, N, Norwegian, W, Welsh, A, Arabic, etc. Where only i languaj is so 
markt in a givn library, jeneraly only i letter shud be uzed, so as to avoid 
an extra letter in charjing; e. g. S wilanser for either Spanish or Swedish if 
uzed in only i sense. A prefixt letter may, however, hav been uzed with a 
different meaning, e. g. R for Reference, necesitating more than i letter for 
the languaj prefix, even if only I languaj is represented by the initial, 
e. g. Ru for Russian. This plan has proved very satisfactory in actual use. 

Combining languaj and literature Same principl can be applyd also 
in combining each languaj with its literature, if it is preferd to abolish 
clas Filolojy, and make it simply an appendix to Literature; e. g. uzing 
82f for English filolojy and ading filolojy subdivisions, English diction- 
aries wud becum 82f3, English grammars 82f5, etc. arranjed either just 
before or just after English literature, 820, 821, etc. and reverse wud hold 
true if a filolojist wisht to abolish Literature and make it an appendix 
to Filolojy. For a better plan see p. 3Q 2 - 8 , Broken order. 

Reference library To separate books most needed, the best plan is 
to mark R before clas numbers, and arranje books together as an R library. 
When books ar to go into jeneral colection again, draw a line thru this 

In same way it frequently happens that a jeneral private library is givn 
on condition that it be kept together; e. g. Phoenix library of Columbia 
University. This has P prefixt to clas number, and thus is a paralel library 
by itself. An initial is better than * or similar mark, for it helps memory 
and is just as brief. Same plan applys if the library has an ' inferno ' 
for books not uzed without permits, or for distant rooms where books worth 
keeping but seldom cald for can be arranjed in a paralel storaj library. 

Stil another provision is made in 080, 8 being regular number for jeneral 
colections (as in 508, 520.8 etc.), for those special libraries which can not 
be separated becauz of binding or conditions of gift; but insted of the 
3 figures in 080, a singl letter, as described abuv, indicates the special col- 
ection, and it is eazy to lern location of the few special colections of any 
one library. 

Omission of initial o in the clas ' Jeneral works ' has been tryd; e. g. 
51 insted of 051 for an American periodical, but is not advized, for the 
eye gets so in the habit of reading as Syence any number beginning with 
5, that there is a mental hich if, e. g. jeneral periodicals ar writn 51, etc. 
insted of 051, etc. Another reazon is that Institut International de 
Bibliographic (see p. 40 3 ) regards as neglijibl a final o and uzes the 1 and 
2 figure numbers as we uze those same numbers fild out by o to 3 figures, 
e. g. 1 for filosofy, like our 100, 22 for Bible, like our 220. Also in 
clasification it sumtimes happens that the 1st 2 figures ar obvi'us at a 



glance, but time must be taken to determin the 3d. It is convenient to 
write these 1st figures, but if a mathematical book receivs its 1st 2 
figures (51), this unfinisht number is likely to be confuzed with the 
2-figure number 51. This danjer may be larjly avoided by writing the 
decimal point after a blank; e. g. 51 ., to show that a figure is omitted. 

2 Contractions for specialists The sistcm is often uzed by specialists 
for very minute work, where decimals run out to 6 or more places. 
Theoreticly it is better to write all these figures, thus showing re lation to 
the universe of knowlej, but there is no practical gain to justify the labor 
if a great quantity of slips must be numberd. A specialist working on 
' Swedish poetry of the aje of Gustavus ' can uze a singl letter insted of 
the ful 839.715 and save 5 caracters in numbering each note; or a dash 
may be writn for all but the last figure, thus ' — 5 '. A body of such notes 
can be inserted together in their place in an index at 839.7 15, with a colord 
card to mark the special groups, with litl danjer of confuzion. Stil a stickler 
for theoretic completeness wil write a ful index number for each separate 

3 Use of alfabet or cronolojy for final subdivisions While our plan is 
decimal as distinguisht from ' dictionary ' we always alfabet wherever 
that is more useful. Indeed, the main feature of our plan is its alfabetic 
Relativ Index. Frequently in minute divisions it is economy to arranje 
alfabeticly or by dates without uzing a translation sistem. This is specialy 
true in index rerums and notes of specialists. After numbers hav been 
uzed as far as that is the most useful form, then either the name chosen for 
hed or the year can be inserted at the end; e. g. towns in a givn state, 
individual birds or insects cuming under one number, names of men 
writn about in biografy, etc. Sum may prefer to adopt this plan in places 
where we hav chosen a grouping; e. g. in chemistry, to put all metals in one 
alfabet under 546.3, insted of uzing numbers 546. 3-. 99. If this chanje is 
wisht, a more complete one wil probably be better: put all elements, 
metallic and nonmetallic, in 1 alfabet under 546. Such use of the alfabet 
cauzes no confuzion with the Index, as it simply subdivides more closely, 
unless, as in the case of 546.3, the alfabet replaces heds alredy printed. 
In this case, cancel all subsections in the Tables by drawing a line obliquely 
thru heds discarded, and mark in marjin 1 Alfabet by elements,' e. g. 
540-3 Metals Alfabet by elements 

•SI Alkali group 

Then find each of these heds in Index and cancel all figures after 546.3, 

e. g. 

Potanium, inorganic chemistry, 546. J* 
Rubidium, 546. 3J, 



This plan has special value in this place, as new elements ar discovcrd 
from time to time, and can redily be inserted in alfabetic place. Stil 
many chemists think it valuabl to hav similar metals groupt together for 
convenience of study, and to cover books writn on the group as a whole, 
and also think it important to hav a number for rejected elements, becauz 
literature and references about them remain, and must be provided for. 
New elements may be inserted, as explaind on p. 16 5 . 

4 Broken order Another common and often desirabl variation for shelf 
arrangement is to break sequence of numbers, to get most-uzed books 
nearest delivery desk. Theory keeps numbers in strict sequence; but a 
hyer rule everywhere is 'sacrifice any theory for a substantial gain'. 
Practicaly there ar few libraries where it is not best to break order of 
clases. Often divisions ar best arranjed out of numeric place; e. g. 520 
Astronomy maybe wanted in a room accessibl at nyt; fiction, juvenils and 
biografy ar always wanted near the delivery desk in a public library, and 
in strict order ar as likely to cum at the most distant point. Numberless 
local reazons may make a broken order desirabl. There need be no hesi- 
tation in adopting it if enuf is gaind, but there shud be charts clearly 
showing where each division starts; e. g. after 430 ' Preceding 830 '; after 
520 1 In observatory it being necesary to specify room for books entirely 
removed from general library arranjement. The summary of 100 division* 
is furnisht by Library Bureau, on celluloid charts, to show location. Opposit 
each division shud be markt its beginning on shelvs, and it is eazy 
to vary the order as much as desirabl, tho of course the nearer the divisions 
run in regular order, 000-999, the eazier it is for a stranjer to find his way 
about. Variations in order of sections ar les wize and seldom necesary, 
but if made, a wood or cardboard dummy in regular place shud hav 
markt on its side the actual location of any section removed. 

This broken-order plan is best for bringing together filolojy and litera- 
ture of each languaj without altering numbers or prefixing any letter. Let 
420 be shelvd just ahed of 820, 430 ahed of 830, and so for all languajes, 
making the jencral note that all 400s ar shelvd just ahed of corresponding 
800s, and remembering that after main languajes 4 or more figures ar 
required to indicate languaj alone, so Portuguese filolojy goes between 
868 and 869, Russian between 891.69 and 891.7, Bohemian between 
891.85 and 891.86, etc. 

5 Pro and con division of topics It is very useful in many cases to 
separate books on a topic with strongly markt sides, so either set of views 
and arguments may be seen by itself. This has been dun in sum cases 
by subdivision, e. g. 337 Protection and free trade. In others it is equaly 
useful, and can be indicated by an aded mark, e. g. 324.3 Woman suffraj. 
The number may be uzed for jeneral works, giving facts etc. and advocates 
and opponents may be separated by + and — for positiv and negativ, or 
by p and c, the initials for pro and con, which tho short, ar too long for a 

4 o 


circulating library to uze in charjing but may be disregarded for that pur- 
pose if book numbers ar so assynd as to distinguish. In reference libraries, 
on cards, etc. most wil prefer to write out pro and con, to mark the 2 
groups. The order on shelvs is, of course, alfabetic, i. e. 324.3, 324.3c, 
324. 3p; or if -}- and — ar uzed, the uzual order is followd: +, — . 

These 5 notes sugjest the ranje of variations which may be made, and 
ilustrate D C adaptability to widely different conditions. For book 
numbers, which decide the order of material after it is groupt into its final 
clases, see p. 32 5 ~33 7 . 

Bibliografic modifications 

After study of all other availabl sistems the Decimal Clasification was 
adopted in 1895 by the newly organized Institut International de 
Bibliographie (known as I I B) as best adapted for its projected universal 
subject bibliografy to cover ultimately all subjects in all languajes in all 
periods of the world's history. 
Determining factors wer: 

1 Decimal Clasification was of topics, independent of languaj or exact 

sinonim by which exprest 

2 Its notation was in itself the only international languaj, since it consisted 

solely of arabic numerals, uzed all over the world 

3 Its decimal principl allowd indefinit intercalation 

Overdetaild as the Clasification alredy seemd to many librarians, lak 
of subdivision was the Institute's 1st difficulty and it urjd us at once to 
enlarj the Tables. State Library duties at that time made concentration 
on this imposibl, but we promist cooperation and criticizm if I I B wud 
draft required extensions. When its remarkably rapid work precluded 
even adequate criticizm, it was authorized to publish its tables and assured 
that the American revision wud vary from them as litl as practicabl. 
At Geneva in 1924 the harmonizing of the American and European 
editions was agreed on and to D C editor was delegated the very extensiv 
work of checking the variant fonns and recommending which shud be 
kept, a work which is now wel under way. 

Obviusly, bibliografic and jeneral library use ar so different that in sum 
cases what is clearly best for real needs of skolarly specialists, where any 
simbols can be uzed on index cards, wud be quite impracticabl for a 
public library, which must hav simbols that can be markt on the bak 
of books, redily uzed by the unskild public in writing call slips, and rapidly 
handld by low-priced runners and yung clerks. This difficulty can, 
however, often be obviated by allowing alternativ forms. 

I I B has devized and uzes injenius simbols, expressing many interrela- 
tions and greatly increasing numbering capacity. 1 But these new simbols 

1 For expressing these ideas in terms of pure decimal notation, refer to Supplementary Table 2 following 
Relativ index 


ar tho't by many too complex for ordinary shelf or catalog use, tho 25 
years use by I I B with unskild clerks h:is proved that this objection is 
more fear than result of fair tryal. They ar givn here broadly for personal 
notes of specialists and other close clasifyers, to whom their vast practical 
advantages wil strongly appeal, and as a key to notation on 1 1 B bibliografic 
cards. Elaborate details and explanations ar in Classification dlcimale, 
Brussels, 1905, of which a new edition is announst for 1927. Obviusly 
these simbols allow subdivision of the same number in many different 
ways without confuzion. 

The most important of these devices ar j Relation syn and 6 Place syn 
and their use in libraries where they hav been tryd has proved that it is 
entirely practicabl, even for marking books. 

The wide and ever-growing ranje of application of certain subjects 
makes it imposibl to subdivide satisfactorily by assyning definit numbers, 
but use of colon to show relation between 2 subjects provides an automatic 
method which can be uzed with any subject for unlimited subdivision. 
(For ilustration see note under 150 Sykolojy.) 

Use of ( ) round a local number provides an automatic method of local 
subdivision for any subject, as there may be need in an individual library, 
while the simbol shows instantly the local nature of the subdivision. 

1 Accretion syn + This simplest of simbols, equivalent to ' and '» 
indicates exactly what it sugjests, that the articl so numberd treats of all 
subject numbers connected by + ; e. g. 637 + 614.32 a work concerning 
dairies and also on inspection of dairy products. 

2 Cupling syn - This is uzed for cupling to a subject a series of sub- 
divisions common to a group of subjects, as 400 Filolojy (e.g. 45-3 Italian 
dictionary, 45-4 Italian sinonims, 45-5 Italian grammar; 46-3 Spanish 
dictionary, 46-4 Spanish sinonims, 46-5 Spanish grammar), 800 Literature 
(85-3 Italian fiction, 85-4 Italian essays, 85-5 Italian oratory; 86-3 
Spanish fiction, 86-4 Spanish essays, 86-5 Spanish oratory), 546 Inorganic 
chemistry (546.51-3 Oxids of led, 546.51-4 Sulfid of led, 546.51-5 
Chlorid of led; 546.56-3 Oxids of copper, 546.56-4 Sulfid of copper, 
546.56-5 Chlorid of copper; 546.57-3 Oxids of silver, 546.57-4 Sulfid 
of silver, 546.57-5 Chlorid of silver). It shud, however, be uzed only 
where such use is specificly mentiond in the Tables, as confuzion wud 
otherwize result. This syn is so similar to that commonly uzed for ' to 
and including ' that when it is uzed with Institut meaning it is 
advizabl to uze word ' to ' for the other meaning. 

3 Relation syn : This is most useful simbol of all, as it involvs no 
chanje of number except omission of final o by those preferring shortest 
form. It indicates merely that subjects so connected ar considerd in rela- 
tion to each other, thus affording means of expressing almost limitless inter- 
relations: e. g. ethics in relation to fine arts is 17:7 (or, better, in ful 170: 
700). Vice versa, art in its ethical aspect is 7:17 (or 700:170); order of 



numbers before and after colon depending on emfasis, or on subject with 
which they ar to be arranjed. 

4 Form syn (o) Form or jeneralities ar exprest by a parenthetic 
number beginning with o. This is further subdivided as follows: 

(o:) Form simbol; e.g. 335(0:843) means Socialism treated in form of a 
French novel. 

(00) Subdivisions peculiar to a subject; e. g. for history it means sources. 
It is further subdivided and in sum cases modifyd by a hyfend figure; 
e. g. 9(44) (001-3) means Catalog of official sources of French history, 
(001) meaning official sources and -3 meaning catalogs, indexes, lists etc. 

(01) -(oo) ar the same as our regular form numbers 01-09. Obviusly we 
can not replace our long establisht simpl form numbers by sumthing 
so much more complex that it is impracticabl for shelf use. 

5 Universality syn 00 The mathematical syn of infinity is uzed with 
place and time syns to mean ' Without limitation ' : with place syn 
(see 6 below) it means 1 including all places ', e. g. 9 ( 00 ) History of all 
cun tries; with time syn (see 8 below) it means ' covering all periods ', 
e - g- 9 ( 00 ) " 00 " History of all cuntries at all times. 

6 Place syn (3)— (9) These replace our regular cuntry subdivisions 
found in 930-999, but do not conflict, as I I B merely leavs D C 930-999 
vacant, and writes History of France 9(44) insted of 944. Other auxiliary 
place numbers indicating jeneral rejion, direction, jeolojic place, prehistoric 
time, etc. ar also provided in place curvs. 

7 Languaj syn = This syn preceding languaj numbers as found 
in 400 Filolojy, indicates subdivision by languaj; e. g. 523.5=9185 means 
a work on meteors, in Polish, 91.85 being filolojy number for Polish 
languaj in 400. 

8 Time syn " " Numbers denoting time division ar writn in quotes. 
I I B skeme givs an elaborate time-division sistem based on exact dates ; 
e. g. " 1922. 12. 11 ", meaning year 1922, 12th month, nth day. 

9 Jeneral points of view syn 00 Each of the following numbers for 
point of view (except 005) has also a series of subdivisions: 

001 Speculativ: idea, purpose, plan etc. 

002 Realization : execution, construction etc. 

003 Economic: industrial production, cost and sale prices, etc. 

004 Servis and use: workings, administration 

005 Equipment and apparatus 

006 Bildings and establishments : details of organization and servis 

007 Special personnel 

10 A to Z Alfabetic arranjement by name of person, place or thing is 
indicated according to circumstances by initial or whole name. 



Sequence of these simbols in clas number may be varid by uzers to 
produce any special arranjement wisht, but unless distinct notis of this 
is givn, sequence is arbitrary in the following order: 

( ) " » = : - A-Z 
e. g. 9(44)" 1 7 " = 2 History of France in 18th century, writn in English 

Other uses 

Tho this sistem was devized 1st for library catalog and shelf arranje- 
men t , 54 years hav developt many new applications. Nearly every adminis- 
trativ department feels directly the great economy, and in every field 
of literary activity this clasification has been found a great laborsaver, 
whose practical usefulness has exceeded the most sanguin hopes of its erly 

Bookstores The plan is a great convenience to both dealers and 
customers, when applyd to miscelaneus stole. Very often a much wanted 
book, specialy if not recently publisht, is reported ' not in stok ', when D C 
arranjement by subject wud hav reveald its place at once. Specialists 
often find on shelvs books they wud never hav orderd, but ar glad to 
by after examination. Experience proves it profitabl for a dealer to 
arranje his books so each person may find what he is interested in without 
examining entire stok. 

Offis files A great file of papers is like a library in miniature. Experi- 
ence the world over proves that while alfabetic and numeric sistems ar 
invaluabl for many purposes, complete usefulness demands close clasing 
as material grows. The best plan is to combine simplicity of numeric and 
utility of clast as in this Decimal Clasification and Relativ Index uzed 
by most libraries. The simplest posibl printed index of 43,000 heds tels 
instantly by what number to mark or to find any paper. Insurance is 
markt 368. This means: clas 3, Sociolojy; division 6, Associations and 
institutions; section 8, Insurance. Fire insurance is 1st subdivision, so 
every paper about fire insurance is markt 368.1 and goes in the drawer in 
numeric order, where it can instantly be found thru the printed Index. 

54 years use in a score of cuntries has proved this numeric sistem, with 
its Relativ Index, a marvelus laborsaver. Clasification is a necesity if 
all material on any givn subject is to be redily found. The labor of making 
one's own clasification is uzualy prohibitiv, if wel dun. By adopting the 
skeme in jeneral use by libraries this labor is saved and numbers ar in 
harmony with those of thousands of other catalogs and indexes in which 
the same number has the same meaning; for, as pointed out at a recent 
international congress, these numbers ar the only international languaj 
of perfectly definit meaning amung all civilized nations; and also cheapest 
and quickest in application. 

A successful man is uzualy a clasifyer and chartmaker. This applys as 
much to modern business as to syence or libraries. Hyer education differs 



from elementary in studying not mere facts, but their relations to all other 
facts. Alex. Bain wizely said ' to lern to clasify is in itself an education '. 
The man of much business or affairs must study every problem in its mani- 
fold relations; i. e. must clasify and make charts of his results. Without 
these he is like a sailor in stranje waters, sooner or later shiprekt unless 
he uzes charts to find safe channels as wel as to avoid roks and shoals. 
A larj business or work unclasifyd or uncharted is not a worthy organiza- 
tion but mere material from which a clever brain may construct one. It 
differs in efficiency from the ideal as a mob of men differs from a wel dis- 
ciplind army. Piles of brik and mortar ar not a tempi any more than heaps 
( f typ ar Shakspere's works, tho if ' clasifyd ' and set, each in ryt relation 
to the rest, the transformation is bro't about. 

Scrapbooks The plan has proved the best for keeping newspaper 
clippings. Uze manila sheets of uniform size (we find 20x25cm best) 
Write clas number of subject in uzual place on paje, and mount clippings 
on sheets as in a common scrapbook. These sheets ar arranjed 
numericly like a clast card catalog, sheets of each clas being further arranjed, 
when desirabl, under alfabetic subheds. When one sheet is ful, insert 
another at the exact place. Thus perfect clasification is kept up without 
blank sheets, and at smallest outlay of money and trubl. Scraps thus 
mounted ar shelvd either in manila pamflet cases or in patent binders, 
or ar kept in vertical files. 

Index rerums These ar best made on standard P size (7.5x12.5cm) 
cards or slips. Lyt weight catalog card stok is best for private indexes, 
etc. It costs only § as much as hevy bristol, takes only f room, and 
handls eazily. 

Where durability and convenience of handling ar les important than 
cheapness uze common hevy writing paper. Novises often greatly diminish 
usefulness of the card sistem by uzing ordinary machine-cut cards or slips 
varying in hy t so much as to make quik and accurate manipulation imposibl. 
Extreme variation to be tolerated is 1 mm or inch. This wil be under- 
stood by placing a 7.4cm card between two 7.5cm cards. In rapid turning, 
fingers make a brij across taller cards and mis the lower one entirely. 
Cards must be accurately cut or they lose half their value and in many 
cases necesitate recopying material at a cost 10-fold greater than to hav 
thrown away imperfectly cut cards or slips at the outset. 

Clas number is writn in upper left corner, any alfabetic subject hed fol- 
lows at ryt, and notes fil card below. Cards ar then filed in order of clas 
numbers, the cards of each clas being further arranjed like scrap sheets, 
according to any alfabetic subheds. 

Paper the size of scrap sheets, 20x25cm, arranjed and stored the same way 
may be uzed insted of cards. This has the advantaj of a ful letter paje in 
syt at once, and holds over 5 times as much as card. While the sistem can 
be applyd to slips or sheets of any size, there ar literaly hundreds of acces- 



sories and conveniences exactly adapted to these 2 sizes, which ar uzed 
much more than all others combined; so it is folly to begin on another 
size, and lose the advantajes of this uniformity. If intermediate sizes 
must be had, the best ar Billet 10x15cm, Note 12.5x20cm, and Ms 15x25cm. 
Often uzers of sum other size finaly find it profitabl to chanje to either 
P, 7.5x12.5, or to L, 20x25cm, even at cost of rewriting many notes. 

After 50 years use of P size, countless millions of cards ar in catalogs 
and indexes in scores of cuntries, so it wud be quite imposibl to chanje 
from 7.5x12.5cm. But recent study and experiments hav shown that 
sheet or room proportions ar most pleazing in ratio of 1 to square root of 
2, or about 5 to 7, i. e. ratio of the side of an equal-side triangl to its 
hypotenuse. An immense practical advantaj is that this is the only 
ratio where continuus halving givs always the same ideal proportion. 
This results in markt economy in cutting sizes from larj standard sheets. 
The favorit letter sheet is 19x27cm. This fits most vertical and other 
files. We now uze it insted of 20x25 an d 15x25. Half this size is a 
pleazing small quarto, 13.5x19, and its quarter is a very convenient 
pocket size, 9.5x13.5cm. These replace our old Note and Billet sizes. 

Note books ar best in loos-leaf form. A much poorer method is to take 
a bound blank book, and assyn clas numbers in order, giving about the 
space it is tho't each wil require, and, when pajes so assynd ar ful, note at 
bottom where rest of the material may be found. This has all objections 
of old fixt location as compared to relativ, and wil hardly be adopted by 
any person who has ever seen loos-leaf simplicity and economy. 

Scores of devices for convenient handling and storing of these slips and 
sheets and of pamflets ar manufactured. The ful descriptiv and ilustrated 
catalogs of Library Bureau giv details. 

Topical indexes Clas numbers ar uzed to index books red. Simpl 
numbers take the place of a series of words, and results can be handld, 
arranjed and found much quicker. Such entries may be kept separate or 
combined with index rerums. 

Advantajes for making topical indexes of colected works, periodicals, 
transactions etc. wil be evident to every indexer or librarian. These 
consolidated indexes may be arranjed together with the card catalog of 
the books, or by themselvs, as seems best in each case. 

These ar only a few of the sistem's varid applications. Enuf hav been 
mentiond to show its wide adaptability to wants of librarian, student and 
business man. 


There is growing use by specialists who wish very detaild tables of their 
own subjects, but only so much else as wil show perspectiv of these sub- 
jects in the jeneral skeme and provide for broad clasification of other 
material on the same plan. As fast as demand wil cover expenses, any 
subject elaborated wil be publisht separately with jeneral explanation, 

4 6 


directions for use, 3-figure tables for other subjects, and ful index; e. g. 
normal skool libraries specializing on education wil want the elaborate 
370 skeme but may not need to carry clasification of other subjects beyond 
3 figures; electric enjineers may hav no use for 370, but wil need all details 
of 621.3, with only 3 figures for other subjects. 

This brief account has probably faild to meet sum objections which 
may be raizd and could eazily be anserd. 

Tho much elaborated and in sum few points alterd, the essential caracter 
of the plan has remaind unchanjed from the first. Revision and expansion 
constantly in progress involv many new interrelations. As extensi v advance 
testing of new skemes is not always posibl, practical applications ar sure 
to develop unnotist faults. Clasifyers ar therefore askt to uze new tables 
criticaly and report defects of any kind, with proposed remedies and any 
needed subdivisions, also any heds needed for the Index. All such criticizms 
ar a decided help and favor. 


The labor on Clasification and Index has been wholy beyond apprecia- 
tion of any who hav never attempted a similar task. 

In his varid reading, correspondence and conversation on the subject, 
the author has doutless recievd many sugjestions and gaind ideas which it 
is now imposibl for him specificly to aknowlej. The Nuovo sistema di 
catalogo bibliografico generate of Natale Battezzati, of Milan, adopted by 
the Italian publishers in 187 1, tho he copid nothing from it, more than 
any other singl sistem stimulated his study of the problem. The plan of 
the St Louis Public School Library and that of the Apprentices' Library 
of New York, which in sum respects resembld his own, wer not seen til 
all essential features wer decided on, tho not givn to the public. In filling 
the 9 clases of the skeme, the inverted Baconian arranjement of the St 
Louis Library was followd. The author has no wish to claim orijinal inven- 
tion for any part of his sistem where another has been before him, and wud 
gladly make specific aknowlejment of every aid and sugjestion wer it in 
his power. Tho at its start a litl book, it came not forth except by 
grievus labor. 

Much valuabl aid has been renderd by specialists, who hav assisted 
greatly in developing tables. Amung these ar many wel-known skolars, 
and to all most cordial aknowlejment is made. Without such assist- 
ance, the present development cud not hav been attaind, for many 
minds wer necesary to supply teknical and special lerning absolutely 
essential in filling minute heds. Indeed, in many subjects the author's 
share has been limited to modification necesary for teknical adjustment 
to his skeme, of material prepared by specialists. To many prominent 
librarians we ar indetted for valuabl sugjestions and appreciativ criticizm. 


4 7 

While these frends ar in no way responsibl for any remaining imperfections, 
they shud hav credit for many improvements made in these 54 years 
of revision, during the 1st 3 of which the skeme was kept in manuscript, 
that its many details myt be subjected to actual tryal, and modifyd where 
improvement was found practicabl. 

We ar under deep obligation to Institut International de Biblio- 
graphic for its great volume of valuabl work, covering almost the whole 
ranje of subjects, and also for its advice and criticizm during progress of 
our own expansions. To Dr C W Andrews, John Crerar librarian, 
Chicago, and to American Library Association clasification committee, of 
which for past 10 years he has been chairman, we ar greatly indetted 
for interest and advice. 

W S Biscoe From 1st publication to the present, the most extended 
and valued assistance has cum from my colej clasmate, associate and 
frend, Walter Stanley Biscoe, my 1st assistant in Amherst College 
Library, in charj of which he succeeded me, resyning to accept again in 
1883 the place next me in Columbia College Library, and again resyning in 
1889 to becum librarian in charj of clasification and catalogs in New York 
State Library. This book is witness to the rare unselfishness with which 
he has givn time taken from rest and recreation to this work, in which 
he shared my interest and faith. 

May Seymour Except a year in charj of clasification in the Osterhout 
Library she was with me 34 years, from her entrance to the 1st Library 
School clas in 1887 til her deth, June 14, 1921. At New York State Library, 
clasification was her department til she was made director's assistant. 
For 32 years every item of work on new editions past thru her hands. 
For each of editions 4-10 she did all editorial and much constructiv work, 
secured expert cooperation, cald attention to faults or omissions, and 
sought the best availabl compromize where doctors disagreed, devoting 
to this vast labor rare skolarly industry and a loyalty for which no words 
of thanks can be adequate. She shared my faith in its immense usefulness, 
did the hardest work, and deservs the gratitude of all who profit by this 
in valuabl laborsaver. I often askt that her name appear on the title-pa je 
of the book to which she gave so much, but she persistently refuzed. 

Her place as editor was taken by one of her own choosing, Dorcas 
Fellows, who more than anyone else had workt closely with Mis Seymour 
for 25 years, and who wil giv future editions the benefit of cumulativ 
experience in which she so larjly shared. D C uzers ar congratulated 
that Mis Seymour's position is held by the one whom she herself chose 
as best adapted to carry on her work. For 5 years past her hedquarters 
hav been in New York State Library at Albany, which has long been 
regarded by many as D C's library home, but recent developments in 
relations of American Library Association, Library of Congress and 
Decimal Clasification hav resulted in an invitation from L C to D C 
to make its home henceforth at that Library, where, most appropriately, 



D C's servis to American libraries, which is the chief f.-ictor in its work, 
wil be coordinated with undertakings previusly install by the national 
library, extending stil further the latter's alredy great servises to the 
libraries of the cuntry at larj. 

Future of D C 

Mis Seymour had a stedily growing wish to make D C a permanent 
force for education, by greatly improving its ful, short and outline edi- 
tions, and by printing cheap special editions (indext) for many prominent 
divisions; e.g. education, medicin. enjineering, agriculture. As a memorial 
to her, all copyryts and control of all editions hav been givn to Lake 
Placid Club Education Foundation, in establishing which she had been 
warmly and activly interested, and which was charterd by the University 
of the State of New York, Jan. 26, 1922, with these objects: 

' as an educational institution, to restore to helth and educational 
efficiency teachers, librarians and other educators of moderate means, who 
hav becum incapacitated by overwork; to establish, maintain and aid 
skools, libraries or other educational institutions, specialy at Lake Placid ; 
and to institute, organize or foster other movements to advance public 
welfare thru education, by means of the Foundation pres, conferences, 
forums, addresses, gyded reading, and similar ajencies '. 

To this Foundation was at once givn all voting stok and surplus of 
Lake Placid Co. which owns the 10,000 akers and 391 bildings of Lake 
Placid Club, thus assuring permanent financial support, which has alredy 
been further increast by gifts and bequests from interested f rends. Under 
Foundation auspices future editions of D C wil be publisht, on absolute 
condition that entire reciets abuv necesary expenses be uzed forever 
solely for improving D C and extending its usefulness, thereby preventing 
posibility that the work shud ever be made a source of either individual 
or institution profit. A committee on D C, consisting of the most 
interested Foundation trustees, in consultation with committees of Ameri- 
can Library Association and Institut International de Bibliographic, 
wil insure observance of the abuv condition. 

D C has becum an international laborsaver. It therefore justly belongs 
to its uzers as a whole. All who contribute to the stedy improvement 
of future editions may kno that they ar helping to make stil more useful 
a sistem which is so greatly helping stedily increasing thousands scatterd 
all over the civilized world. 

Melvil Dewey 

Lake Placid Club N Y 
Dec. 10, 1926 

Previus editions hav been dated Amherst College Library, June 10, 
1876; Columbia College Library, Aug. 10, 1885, and Aug. 30, 1888; New 
York State Library, Dec. 25, 1890; Lake Placid Club, Ap. 10, 1911, Ap. 
10, 1913, Oct. 1, 1915, Aug. 11, 1919, and Aug. 31, 1922. 



'Uzers of the Decimal Clasification ar entitled to kno why the author 
feels compeld to recognize practicaly the urjent claims for reform in 
English speling, by adopting enuf of many needed chanjes to call everv 
reader's attention to the crying situation. 

Many wil be annoyd and sum wil ridicule, but since 1872 I hav constantly 
studid, with very unuzual opportunities, the need and practicability of 
this reform. From its founding in 1876 at the Philadelphia Centennial, 
I hav been secretary of the Speling Reform Association. I servd several 
years on the advizory committee on speling and pronunciation for our 
greatest and best English dictionary, the Standard. While executiv 
offiser of the University of the State of New York, which has charj of all 
hyer education, I uzed my great opportunities for studying relations of 
speling to education. As a trustee and on its Executiv Board I hav shared 
activly from its orijin in Simplifyd Speling Board work, to which Andrew 
Carnegie gave (up to his deth) $10,000 to $25,000 yearly to spred correct 
knowlej about English speling and the great need for its improvement. 
I also servd on the National Education Association committee which, 
jointly with committees of the American Filolojic Association and Modern 
Languaj Association, during 10 years careful study made the key alfabet 
now uzed in the entire series of Standard dictionaries and in all books 
based on them. I was president of the Efficiency Socyety and also of the 
National Institute of Efficiency, and chairman of the committee of each on 
1 Efficiency in English writn and spokn '. It is therefore not an advocate 
of a new fad who speaks, but one who has for over 50 years kept in tuch, 
personaly and by correspondence, with others studying this matr, not 
only in many American states but also in Canada, Great Britain, India 
and Australia, and with many in non-English speaking cuntries. 

In the past h century the most competent jujes hav cum to almost 
unanimus agreement as to imperativ need for radical improvement. On 
this point great universities, editors of all great dictionaries, leading edu- 
cators of the English world, and recognized leaders amung students of 
English all agree. It has been publicly stated in larj meetings of languaj 
skolars that there was no recognized authority on English living who did 
not now belie v in the urjent need of speling reform. 

But as to the best method, there ar 3 skools with their varius combi- 
nations. All agree that there is only 1 entirely satisfactory goal; i.e. 
just i distinct syn for each of 40 distinct sounds, and just 1 sound for each 
of these 40 syns. But we now hav over 500 simbols or combinations 
to represent these 40 sounds. 1 Shay ' has only 2 simpl sounds. The 

See note on spelling of Ed 14 on back of titic-page 

( .10) 


sh is speld in 20 ways and the a in 24 ways; i.e. this simpl word of only 
3 sounds may be speld 480 ways in exact analojy with other English 
spelings. Webster's Dictionary says Shakspere's name was speld 30 ways; 
the Mainwaring family records sho 130 variations in their name; 
and A. J. Ellis made over 6000 spelings of ' scissors ', all justifyd by dic- 
tionary analojies. Booker Washington told me that they wud not graduate 
from Tuskegee one who cud not spel and pronounce correctly this sentence : 
' Though the rough cough and hiccough plough me through I ought to 
cross the lough '. We markt agenst each letr all the different ways of 
pronouncing it in English. By simpl permutation this showed over 
16,000,000 ways in which this sentence cud be pronounst. Then we markt 
agenst each sound all the different ways of speling it and proved that there 
wer 66 decillion (66,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) ways of 
speling the sentence, each justifyd by analojy. Yet he was soliciting 
money to teach those poor colord students just which of this infinit yaryety 
must be uzed, before he cud graduate. 

One group believs in ading 6 new consonants for ch, ng, sh, zh, th and dh, 
and 1 1 new vowels; for as c, q and x duplicate s, k, kw and £5 or gz we hav 
only 23 letrs toward the 40 needed in a perfect English alfabet. These 
letrs wud then be uzed with as invariabl meanings as arabic numerals 
and we shud be rid of varius devices for expressing sounds for which we 
hav no distinctiv letr; e.g. for the word ' fyn ' we ad e to ' fin ' and say 
that ' servil e ' is silent where writn, but means that the i in erlier part of 
word is not i, but the difthong ai, combined of the sounds of a in ' ar ' 
and i in ' it '. This is exactly analogus to writing 4537 and saying that 
7 is silent but means that the 5 is realy 9, so the number is 493. We 
ar so uzed to these absurdities that we recognize their folly only when 
translating them into an exactly similar case with arabic numerals. 

When these wer introduced into English the identical arguments put 
forward today agenst syentific speling wer urjd agenst the stranje arab 
caracters. Men said, ' Every child knows at a glance that V is five, but 
who cud understand »»>? ' which they printed lying on its face. 

No one questions that complete reform is best. Most skolars, however, 
think it impracticabl to do it all at once except amung a limited clas, 
becauz of difficulty of introducing new letrs on typwriters and for printers. 
We hav evolvd i, j and y from 1 letr, and u, v and w from v, and skolars 
say we shal in time, in same way, evolv the other new letrs needed. 

The Simplifyd Speling Socyety of Great Britain attempts to solv the 
problem without any new letrs by uzing digrafs, as we hav alredy dun 
for ch, ng, sh and th. This has the advantaj that every typwriter and 
printer is fully equipt for new speling. It has the great disadvantaj that 
it lengthnS many words and offends the eye much more than new letrs. 
It is es absurd to use c and h to represent a sound which has neither c nor h 
in it as it wud be to uze 74 to represent 5. 


The Simplifyd Speling Board (American), supported by Andrew Carnegie 
til his deth and now working on its own resources, decided that the most 
practical plan was to list a limited number of most needed chanjcs, to urj 
for immediate jeneral adoption, thus expediting the stedy growth toward 
syentific speling shown by the history of English. This method is eaziest 
but involvs glaring inconsistencies; e.g. it drops i of dubl consonants final 
in most cases, speling mis, dol, tel, but leavs all, roll, hiss, off becauz they 
wud be mispronounst by most peopl if shortnd. 

i word is speld perfectly like ' fel ', perhaps the next is improved in only 
i silabl like ' acquisitiv ', and the next may be worst of the 3 and not chanjed 
at all becauz we lak necesary new letrs, e.g ' functioning'. S S S (English) 
is consistent, for it spels each word foneticly, and this entire consistency 
appeals to sum so much that they endure longer awkward forms. S S B 
(American) offends the eye much les and shortns nearly every word it 
chanjes, but has the fault of incompleteness. 

The 5 reazons for speling reform ar: 

1 Disgrace of having what experts agree is the most illojical, unsyentific, 
unskolarly and altogether worst speling of any languaj in the world. 
While this greatly discredits the peopl that hav becum greatest in all 
history, it is least of the 5 reazons. 

2 Criminal waste of money Careful count of many English selections 
shows that 15% or 1/7 of the letrs wud be saved by strictly syentific spel- 
ing. This means waste of 1/7 total cost of everything connected with 
writing or printing English: stationery, time, composition, proofreading, 
paper, ink, preswork, binding, transportation. Not only ar these countless 
billions wasted each year, but there is enormus waste of time in hesitating as 
to ryt speling, consulting dictionaries, interrupting train of tho't, which 
fairly translated into money makes a staggering total. 

3 Criminal waste of skool time A committee of expert educators, 
after munths of consideration, agreed that on the skool life of a child going 
from kindergarten to university we cud save 3 years if we cud eliminate 
speling books and everything connected with them, as is dun in completely 
fonetic cuntries, where speling is merely pronouncing a word letr by letr, 
so anyone can spel if he can speak. This waste is not alone in speling clases, 
for in all other studies speling is a continual handicap and wastes time 
not only in skool days but all thru life. 

4 Adling brains Any student of child sykolojy knows that one cud 
hardly devize a more dedning process to a normal >prain than to teach 
such words as bone, done, gone; love, move, rove; lose, dose; or, worst of all, 
Though the rough cough and hiccough plough me through I ought to cross t'te 
lough. If the brain works normaly the child surely pronounces the vowels 
of the later words like the 1st. If 'though' is 'tho', surely 'rough' 
is 'ro' and 'cough' is 'co'. Long before he reaches the 8th word he is 



redy to believ any absurd thing that is told him, and finds in English it 
is a matr of personal introduction to each individual word before there is 
any safety as to how it may be speld or pronounst. Ex-president Hill, 
of Harvard University, declared that no man ever had or ever cud spel 
and pronounce every word of English correctly, as it was beyond human 
posibility to becum intimate enuf with all the 2 million words in the latest 

An associate city superintendent of skools in New York says : 
' Next to lerning by imitation, the child must be taut to lern by associa- 
tion and analojy. He develops strength of mind by exercize of jujment. 
He must reazon from known facts in the solution of his litl problems. If 
he cums to a new printed word and halts, the teacher asks him to think of 
the oral word for which it stands. Having lernd that ' puff ' and ' muff ' 
stand for wel-known oral words, he is staggerd at 'rough' and 'enough', 
frequently uzed in conversation. Having lernd that these caracters stand for 
wel-known spokn words which he wrote 'ruff' and 'enuff' from hisknowlej 
of ' puff ' and ' muff ' he is again confuzed when the teacher tels him that 
' dough ' is the speling of the wel-known word his mother uzes when 
speaking about bred-making, and that ' cough ' stands for the malady so 
prevalent in the nursery during winter time. 

The staje of the child's tuition during which all the similar incongruities 
of our speling must be masterd, occupys many years of skool life, and 
the process has wel-ny produced a disbelief in reazon as a means of lerning , 
and a total lak of confidence in inference. The result of falling into absurd 
and ridiculus situations thru exercize of his jujment appears in a hesi- 
tancy or fear of drawing any inferences upon data relating to other fields 
of knowlej. The child has lost faith in his own conclusions with respect 
to problems in arithmetic, biolojy, jeografy, history etc. To what extent 
of subject matr and time the skool child has sufferd irreparabl los, by 
failure to aquire confidence in exercize of his jujment as a result of his 
erly stultification during process of lerning to master speling of common 
words, may never be determind.' 

5 English as world languaj Except for its scandalusly complex spel- 
ing, English is betr fitted than any other languaj for universal use. It 
is practicaly grammarless. Pedants hav sadld us with an adaptation of 
Latin grammar which is almost useless. English has strength, simplicity, 
conciseness, capacity for taking words freely from other tungs, and best 
of all has the greatest literature the world has yet produced. Great 
German filolojists hav said ' it is lucky for the rest of Europe that the 
English do not realize that only its absurd speling stands between their 
languaj and erly world empire '. If we chek over the past 5 centuries 
the growth of English is astounding. Once Portuguese with its great- 
Brazilian cuntry had sum chance, or Spanish with South America, but 
French came to be the languaj of diplomacy and more than any other 
the world languaj. Each century Germany, with its hy birth rate, gaind 
rapidly, and it soon past France. Russia with its countless millions came in 
as a leading competitor, but each century the most significant and remarkabl 



growth was English. Long it was English, German, French; then 
English, German, Russian. The World war sadly handicapt all other com- 
petitors just when it greatly improved the position of English. 3/5 of the 
world's business mail is now in our languaj and this ratio grows yearly. 
Recent prominent French jurnals hav frankly publisht to their peopl the 
need for every Frenchman to lern English beeauz it was alredy the world's 
business languaj and rapidly growing. The far-syted Carnegie made his 
great gifts for simplifyd speling for 2 chief reazons. He had givn the Peace 
Palace at the Hague, and recognized that a common tung was the greatest 
protection agenst war. His study of history taut him that race, color, 
relijion and jeografic location had les influence than a common tung in 
binding peopl together. Our fraze, 1 He doesn't speak the same languaj ', 
indicates hopelessness of agreement. He knew that no force wud contribute 
so much to world peace as spred of a common tung. He knew that this 
wud carry Anglo-Saxon ideals of liberty and tolerance thruout the world. 
The canny Scot knew also that it wud do more than all else combined 
to extend and strengthn our commerce. 

Can anyone not blind to human welfare face these undouted facts 
and not feel bound to help on wherever practicabl a reform that many 
educators and publicists recognize as more important and as having more 
far-reaching results for America and the world than any other? The 
solution to most of our social problems lyz not in legislation and police, but 
in education of the masses so that they wil kno and prefer the ryt. Such 
education must be chiefly thru reading, for the great mas of peopl can be 
in skool only long enuf to lem to take from the printed paje the author's 
meaning. Their real education must be not in the few skool days in youth, 
but all thru life and cuming chiefly from reading books, magazines and 
papers. Those who believ in working for a betr world must see that the 
1st great step is to take from the path of education this greatest stumbling 
blok, for our speling not only wastes millions of years for every jeneration, 
but dedns and dwarfs childhood's brain by its gross absurdities. Can 
anyone not a selfish moral coward, knowing these facts, refuze to help 
get rid of the incubus by uzing at least a few of the shortr, betr forms in 
his own writing? 

Disregard of pedants rules Thomas Jefferson said ' Where strictness 
of grammar does not weakn expression it shud be attended to, but where 
by small grammatical neglijences the enerjy of an idea is condenst or a 
word stands for a sentence, I hold grammatical rigor in contempt '. 

Study of the past 5 centuries shows how greatly English has been 
simplifyd and improved and how absurd is the frequent comment of those 
ignorant of the life history of English that ' languaj can't be chanjed by 
conscius efforts of its uzers '. Of thousands of improvements made in 
the last 500 years every one was uzed 1st by sumone who saw the need 
and had the moral curaj to be a pyoneer and disregard rules of pedants of 



his day. The greatest need of the English world is to simplify its languaj, 
specialy in speling, so it may be uzed by all nations. It is disgrace to be 
blind to the facts or to be too cowardly to uze sum at least of the needed 
chanjes and so risk criticizm or ridicule of the ignorant. The great func- 
tion of English is to convey author's tho't clearly and compactly to reader's 

Arabic figures ar the simplest simbols known to man. It is silly to 
write out ' eighty-eight ' or ' LXXXVIII ' for the simbol 88, or to 
write ' three hundred seventy-eight ' with 24 letrs when 378 is 1/8 as long 
and vastly clearer. Modern pressure for space and economy has led many 
prominent jurnals to substitute figures for words, but most of them stil 
fear the silly pedants dictum that figures must not begin a sentence. But 
figures ar winning their way, specialy in hedings, and our descendants wil 
wonder at our stupidity which so long prevented ful use of 1 of the world's 
greatest laborsavers. It is like continuing wigwag signals after invention 
of telefone and wireless. 

37 years ago I advocated dropping useless al from academical, grafical 
etc. Persistent use was copid by others til now many of our best writers 
avoid the foolish al and get stronger as wel as shortr words. When ading 
adverbial ly we shud stil omit al and say graficly, academicly etc. In fact 
very few peopl pronounce the aj in common speech. If we adopt Thomas 
Jefferson's standard we shud expedite greatly many needed improvements 
in our great mother tung. 

Consistency This is the hobgoblin bugbear of litl minds. If a printer 
sets typs which realy shud be omitted or chanjed we often avoid expense of 
correction; for consistency with other spelings is les important than to 
1 ireak down by combined efforts of skolars and men of affairs the immense 
and stubborn, pedantic, foolish prejudis which sees sumthing sacred in 
the common speling of a word, while it thinks litl of constant variations 
in its pronunciation. Many who wud gladly help the cauz ar too busy 
with larj affairs to spend time in looking up rules. They shud simply 
spel betr whenever they think of it and not be trubld if on the next paje 
they forget to simplify. Hav Thomas Jefferson's curaj and hold pedantic 
consistency in contempt. 

Conciseness We shud uze shortest forms of expression consistent 
with clearness. The 2d forms belo ar as much stronger and betr as they 
ar shortr : 

this has been found to be an encurajment to good work — this 

encurajes good work 
extend an invitation — invite 
take into consideration — consider 
the purchase of — bying 
purchasing ajent — byer 
a larj number of — many 



due to the fact that — becauz 
sum of $10,000 — $10,000 
in a prudent manner — prudently 
put in an appearance — appear 

the twenty-eighth day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand 

eight hundred and ninety-nine — 28 May 1899 ^jg vs 9 typs) 
it is often the case that authors fail — authors often fail 
giv the boundaries of — bound 

Can it be dun? Absurd spelings like old 'fysshe' and 'dogge' for 
'fish' and 'dog' ar slufing off useless letrs as a tadpole loses its tail, or as 
scum rizes from boiling sap in a maple orchard. Samuel Johnson in 1755 
printed a dictionary which greatly delayd this natural process. Uzing 
neither rime nor reazon he embalmd in a book, with the weight of his 
great name, simply the usaj of London printing offises, which wer run 
almost wholy by Dutch and German printers, many of whom knew no 
English. He laid down as a sacred law, ' U phill with 2 Is' but 'downhil 
with 1', and endless similar absurdities, at which we laf, but we hav made 
'downhill' as difficult as his 'uphill' and stil look askance at one who spels 
'til' as he does 'until'. Our greatest filolojist, William D Whitney of 
Yale, editor Century dictionary, wrote to our 1876 International Conference 
on Speling Reform a concise statement which has been very often reprinted, 
and I think never questiond by any competent authority: 'The true and 
sole offis of alfabetic writing is correctly to represent spokn speech'. 
Writing is attempt to convey to 1 at a distance (either in space or time) 
what wud be spokn to 1 close at hand, and therefore writn word shud 
represent spokn word as exactly as posibl. 

Many chanjes wer merely corruptions resulting from slipshod pronuncia- 
tion and lai of accurate speling, which wud hav been a relyabl gyd. 
Always many chanjes ar inevitabl in any languaj, as its words and idioms 
gro, dy or chanje, in pronunciation, speling and meaning. To continue 
old spelings after words hav chanjed is as absurd as to continue old price 
quotations insted of following the market. Englishmen ar conservativ 
but we hav substituted ( tho only long after other nations) arabic numerals 
for the clumsy I, V, X, L, C, D, M; we hav a reazonabl and uniform way 
of writing music ; we ar soon (again last of civilized nations) to uze interna- 
tional metric mesures, thereby saving countless millions. Practical busi- 
ness wil not much longer endure the costly tirany of the \ educated and 
wholy unbusiness-like and inefficient pedant. So if the intelijent wil do 
their duty we shal expedite greatly the stedy growth of English toward 
simplicity, strength and efficiency. That infinitly desirabl process can 
be bro't about only by pyoneer adoptions by those who hav both knowlej 
of the great need and curaj to lead in a cauz bound to be unpopular with 
those ignorant of fonolojy and of the vitaly important reazons which hav 



compeld all dictionary makers and great English skolars to declare in 
favor of simpler speling. 

It is sumtimes askt why, if editors of the great dictionaries favor simpler 
speling, the dictionaries themselvs uze it so slytly (tho latest edition of 
Webster has 3000 more simpler forms). This anser is givn by the Stand- 
ard: 'The chief function of a dictionary is to record usaj, not, except in a 
limited degree, to seek to create it'. Consequently it is not til a word 
or form has made its way into sum what common acceptance that it can 
look for dictionary recognition. Other cases where the interest which 
<myt be expected seems to be lacking on part of simpathizers ar those of 
authors, educators and men of affairs, who, if left to folio their own juj- 
ment and preferences, wud gladly uze simpler spelings but who ar pre- 
vented from doing so by official connections or rules of their publishers. 


We print belo 7 of the best known codes, for convenient reference when 
one wishes to decide with what chanjes he wil start his betr speling. 
All wil doutless uze the 12 words and most wil be glad to adopt S S B 30 
words, chozen with great care by leading skolars as the best small beginning 
for the averaj man. These ar simply sampl words. S S B alfabetic 
rules represent expert jujment of distinguisht filolojists as to chanjes 
desirabl and practicabl to recommend for erly jeneral adoption. These 
ar followd by 18 rules, which comprize an erlier list and, forming the 
basis of the alfabetic list, larjly duplicate it but ar included here for 
convenience of those who wish a selection of the most important. A 
compact dictionary list of all English words coverd by S S B rules wil be 
sent on application. 

The 5th code is our D C rules, uzed in adition to S S B rules, by those 
willing to pyoneer stil faster. The 6th code, a selection from U S Jeografic 
Board rules, and the 7th, the 10 joint rules of American and English 
filolojists, ar aded for reference and to sho by repetition in different codes 
how closely the best authorities ar in harmony. 

To all governd by reazon rather than by vizual prejudis the objection 
to simpler speling that ' it looks queer 1 will be more than offset by the 
arguments, both skolarly and practical, in its favor; while those who 
shrink from uzing simpler forms thru fear of being regarded iliterate may 
find curaj thru knowing that the movement is supported by the most 
eminent flolojic authorities, and there wil be litl danjer that even the 
silliest of their correspondents wil bring the charj 'they don't kno how to 
speT, as result of their uzing simpler forms for such common and short 
words as ar, giv, hav, shal, wer and wil. 



N E A 12 words 

The National Education Association in 1898 adopted for use in all its 
official correspondence and printing the simplifyd spelings widely known 
as ' the 12 words ', catalog, decalog, demagog, pedagog, prolog, program, 
tho, altho, thoro, thorofare, thru, thruout. In 1916 it adopted rule to 
simplify ed to t when so pronounst, in past tenses of verbs. 

Simplifyd Speling Board 30 words 

This list was chozen with special reference to correspondence, and 
includes the 5 typ-words, catalog, program, tho, thoro, thru, of the 1 2 words 
adopted, as noted abuv, by the National Education Association in 1898, 
for use in all its official publications and correspondence. 










thoro (ly, -fare, etc.) 

anser (d) 




thru (out) 















S S B alfabetic rules 

ae, ce, initial or medial. Spel e; e.g. esthetic, medieval, fenix, maneuver, 
subpena ; but alumnae, striae etc. 

ae, ce ar now uzualy writn ae, oe. Other cases of ae, oe, medial, as in canoeist, 
Gaelic etc. ar not affected 

bt pronounst t. Drop silent b; e.g. det, dettor, dout, indetted, redout 

Retain b, if pronounst, in subtil(e) 
ch pronounst like c in car. Drop silent h except before e, i, y [or uze 

k]; e.g. caracter, clorid(e), corus, cronic, eco, epoc, mekanic> 

monarc, skolar, skool, stomac ; but architect, chemist, monarchy, 
or arkitect, monarky 
dubl consonant before e final silent. Drop last 2 letrs; e.g. bagatel, 

bizar, cigaret, creton, crevas, gavot, gazet, giraf, gram, program, 

quadril, quartet, vaudevil 
dubl consonant final. Reduce dubl to singl, but in -// only after a short 

vowel, and in -55 only in monosilabls ; e.g. ad, bil, bluf, buz, clas, 

dol, dul, eg, glas, les, los, mes, mis, pas, pres, shal, tel, wil, but 

not al for all, rol for roll, needles for needless, etc. 

Retain gross, hiss, off, puss 


e final silent. In the following cases drop e : 

a) After a consonant preceded by a short vowel strest; e.g. bad (bade), 

giv, hav, liv, centiped (when so pronounst) 

b) In ar(e), gon(e), and in wer(e) when not pronounst to rime with 

' there ' 

c) In the unstrest final short silabls ide, ile, ine, ise, ite, ive, pronounst 

as if speld id, il, in, is, it, iv; e.g. activ bromid, comparativ, definit, 
deterrnin, examin, favorit, hostil, infinit, iodin, nativ, opposit, positiv, 
practis, promis, textil 

This id, il, in, is, it, iv group shud be chanjed ist, as the long spelings constantly 
mislead to vulgar mispronunciations like posilyv, infinyl, favoryt etc. 

The ordinary use of e final after a singl consonant is to indicate that the preceding 
vowel has a pronunciation different from that which it wud normaly hav if the con- 
sonant in question wer final, as in bar, bare; hat, hate; her, here; them, theme; sir, 
sire; bid, bide; con, cone; run, rune. Hence the e final is retaind in such words as 
arrive, care, fine, mile, polite, ride, rode, and also in bromide, iodine etc., when pro- 
nounst with the i of line, side 

d) After lv and rv; e.g. involv, resolv, twelv, valv; carv, curv, 'deserv, 


e) After v or z when preceded by a digraf representing a long vowel or 

a dif thong; e.g. achiev, believ, freez, gauz, leav, sneez 

f) In oe final pronounst o; e.g. fo, ho, ro, to, wo 

Retain e in inflections -oed, -oes; as foes, not/os, hoed, not hod 

ea pronounst as in head or as in heart. Drop the silent letr; e.g. bred, 
brekfast, hed, helth, hevy, insted, lether, plesure, welth, wether; 
hart, harty, harth [except in case of derivativs where it wud clearly 
be betr that pronunciation be made to correspond to root word than 
that speling be made to correspond to present pronunciation; 
e.g. clean, cleanliness] 

ed final pronounst d. When the chanje wil not sugjest a wrong pro- 
nunciation, drop silent e, reducing a preceding dubl to a singl 
consonant; e.g. anserd, cald, carrid, delayd, cnployd, examind, 
fild, followd, marrid, pleasd, preferd, robd, signd, sneezd, 
struggld, traveld, worrid, wrongd; but n >t bribl for bribed, cand 
for caned; changd for changed, fild for filed, pried for priced, usd for 
used, etc. 

The e is retaind only in cases where it has by convention a diacritic use, to indicate 
a preceding long vowel, or, in case of consonants, c sibilant or g pronounst j 

ed final pronounst t. When the chanje wil not sugjest a wrong pro- 
nunciation, spel t, reducing a preceding dubl to a singl consonant, 
and chanjing ced, seed, final, to St; e.g. askt, fixt, helpt, indorst, 
wisht; addrest, kist, past, shipt, stopt, stuft; advanst, announst, 
commenst, invoist, notist; acquiest, effervest; but not bakt for baked, 
deduct or dedust for deduced, fact or fast for faced, hopt for hoped, 
etc. (See note to preceding rule) 



gh pronounst f. Spel f; drop silent letr of preceding digraf; e.g. cof, 

draft, enuf, laf, ruf, tuf 
gh pronounst like g in gas. Drop silent h; e.g. agast, gastly, gerkin, 

gost, goul 

gm final. Drop silent g; e.g. apothem, diafram, flem, paradim 

gue final after a consonant, a short vowel, or a digraf representing a long 
vowel or a difthong. Drop silent ue; e.g. catalog, dialog, harang, 
leag, sinagog; but not rog for rogue, vag for vague, etc. Tongue 
spel tung 

ise final pronounst as if speld ize. Spel ize; e.g. advertize, advize, 

apologize, enterprize, franchize, merchandize, rize, surprize, wize 
mb final after a short vowel. Drop silent b; e.g. bom, crum, dum, lam, 

lim, thum; but not com for comb, torn for tomb, etc. 
ou before 1, pronounst like o in bold. Drop silent u, except in soul; 

e.g. bolder, mold, sholder 
ough final. Spel o, u, ock or up, when pronounst as if so speld; e.g. 

altho, boro, donut, furlo, tho, thoro; thru; hock; hiccup. Spel plow 
our final, with ou pronounst as a short (obscure) vowel. Drop u; e.g. 

color, favor, honor, labor 
ph pronounst f. Spel f; e.g. alfabet, emfasis, fantom, fonograf, fotograf, 

sulfur, telefone, telegraf 
re final after any consonant except c. Spel er; e.g. center, fiber, meter, 

theater; but not lucer for lucre, mediocer for mediocre, etc. 
rh initial. Drop silent h; e.g. retoric, reumatism, rithm, rom (rhomb), 


sc initial pronounst as if speld s. Drop silent c; e.g. senery, sented, 

septer, simitar, sissors; but scatter, sconce etc. 
u silent before a vowel medial. Drop u; e.g. bild, condit, garantee, 

gard, ges, gide, gild 
y between consonants. Spel i; e.g. analisis, fisic, gipsy, silvan, sithe, 


[We uze y for sound in by and so retain y in syth, typ etc.] 

S S B 18 rules 

1 When ed final is pronounst t, write it simply t, where chanje wil not 
sugjest incorrect pronunciation, as askt, fixt, wisht etc. ; reducing a preced- 
ing dubl consonant to a singl consonant, as blest, kist, dipt, dropt, stept 
etc. ; and chanjing -ced to -st, as advanst, pronounst, rejoist etc. ; but avoid 
misleading forms like bakt for baked, deduct or dedust for deduced etc. 

2 Chanje ph to f when so sounded, as alfabet, fonograf, fotograf, sulfur, 
telefone, telegraf etc. 



3 Drop e final after -Iv and -rv, as delv, shelv, carv, curv, deserv etc. ; 
also in the endings -ide, -He, -ine, -ise, -ite, -ive, unstrest, pronounst id, 
il, in, is, it, iv, as bromid, oxid, hostil, textil, anilin, determin, examin, 
practis,. promis, definit, f avoruv opposit, activ, nativ, positiv etc. ; and at 
end of arO), hav(<?), giv(V). forgiv(e), misgiv e), liv(<?); becauz its nonnal 
use after a singl consonant fis to sho that preceding vowel is long. Hence 
it is retaind in such words as bare, brave, mile, fine, wize, polite, arrive 

4 When digraf ea is sounded as in head or heart, uze sounded letr and 
omit the other, as helth, hevy, insted, tred, wether, plesant, hart, harth etc. 

5 vSubstitute e for digrafs and ligatures ae, ce, oe, ce, when not final, as 
esthetic, medieval, fenix etc. 

6 When ch is pronounst like c in car drop h, except before e, i and 

y, as caracter, clorid, corns- cronic, eco, epoc, arcangel, mecanic, monarc, 

scolar, scool, stomac etc. ; but chemist, architect, monarchy etc. 

Rule 6 was later alterd to 'uze k or drop h', so we prefer k in skool, mekanic, 
arkitect etc. ; for the asender k looks more like ch than does c and it is -the form sure 

to be uzed in the end 

7 Drop silent h from initial rh, as rapsody, reumatism, rubarb etc. 

8 Reduce // final, after a short strest vowel, to 1, as bil, dol, dril, dwel, 
fil, ful, fulfil, shal, tel, wil, wilful etc. 

9 Reduce dubl final consonants bb, dd, ff, gg, nn, rr, tt, zz, to a singl 
consonant, as eb, ad, od, cuf, eg, bun, bur, whir, net, buz etc. 

10 Drop -me from mme final, as gram, program 

11 Drop 4e from ette final, as cigaret, coquet, etiquet, omelet, quartet 

12 Drop silent ue final after g, as catalog, colleag, dialog, pedagog, 
sinagog etc. ; except when g is preceded by a singl long vowel, as in rogue, 
vague, vogue etc. Tongue spel tung, Milton's way 

13 For -ough substitute o, u, of, ock, out or up, according to sound, 
as tho, thru, cof, enuf, hock, drout, hiccup etc. Plough spel plow 

14 Drop silent b final, as crum, lam, lim, num, thum etc. ; except where 
omission sugjests incorrect pronunciation, as in tomb, comb etc. 

15 Drop e from ey final unstrest, pronounst like short y final, as abby, 
barly, chimny, donky, gaily, trolly, vally, whisky etc. 

16 Substitute z for 5 in -ise final, pronounst as if speld ize, as advertize, 
civilize, criticize, merchandize, rize, wize etc. 

17 Chanje re final after any consonant except c, to -er, as center, 
fiber, meter, theater etc. ; but lucre, mediocre, not lucer, mediocer 

18 Drop u from our final in words of 2 or more silabls, as ardor, color, 
favor, honor, labor etc. 

Aded rules uzed in Decimal Clasification 1 

Supplementing S S B's short list of most needed chanjes we hav selected 
from its longer preliminary list and from the other best authorities a few 
more chanjes which we uze in order to familiarize readers with shortr 
forms sure to be uzed later. 

1 See note on spelling of Ed 14 

lack of title-page 



Besides chanjes in S S B rules we uzualy : 

Spel cud, wud and shud for these constantly occurring words 

Uze silabic 1, m, n and r without the unpronounst vowel; e.g, single 
is not singlee or singul but singl, just as prism and enthusiasm ar not 
prisum and enthusiasum. Also omit preceding obscure vowel before 
silabic 1, m, n, r. These 4 consonants partake of the nature of a vowel 
and so form silabls; little was pronounst litel, then litul, then lital, and 
now simply litl. Many words ar going thru this same shortning. We 
hav no letr for this lo unstrest vowel which most peopl ignore. The 
Standard dictionary says it is 'reduced to a slyt vocalic resonance'. As 
the present vowel is misleading and we hav no letr for this very obscure 
sound it is betr to omit it and thus shortn the word. Peopl ar les likely 
to mispronounce this short form than the uzual speling; e.g. pedal, 
metal, gambol, ar not pronounst as speld, but more and more exactly like 
peddle, mettle, gamble, which ar correctly speld pedl, metl, gambl. For 
indicating minute shades of pronunciation in a dictionary our short 
speling wud not be enuf but it is ampl for all ordinary use 

Uze u for o or ou pronounst as in us; e.g. obvius, famus, cuntry, 
cum, handsum 

Uze j for dg, dge or g, pronounst j e.g jujment, rij, jem (except in propr 
nouns and adjectivs, and in old D C entries and for initial in Index) 

Uze y with its very common sound in by, my, reply etc. for eigh, igh, 
ei, ie, m and ny; e.g. for height, might, pleistocene, replied, guide, buy, we 
spel hyt, myt, plystocene, replyd, gyd, by 

We often leav i — e, as in bite, ride etc. til later 

Uze k for ck or ch, medial or final, if pronounst k; e.g. bak, stok, skool, 
mekanic, epok, monark 

For the present we often lcav initial c, as in caracter 

Drop w frorr 011 final pronounst o, e.g. bio, flo. sho etc., but retain in 
inflected forms, e.g blows blown, blowing 

Drop any silent letr that is foncticly useless; e.g. drop c from fascinate 

Drop 1 of dubl letrs that serv no use; e.g. clas, curiculum, paralel, 
but retain if short form wud mislead, as in hiss, off 

Sumtimes we substitute s for ce, when it wil not sugjest wrong pronuncia- 
tion, e. g. offis, servis, prejudis, but not fens for fence ; also we sumtimes sub- 
stitute z for 5 or se, as in becauz, eazy, uzual, but not in inflections, as in 
rubs digs, egs (s pronounst z is lef t in inflections becauz there ar so many, 
and chiefly becauz the vocal organs force the z sound after voist consonants 
b, d, g, m, ng, v as in rubs, pads, digs, egs, hums, bangs, givs, etc. Try- 
ing to pronounce 5 results in rups, pats, diks, eks, humps, banks, gifs etc.) 

We leav many bad spelings where corrections as in similar words myt 
lead careless readers into mispronunciation; e.g. we omit c, a silly dupli- 
cation of k, in bak, but leav it in backer becauz baker wud confuze with 
the bred man With only 23 letrs for 40 sounds we must make only more 
obvins needed chanjes and leav many inconsistencies til we hav the needed 
new letrs or modifyd forms to represent the other 1 7 



U S Jeografic Board rules 

Most chanjes made harmonize with rules uniformly uzed by U S Jeo- 
grafic Board (and strongly recommended for jeneral adoption) in 
officialy fixing propr spelings of jeografic names. Sum of these rules 
applyd to other words ar: 

Pronounce vowels as in Italian and other continental European 
languages, consonants as in English 

C always soft (sounded s) . Always uze k for hard c ; e.g. Korea, Dakota ; 
never Corea, Dacotah 

We leav initial c, at present, in cat, corns, cronolojy etc., also final c in grafic etc. 

G is always hard. Uze j, never dj, for soft g (j sound) 

Ch always as in church; never use for k sound, e.g. spel arkitect, caracter, 
corns, skool 

We keep chemic temporarily ; kemic cums later 
Never uze ph for f sound 

Always pronounce h when uzed; e.g. humor, not yumor 

Never uze y for vowel i when it has its propr sound as in other languajes 

(as in pin, pique) ; e.g. limf, linch, simbol, not lymph, lynch, symbol 
Ei, with both short vowels pronounst respectivly as in met and pin, 

sound like ey in they and prey, or a in fate 

Omitting useless gh in sleigh, weigh, height etc. leavs betr spelings 

Filolojists 10 joint rules 

These wer made by American and English filolojic associations, includ- 
ing nearly all eminent skolars in English, after several years study by 
committees of their leading members. British and Americans jointly 
recommended these 10 rules as in the interests of real skolarship as wel 

as common sense : 

1 e Drop silent e when foneticly useless, writing er for re; as in live 
(verb), single, eaten, rained, theatre (theater) 

2 ea Drop a from ea having sound of e as in met; e.g. feather, leather 

3 o For o having sound of u in but, write u in above (abuv), tongue 
(rung) and the like 

4 ou Drop o from ou having sound of u in but, in trouble (trubl), rough 
(mi) and the like. For our unaccented, as in honour, write or, e.g. honor 

5 u, ue Drop silent u after g before a, and in nativ English words, 
and drop final ue; guard, euess (ges), catalogtie, leagwe etc. 

[Do not drop ue when pronounst, as in argue, value, nor when preceded by a 
singl long vowel, as in rogue, vague] 

6 Dubl consonants may be simplif yd when foneticly useless ; e.g. bailif/ 
(but not hal/ etc.), battle (batl), written (writn), travel/er 

7 Chanje d and ed final to t when so pronounst, as in looked (lookt) 
etc. unless the e affects the preceding sound, as in chafed etc. 


6 3 

8 gh, ph Chanje gh and ph to f when so sounded; e.g. enough (enuf), 
laughter (lafter) etc. ; phonetic (fonetic) etc. 

9 s Chanje 5 to z when so sounded, specialy in distinctly words and in 
-ise; e.g. abuse (noun), abuze (verb), advertise (advertize) 

10 t Drop t in tch; e.g. ca/ch, pi/ch etc. 


Rule 1 givs us 1, m, n and r as silabls without the useless e which no 
authority pronounces as writn; e.g. singl, eatn 

Rules 3 and 4 giv us u for o and ou pronounst like u in us; e.g. cum, 
handsum, obvius, perilus 

Rules 3, 4, 9 and 10, while not in S S B short list, ar fully approved. 
It was merely choice of which chanjes to make 1st with those who havn't 
the curaj to make all at once. When all leading skolars of the English 
world, including editors of all great dictionaries, recommend shortr forms, 
why shud we continue to write the worse than useless lctrs ? Every child 
and forener who has lernd rave, wave, dive, alive etc. is sure to pronounce 
have, give and live (verb) wrong unless we omit the useless e. 


We shud be glad to hav any practical sugjestions, but to save time and 
gard agenst elaborate presentation of varius fine spun theories, we ad that 
we hav wacht for many years the results of elaborate and wonderfuly 
delicate experiments in our best sykolojic laboratories. We hav red care- 
fuly all the 1 arguments ' that sum wil deduce for retaining certain useless 
letrs. But these refinements, while very interesting to the specialist, 
hav no practical bearing whatever on languaj as the greatest tool with 
which man works. Its function is to convey meaning clearly, as quikly 
and cheaply as posibl. Microscopic verbal milincry has no propr place 
in this vast enjin. When one tels us that he has proved that o is uzualy 
pronounst with a slyt vanish which cud be represented by w we admire 
his observant analisis, but when he wishes to argue that we shud therefor^ 
ad w to go we hav no time for his vagaries. To attach sum mark to sho 
every refinement which modern reserch cud establish wud result in sum- 
thing quite too complex for daily use. Melville Bell's visibl speech was a 
marvelus invention but only an unbalanst mind wud advocate its use 
for infinit demands of daily life. 

By evolution, not revolution, we shal stedily move toward the ideal, 
when the greatest languaj the world has yet seen wil hav 40 distinct syns 
for its 40 distinct sounds, and becauz of its manifold advantajes wil becum 
the common tung of the world, known in adition to his vernacular by every 
intelijent inhabitant. 

Lake Placid Club N Y Melvil Dewey 

Dec. 10, 1926 


Superior figures indicate the part of paje in ninths; i, 5 and 9 indicating top, 
middle and foot: 27 s means £ way between top and middle of p. 27 
D C means Decimal clasification 

C D 
I I B 

L C 
N E A 

Classification dkimale, the enlarjd French translation of D C 

Institut International de Bibliographic • 

Library of Congress 

National Education Association 

Simplifyd Spclir.g Board (American) 

Simplifyd Speling Socyety (English) 

Absurdities in speling 50 5 , 55 s " 7 
Accession book, advantajes of D C 

for 24 3 -25 l 
Accession order, for book numbers 33* 
Accretion syn 41 5 
Adaptability of D C 26 4 
Aded entries 29 s -30 9 
Adoption of D C by I I B 40 3 
Advantages of D C 24 6 -27 4 
Aknowlejments 46 5 ~48 l 
-ai dropt 54* 

Alfabct, use of, for final subdivisions 
Alfabet, perfect 50 5 

Alfabetic arrangement, method in C D 

Alfabetic caracters, new 50 5 " 8 

Allyd subjects, sequence 16 7 

American Filolojic Association, com- 
mittee on key alfabet for Standard 
dictionary 49* 

American Library Association, clasifi- 
cation committee 47 s , 48'; in rela- 
tion to D C numbers on L C cards 8* 

Amherst college, library recatalogd 26 2 

Analitic references 30 2 

Andrews, C W, indettedness to 47' 

Arabic numerals, advantaj of uzing 
26', 54 2 ; argument agenst 50 6 

Arrangement of D C 27 7 -28 l 

Assyning numbers, directions 12 9 , 28 3 - 
32 s 

Author numbers 32 7 
Author tables, special 33 1 

Basis of I I B revision 40* 

Bibliografic modifications 40 3 -43 1 

Bilding numbers 3i 7 ~32 5 

Biografy, treatment of 36 s 

Biscoe, W S, time number sistem 53 s ; 

valuabl assistance 47 s 
Book numbers 32 6 -33 7 
Books, arranjement I s ; how to find 

subject of 28 5 -29 2 
Bookstores, use of D C in 43' 
Broken order, advantaj of 39 s 

Cachtitles, use of 

Cards, arranjement 3 3 , 23 s , 44 s 
Carnegie, Andrew, supporter of simpler 

speling 49 4 , 53 s 
Catalogs 23 5 -24 6 

Cautions, in making variations 34 2 

Chanjes, unauthorized, effect of 32 1 , 
34*, 35* . 

Charjing sistem, advantajes of D C for 
25 « 

Clas numbers, definition 15*; how 
to assyn 12 9 , 28 3 -3i l ; how to bild 
3i 7 ~32 5 ; how to read 27''; in name 
catalog 23°; in shelflist 23 7 ; number 
of figures uzed 3 1 1 

Clases, divisions and sections I 1 ; broken 
order 39 1 

Clasification, labor of constructing 
sistem I2 J , 46 s ; lak of uniformity 13 9 ; 
requirements of sistem 9 7 ; test of 
skeme 14 4 ; testing new skemes 19 1 , 
4 6 3 

Clast catalog, arranjement 23 s ; objec- 
tion obviated I3 a -i4 5 ; printed 23 9 -24' 

Close clasing 15 9 , 29 r ', 31 1 - 7 ; ilustratcd by 
history divisions 15 7 ; objection and 
compromize 31 6 ; requisit for bibliog- 
rafers and specialists 40 8 -4 1 2 ; value of 
I7 9 -i8 9 

Collaborators 46"-47 3 

Colon, meaning 41* 42 1 ; use 41 2 - 3 

Conciseness, D C io 5 ; English 54 8 -55 2 

Consistency in speling, not essential 
54 5 ; of S S S 51' 

Consonants, new 50" 

Contractions for specialists 38 s 

Coordination, preservd in D C 16 1 

Copyryt restrictions 35 1 

Cronolojy, use of, for final subdivisions 
3« 5 

Cupling syn 41 6 

Cutter numbers, advantajes 32 7 

Dash, meaning in C D 41 6 

Decimal clasification, committee 7 s , 48 s ; 
essential feature II*; explanation of 
meaning 12 4 ; extent of use lo 9 -ii s ; 
future of 7 8 , 48 s ; labor of constructing 
46 s , numbers on L C cards 8 3 - 7 ; orijin 
and growth 9'-io 9 :, 46 i -48 I ; practical 
test 9 s ; priority of its invention II 8 ; 
product of experts 14 5 , 46 a -47 1 : sim- 
plicity 12 1 ; speling rules 56 s , 6o 9 -6i 9 ; 
variations 33 8 ~40 2 

Decimal form of the sistem 1 2 1 

Decimalism, use of 20 3 -2i 9 

Dewey, Emily (Mrs Melvil Dewey) 
chairman D' C committee 7 8 

Dewey, Melvil, deth 7 2 ; interest in D C 




Dictionary catalog 24 1 

Dictionary speling 56 1 

Differences between D C and C D 40 7 

Digrafs 50'- 8 

Divisions 3 J 

Duplicates, see Sale duplicates 

Editions 7 1 -8\ 11 3 
Editorship 47* 
Education, methods of 52* 
Education of the masses 53 s 
Efficiency in English, committee on 49' 
Endowment of special departments 

26 6 -27 l 

English languaj, caracter of 52'; 
chanjes in 51 1 , 53°-54 7 . 55 2 "56 3 ; 
conciseness in use of 54 8 ~55 2 ; pur- 
pose of 54 1 , 63 s ; world languaj 52'- 
53', 63' . • 

English spcling caractenzed 51 4 

Entries, aded 29/-30 9 

Equality syn, meaning 42 s 

Expansions 7 2 - 3 , 7 9_ 8 3 , 19 1 

Fiction, treatment of 35' 
Filolojic associations, rules 56', 62 5 -63 6 
Fonetic speling 49", 51 7 
Form distinctions, position 17 7 ; use 
of 17 1 

Form divisions, uniform numbers 17 8 
Form syn 42 1 
Future of DC 7 8 , 48 

Heds 12 5 ; choice and arranjement 16 s 
Hyfen, meaning in C D 41 s 

Ideal in speling 49 s , 50 7 , 63 s 
Importance of speling reform 53* 
Improvements (so-cald) of D C 34' 
Inconsistencies in speling, D C rules 

61 9 ; S S B method 51 1 
Index 3 7 , io 3 , s , 7 , 11 7 , I2 3 ,'i2 8 -i4 9 ; a dic- 
tionary catalog 24 4 ; effect of chanjes 
in tables 34 s ; essential feature of D C 
II*; fulness I2 8 -I4 9 ; ilustration of use 
13 1 " 8 ; labor of constructing 46 s ; plan of 
27 9 -28 1 ; scope 14 8 ; sug jestionsfor uzing 
279-2 8 s , 32 s ; use of blakface typ 13 7 
Index rerums, use of D C for 44 s 
Index tables, appended 20 2 
Infinity simbol, meaning 42 4 
Institut International de Bibliographic 
adoption of Decimal clasification 40 4 ; 
extension of D C by 40 6 ; obligations 
to 47* 

International languaj 52 7 -53 4 , 63 s 

Johnson's dictionary 55' 

Jujment, exercize of 52 s 

Juvenil literature, treatment 35 8 ~36 4 

Lake Placid Club Education Founda- 
tion 48 s 

Languaj, purpose of 54 1 , 63 s ; universal 

52 7 -53 4 .63 9 . 
Languaj and literature, combining 37' 
Languaj colections 36 9 ~37 ! 
Languaj syn 42" 

Letter notations for chanjes 35 1 
Letters, new 50 6 
Libraries uzing D C io 9 -ii' 
Library of Congress cards, D C num- 
bers on 8 3 - 7 
Literature and languaj, combining 37' 

Masses, education of 53 s 
Minor subjects, disposition of 16' 
Minute clasing,-5ee Close clasing 
Mnemonics, use of l9 4 -2o" 
Modern Languaj Association, com- 
mittee on key alfabet for Standard 
dictionary 49 s 
Money wasted by English speling 51 s 

Name catalog 23* 

National Education Association, com- 
mittee on key alfabet for Standard 
dictionary 49 s ; 12 words 56 s , 57 1 

Naught, normal value of 15 5 ; uzed for 
chanjed caracter of subdivision 1 5"; 
for form distinctions 17 2 ; for jeneral 
works I 1 , 15 1 , 17 2 ; initial and final 
37 8 -38 l 

Naught, dubl, meaning jeneral points 
of view 42 7 ; subdivisions peculiar to a 
subject 42 s 
Nemonics, use of i9 4 -20 9 
New subjects, disposition of 16 6 
Notation 12 1 ; simplicity io 8 
Note books, use of D C for 45 s 
Note typ 18 4 

Numeration, method of 27" 

Obligation, speling 53 s 
Order, of bibliografic simbols 43 1 ; of 
clases, broken 39 s ; of subjects 16 9 

Pamflets, advantajes of D C for 25 1 
Paper, sizes 44 9 ~45 4 

Paralel libraries, treatment of 36 8 -37', 
37 5 

Parenthetic numbers, form 42 1 ; place 
42 s 

Pedants rules 53 8 -54 5 

Philolojic associations, rules 56 7 , 62 6 -63 5 

Phonetic speling 49 9 , 51 7 

Place syn 42 s ; use of 41 s 

Plus syn, meaning 41 6 

Points of view, jeneral, syn for 42 7 

Pro and con division of topics 39 8 -40 l 

Pronouncing correctly, imposibility of 

5 2 ' • • • , . 

Pronunciation, variations in 50', 51'- 

52*. 54* 

Quotation marks, meaning 42* 

Reazoning power dednd 5i 9 -52 8 
Reazons for simpler speling 5i 4 ~53 T 
Recataloging or reclasifying, advan- 
tajes of D C in 20 2 
Reference library, treatment of 37 s 
Refinements in speling, theoretic 63 s 


6 7 

Reformd speling, see Speling, simpler 
Relation syn 41 '-42' ; use 41 3 
Relativ Index, see Index 
Relativ location 2 i 9 -2,V ; need of 2 1'-22' 
Revision of D C, basis of C D 40* 
Rules for simpler speling 56 4 -03 6 

Sale duplicates, advantajes of D C 
for 25 s 

School years wasted by English speling 
51 s . 52 6 

Scrapbooks, use of D C for 44' 
Sections i 2 , 27 s ; subsections I s , 27 s 
Separates, proposed 45 9 ~46 l 
Sequence, of allyd subjects 16 7 ; of 

bibliografic syns 43 1 ; of clases, 

broken 3c/ 3 
Sets of books 22 s , 30 8 
Seymour, May 47 s 

Shelflist 23'; advantajes of D C for 

Shelvs, advantajes of D C for 21 '-23' , 
24 7 

Signs, I I B skeme 40 9 -43 l 
Simbol notations for chanjes 35 2 
Simpler speling, see Speling, simpler 
Simplifyd Speling Board, method of 
51 1 ; rules 56 s , 57 2 -6o 8 ; supple- 
mented by D C rules 60 9 ; supported 
by Carnegie 49 4 ; 30 words 56 s , 57 2 
Simplifyd Speling Socyety 50 s , 51 3 
Size, distinction by 23 2 
Skool years wasted by English speling 
5 1 6 . 52 5 

Small libraries, adaptability to 31 1 
Social problems, solution thru educa- 
tion 53 s 

Special colections, treatment 35'- 

3 6 4 , 36 8 -37 3 , 3 7 5 
Specialists, use of D C by io 5 , 38 s 
Specialties, influence on assyning clas 

numbers 30 3 
Speling, simpler 49-63; agreement on 

need for 49'; methods for attaining 

499-5 1 3 ; reazons for 5i 4 ~53 7 ; rules 

56 4 -63 6 

Speling correctly, imposibility of 52 1 
Speling variations 49 9 -.5o 4 , 52' 
Standard dictionaries, key alfabet 
for 49 s 

vSubject catalog, see Clast catalog 

Subject Index, see Index 

Subject references, advantajes of D C 

for 25 9 -26' ; see also Aded entries 
Subjects, sequence of 16 7 
Sugjestions to uzers of D C 2 7 5 ~33 7 
Summaries i 4 , 27' 
Syns, I I B skeme 40 , -43 1 

Tables, index, appended 20 2 ; of clasi- 
fication, plan of I4 9 -I5 a , 27'; 
sugjestions for uzing 27 6 ~32 6 ; 
tentativ i8 9 -i9 4 

30 words of S S B 56 s , 57 2 

Time numbers 33 s 

Time syn 42 s 

Time wasted by English speling 51*, 53' 
Topical indexes, use of D C for 45' 
Tuskegee Institute, speling and pro- 
nunciation requirement 50 2 
12 words of N E A 56 s , 57 1 
Typ, significance of small 18 4 

Uniformity in clasification, how to 
gain 30 7 ; Index a gyd to 14 3 

United States Jeografic Board rules 
56 7 , 62 1 

Universal languaj 52 7 -53 4 , 63' 
Universality syn 42 4 
Uses of D C io 1 , 43 2 -45 8 

Variations practicabl in D C clasi- 
fication 33 8 -40 2 
View, jeneral points of, syn for 42 7 
Vowels, new 50 5 

Waste, see Money wasted; Time 

Zero, see Naught 



General works 

1 Filosofy 

2 Religion 

3 Social sciences 

4 Filology 

5 Pure science 

6 Useful arts 

7 Fine arts 

8 Literature 

9 History 



ooo General works Prolegomena 

010 Bibliografy 

020 Library economy 

030 General cyclopedias 

040 General collected essays 

050 General periodicals 

060 General societies Museums 

070 Journalism Newspapers 

080 Polygrafy Special libraries 

090 Book rarities 

100 Filosofy 

no Metaphysics 

120 Other metaphysical topics 

130 Phisiologic, abnormal and 

differential psychology 


140 Filosofic sistems and doctrins 

150 Psychology 

160 Logic Dialectics 

170 Ethics 

180 Ancient and Oriental filosofers 

190 Modern filosofers 

200 Religion 

210 Natural theology 

220 Bible 

230 Doctrinal Dogmatics Theology 

240 Devotional Practical 

250 Homiletic Pastoral Parochial 

260 Church: institutions and work 

270 General hist, of the church 

280 Christian churches and sects 

290 Nonchristian religions 

300 Social sciences Sociology 

310 Statistics 

320 Political science 

330 Economics Political economy 

340 Law 

350 Administration 

360 Welfare and social institutions 

370 Education 

380 Commerce Communication 

390 Customs Costumes Folklore 

400 Filology 

410 Comparativ 

420 English Anglo-Saxon 

430 German and other Teutonic 

440 French Provencal 

450 Italian Rumanian 

460 Spanish Portuguese 

470 Latin and other Italic 

480 Greek and other Hellenic 

490 Other languages 

500 Pure science 














Biology Anthropology 





600 Useful arts 








Home economics 


Communication Business 


Chemic technology 




Mechanic trades 



700 Fine arts Recreation 


Landscape and civic art 






Drawing Decoration Design 











800 Literature 




English Anglo-Saxon 


German and other Teutonic 


French Provencal, etc. 


Italian Rumanian, etc. 


Spanish Portuguese, etc. 


Latin and other Italic 


Greek and other Hellenic 


Other literatures 

900 History 


Geografy Travels 




Ancient history 



950 E 


960 *> 


970 £ 

North America 

980 * 

South America 


Oceania and polar regions 


General works 

Limited to none of the 9 classes 


General works Prolegomena 


vnviai uci iijuil did 

00 1 

TCnowlpdirp nnd lpmin< r in prnornl 





1* r% <r 1 1 a Ti 

00 1 













Activity in general 








Other languages 




General societies 

01 I 

1— pfw>t*'il ni KlirtfTfi Hop 
VJCIHIill I HI MlUgl cillt-o 

Oo I 

mot riCiin 


Of individuals 



01 1 

v * 

" special classes of authors 




" " forms: pseudonims etc 












Clast catalogs 






Other countries 


Dictionary catalogs 




Library economy 


Journalism Newspapers 

02 I 

ULU|JC) UoCL 11 lilt- 30 till 1 1 1 1 Lt 1 1 1 1 1 llj^ 

A TTipn pi n 

£\ 1 1 1 1 1L tl 1 1 


Bildings — 




Government and servis 




Rules for readers 




Administration Departments 




Libraries on special subjects 




General libraries Reports etc 




Reading and aids 




Literary methods Laborsavers 


Other countries 


General cyclopedias 


Polygrafy Special libraries 



A men pq n 
ill 1 1 1 - 1 1 l . itii 


T flrti vii lin 1 t^ol \ t ctt"q T \f 
mm v i . 1 1 , 1 1 ^jvjiy f^i diy 


T-Tti (rl 1 c n 


l o/^t" 1 \r t~~\ \ ' <y f 'i fir 
^(JllLCllv | JUiy fel cLLy 


Official publications 













For various classes of readers 




r 39 

Other languages 



General collected essays 


Book rarities 



09 I 

nn iniicpnnt*: \ n t nttnfc 



OO 2 

Block books 




Erly printed Incunabula 




Rare printing Privately printed 




Rare binding 




Rare illustrations or materials 




Ownership Bookplates 




Prohibited Lost Imaginary, etc. 


Other languages 


Other rarities Curiosa 






»oo Filosofy 

JOi Utility 

102 Compends 

J 03 Dictionaries 

104 Essays 

105 Periodicals 

106 Societies 
ioj Study and teaching 
*o8 Polygrafy Maxims 
»oo History 

1 10 Metaphysics 

1 1 1 Ontology 

112 Methodology 

113 Cosmology 

114 Space 

115 Time 

116 Motion 

117 Matter 
it8 Energy Force 
119 Quantity Number 

J 20 Other metaphysical topics 

12 1 Epistemology Knowledge 

122 Cause and effect Causation 

123 Freedom and necessity 

124 Teleology Final cause 

125 Infinit and finite 

126 Consciousness Personality 

127 The unconscious The subcon. 

128 The soul 

129 Origin and dest. of individ. 

130 Phisiologic, abnormal and 
differential psychology 






Sense perceptions 

Memory and lcrning 
Intuitiv faculty Innate 
Emotions Sensibility 

Motor functions 

Logic Dialectics 



Assent Faith 

Simbolic Algebraic 

Sources of error Fallacies 

Syllogism Enthymeme 


Argument and persuasion 
Analogy Correspondence 

Theories of ethics 
State ethics 
Family ethics 

Professional and business ethics 

Ethics of amusements 

Sexual ethics 

Social ethics 


Other ethical topics 

Ancient and Oriental filosofers 


Mental physiology and hygiene 




Mental derangements 


Erly Greek 


Occult sciences 


Sophistic and Socratic 






Sleep Dreams Somnambulism 




Genetic psychology 


Pyrrhonist New Platonist 


Individuality Personality 








Phrenology Mental fotografs 


Erly Christian and medieval 


Filosofic sistems & doctrins 


Modern filosofers 


Idealism Transcendentalism 




Critical filosofy 








Empiricism Pragmatism 








Naturalism Materialism 




Pantheism ^Monism 




Eclecticism etc 




Other filosofic sistems 


Other modern 






HomiletlC Pastoral Pnrnrhial 


Filosofy Theories 

2 S I 

HoiTlllpfipQ Proa r>ri i n ■ t 



2 ^2 

vJC 1 l I 1 1 ' 1 1 1 




Pastoral lifo ("V1ibir»\r 



Ohurch finnTiPf* ("M^rir* cumvtrt 




Brotherhoods Sisterhoods 




Societies for parish work Gilds 


Education Theologic schools 


Parish educational work 




Parish welfare work 


History of religion 


Other ministrations and work 


Natural theology 


Church; institutions and work 


Deism Atheism Theism 




Pantheism Theosofy 


Ecclesiastic polity 


Creation Evolution 


Sabbath I ord's rlnv finrirlnj 

Providence Theodicy Fatalis'ti 


T^nblir* watqI 1 i n T?itii'1 

A U Uil C WUIillllJ XV 1 tU(l i 


Religion and science 


Sacraments Ordinances 


Good Evil Depravity 


Missions Home and foren 


Worship Prayer 


Associations Y M C A, etc 


Future life Immortality 


Sunday schools 


Analogies Correspondences 


Revivals Retreats 




General hist, of church 


Old Testament 


Religious orders Monasteries 


Historical hooks 




Poetic " 




Profetic " 




New Testament 




Gospels and Acts 






North America 




South America 






Doctrinal Dogmatics 


Christian churches and sects 


God Unity Trinity 


Primitiv and oriental 


Christ Christology 


Roman catholic 


Man The fall Sin 


Anglican and American P E 

.^filva firm Sntpnolncxv 


Onntinenf fll nrnte^tant - 

2 35 

Angels Devils Satan 


Presbyterian Congregational 


Eschatology Deth Judgment 


Baptist Immersionist 


Future state 




Creeds Catechisms 




Apologetics Evidences 


Other Christian sects 



Devotional Practical 


Nonchristian religions 

24 I 



Comparativ & general mythology 





Greek and Roman 

1 1U1 lalUly 


Teutonic and Northern 


Miscellany Fiction, etc. 


Brahmanism Buddhism 


Hymnology Religious poetry 




Ecclesiology Simbolism 




Sacred furniture, vessels etc 




Personal religion A=cr ticism 



Family devotions 


Other nonchristian religions 




300 Social sciences 

301 Sociology: filosofy, theories 

302 Compends 

303 Dictionaries 

304 Essays 

305 Periodicals 

306 Societies 

307 Study and teaching 

308 Polygrafy 

309 History of social science 

310 Statistics 

311 Theory Methods 

312 Population Demografy 

313 Special topics 

314 Europe 

315 Asia 

316 Africa 

317 North America 

318 South America 

319 Oceania 

320 Political science 

321 Form of state 

322 Church and state 

323 Internal or domestic relations 

324 Suffrage Elections 

325 Colonies Migration 

326 Slavery 

327 Foren relations 

328 Legislation Lawmaking 

329 Political parties 

330 Economics 

331 Labor and laborers 

332 Financial economics 

333 Land : ownership, rights and rent 

334 Cooperation 

335 Socialism and communism 

336 Public finance Taxation 

337 Protection and free trade 

338 Production Manufacture Prices 

339 Capital Consumption 
Pauperism . 

340 Law 

341 International law 

342 Constitutional law and history 

343 Criminal law 

344 Martial law 

345 U. S. statutes and cases 

346 British " " • 

347 General works Treatises 

348 Church law 

349 Law other than Amcr. & Brit. 



Administration Military 



Administration of central gov't 


Local government : city, town 


United States and state 


Other countries 


Military science Army 






Artillery, engineers etc 


Naval science Navy 


Welfare and social institutions 

3 61 



Hospitals Asylums 




Reformatory Criminology 


Penal Prisoners 


Secret societies 


Social clubs 








Teachers Methods Disciplin 


Elementary Kindergarten 


Secondary Preparatory 


Adult education 




Education of women 


Religious, ethical and secular 


Colleges and universities 


Public schools State and educ. 


Commerce Communication 


Domestic trade 


Foren trade Consular reports 


Postal servis 


Telegraf Cable Tclefone 




Waterways Inland navigation 


Ocean and air transport 


Locol transit 


Weights and mesures Metrology 


Customs Costumes 



Costume and care of person 


Birth, home and sex customs 


Treatment of ded 


Public and social customs 




Woman's position and treatment 


Gipsies Nomads 


Folklore Proverbs etc 


Customs of war 







Filosofy Origin 





40 T 













Study and teaching 




Internat'l lang. 



History of language 





41 1 






















4 6 7 





Sign language 



























School texts 








43 1 



43 2 



















School texts 



Other Teutonic 





44 1 






















School texts 



Provencal Catalan 



School texts 
Rumanian Romansh 








School texts 
Portuguese Galician 
Latin (classic) 

Synon ims 
School texts 
Other Italic 
Greek (classic) 

School texts 
Other Hellenic 
Other languages 
Other Indo-Europea» 

Scythian Turanian 



North American 
South American 
Malay-Polynesian and other 



Pure science 


Pure science 



5 01 



Physical and dynamic geology 




Lithology Petrografy 




Economic geology 














Education Museums 


North America 




South America 




Oceania Polar regions 














5 6 3 

Protc/zoans Radiates 






Descriptiv geometry 




Analitic geometry Quaternions 






Fishes Batrachians 



Reptils Birds 








Biology Anthropology 




Prehistoric archeology 


Practical and sferic 


Ethnology Anthropology 




Natural history of man 


Maps and observations 


Physiologic and stiuct. biol 




Evolution Phylcgeny 




Origin and beginnings of life 




Properties of living matter 








Collectors manuals 








Physiologic and structural 


Liquids Hydraulics 


Phanerogams Seed plants 


Gases Pneumatics 




Sound Acoustics 




Radiation Light Optics 






Cryptogams Seedless plants 










Molecular physics 








Theorel ic Physical 

59 1 

Physiologic and structural 


Practical and experimental 






Protozoans Radiates 
















Fishes Batrachians 




Reptils Birds 






Useful arts Applied science 

600 Useful arts 650 Communication Business 

60 1 Filosof y 65 1 Offis economy 

602 Compends 652 Writing: materials, typewriters 

603 Dictionaries 653 Abbreviations Shorthand 

604 Essays 654 Telegraf Cables Signals 

605 Periodicals 655 Printing Publishing Copyright 

606 Societies Fairs Exhibitions 656 Transportation: railroading etc 

607 Education Schools of tech nol. 657 Bookkeeping Accounts 

608 Patents Inventions 658 Business methods 

609 History of useful arts 659 Advertising and other topics 

610 Medicin 660 Chemic technology 

611 Anatomy 661 Chemicals 

612 Physiology 662 Pyrotechnics Explosivs Fuels 

613 General and personal hygiene 663 Beverages 

614 Public helth 664 Foods: sugar, starch etc 

615 Materia medica Therapeutics 665 Lights: gas, oil, candles etc 

616 Pathology Diseases Treatment 666 Kcramics Glas Cement 

617 Surgery Dentistry, etc. 667 Bleaching Dyeing Inks Paints 

618 Diseases of women and children 668 Other organic chemic industries 

619 Comparativ medicin Veterinary 669 Metallurgy Assaying 

620 Engineering 670 Manufactures 

621 Mechanical 671 Articles made of metals 

622 Mining 672 Of iron & steel; stoves, cutlery 

623 Military Naval 673 Of copper, bras, bronz etc 

624 Bridge and roof 674 Lumber & articles made of wood 

625 Road and railroad 675 Lether " " " " lether 

626 Canal 676 Paper " " " " paper 

627 River and harbor 677 Textils 

628 Sanitary Waterworks 678 Rubber & articles made of rubber 

629 Other branches 679 Celluloid and other 

630 Agriculture 680 Mechanic trades 

631 Farm Farmsted 681 Watch and instrument making 

632 Hindrances Protection 682 Blacksmithing Horseshoeing 

633 Field crops: grains, grasses etc 683 Lock and gun making 

634 Fruits Forestry 684 Carriage and cabinet making 

635 Garden crops 685 Saddlery Shot-making Trunks 

636 Domestic animals 686 Bookbinding 

637 Dairy and dairy products 687 Clothing industries 

638 Bees, silkworms etc 688 

639 Hunting Trapping Fish culture 689 Other trades 

640 Home economics 690 Bilding 

641 Food Cookery 691 Materials Preservativ processes 

642 Serving Entertaining 692 Plans Specifications 

643 Shelter: house, home 693 Masonry Plastering 

644 Heat Light Ventilation 694 Carpentry Stairbilding 

645 Furniture Decoration 695 Roofing: .slating, tiling 

646 Clothing Toilet 696 Plumbing: gas and steam fitting 

647 Household administration 697 Heating Ventilating 

648 Sanitary precautions 698 Painting Glazing Paperhanging 

649 Nursery Sickroom 699 Carbilding 


Fine arts Recreation 


Fine arts 




Pilosofy Esthetics 


Materials, methods, etc. 







/ jj 

Epic Mythic Idealistic 


Essays Poligrafy 







Religious Ecclesiastic 


Education Study 


Historical Rattl^n etc 


Art galleries 


Portrait Human figure 


History of art 

/ J J 

Land *^canp Sttl lifo f*tc 


Landscape and civic art 


Various schools 


Regional and city planning 




Landscape architecture and 


Relief engraving 



Metal ■ 


Construction and mainte- 


1 • ' 1 1 1 <^ 1 ■ 1 1 \ 



Water features 



Vegetation Trees, shrubs, 




\f p 7 7 nt iflt" Annotinf 
ivic^^uuir iLt-J ua LIU I 


Herbaceous plants 


L/LLiiiiig Ljiy point 


Structural elements 


Banknote Machine 


Cemeteries Monuments 


Collections of engravings 





Natural landscapes Scenery 

77 1 

Fotografic chemistry & materials 




Processes: silver etc 


Architectural construction 


Gelatin, pigment and dye 


Ancient and oriental 


Medieval Gothic, etc. 




* ft printers ink 


Public bildings 


Fotolithografy etc 


Ecclesiastic and religious 


Fotozincografy etc 


Educational and scientific 


Fotoengraving Fotoelectros 




Special applications 


Design and decoration 


Collections of fotografs 






Materials, methods, etc. 


Theory and technic 






Greek and Roman 










Instrumental ensemble 


Carving Seals Dies Gems 


Piano and organ 


Numismatics Coins Medals 


Stringd instrument 


Pottery Porcelain 


Wind ■ 


Metal arts Bricabrac 


Percussion and mechanical 


Drawing Decoration 




Freehand Crayon, etc. 


Public entertainment 




Theater Stage 


Art anatomy Life school 


Indoor entertainment 


Mathematical drawing 


Games of skil 


Arts and crafts Design 


Games of chance 


Art needlework Fanciwork 


Outdoor sports and games 


Interior decoration 


Water sports Aerostation 


Staind and iridescent glas 


Horsemanship Racing 


Artistic furniture 


Fishing Hunting Sh<x)ting 


Literature Belles-lettres 
















Study and teaching 


Rhetoric Collections 




American literature 














Satire Humor 





English literature 














Satire Humor 




Anglo-Saxon literature 


German literature 














Satire Humor 




Other Teutonic literatures 


French literature 














Satire Humor 




Provencal Catalan 


Italian literature 














Satire Humor 




Rumanian Romansh 


Spanish literature 














Satire Humor 




Portuguese Galician 


Latin literature (classic) 














Satire Humor 




Other Italic literatures 


Greek literature (classic) 














Satire Humor 




Other Hellenic literatures 


Other literatures 


Other Indo-European 






Scythian Turanian 






North American 


South American 


Malay-Polynesian and other 







00 1 


95 1 



Compends Cronologies 














tran (Persia; 




Turkey in Asia 


Study and teaching 


Siberia [chist.m 




Afghanistan Turkestan Baiu- 


Universal histories 


Farther India 


Geografy and travels 






North Africa 








Abyssinia Ethiopia 












North Central Africa 


North America 


South Central Africa' 


South America 


South Africa 


Oceania Polar regions 


Madagascar and other ilands 




North America 


Of filosofy 


British America Canada 


" religion 


Mexico Central America 


" sociology 


United States 


" filology 


North Atlantic states 


" science 


South Atlantic states 


" useful arts 


South Central or Gulf states 


" fine arts 


North Central or Lake " 


" literature 


Western or Mountain " 


Genealogy Heraldry 


Pacific states 


Ancient history 


South America 








Argentina Patagonia 










Medo-Persia [nations 




Races forming new European 


Colombia Panama Ecuadoi 


Rome Italy 








Other countries 


Paraguay Uruguay 




Oceania Polar regions 

94 ' 

Scotland Ireland (Eire) 

99 1 



England Wales 




Germany Austria Czecho- 

A 11 if tt\ 1 a Qia 

slovakia Poland Hungary 



A n if m 1 1 a 



New Guinea 





Spain Portugal 



Union of Sov. Soc. Rcpubs.'Rus.) 


Isolated ilands 


Norway Sweden Denmark 


Arctic regions 


Other countries 


Antarctic regions 


Complete tables 

including all the 


General works 

000 General works Prolegomena 

001 Knowledge and learning in general 

002 The book 

Science of the book, history of the book and book arts in general 

007 Activity and organization in general 

010 Bibliografy 

.1 Theory, utility, etc. .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays .5 Periodicals 
.6 Societies .7 Education, training, see also 020.7; .8 Polygrafy .9 History 

on General bibliografies Universal catalogs 

01 1 is by Authors. If by Subjects they go in 016. See also 028.S Reading of children 
Properly a catalog is of a special collection and so tells where the works may be 
found. A bibliografy disregards actual location and tells what there is,, but its con- 
tents can seldom be found in any one library 

012-016 include both bibliografies and catalogs. 017-019 is limited to catalogs of 
general collections 

012 Of individuals 

Alfabeted by subjects of bibliografies (bibliografees), not by compilers; e. g. Chaucer, 
Dante, Ruskin, etc. 

A bibliografy of an Individual may Include either works about or by the Individual, 
or both 

Authors on whom special collections are being made (e. g. in 800) attract their 
bibliografies to 6ame number, leaving only a reference here. Other Individual 
bibliografies class here, unless clearly limited to 6ome subject; e. g. artists or 
musicians, bibliografy of Wagner 016.78a 

013 Of special classes of authors 

Subdivided like the general classification, as indicated below. Lists of writings 
of such classes, if limited to a special subject, class with that subject; e.g. list 
of historical works by Jesuits 016.9. But in exceptional cases the bibliografy 
of a special class of authors may be put with that class; e.g. bibliografy of 
women's writings 396.58, tho 013.396 would be the better number in a general 

.020622 Writings of members of A L A 

.064 " " " " French academy 

.282 " " Roman catholics 

•378744 " " Harvard graduates 

.9 Writings of foren residents in a special country 

Often extended to one or more generations of descendants. This provides fof 

bibliografies in which nationality, not subject, is the important idea 

.91 Authors from special country^ 

Divided like 930-999 by country of origin and farther subdivided with 
o like 930-999 by country of adoption; e.g. 013.91485 bibliografy of writings 
of Swedes outside Sweden, 013.91485044 writings of Swedes in France, 
013.9148507 of Swedes in America. This groups under mother country; 
e.g. gathers together all lists of works by emigrant Swedes 

.930-990 Foren authors in special country 

Usually preferable to .91. Divided like 930-999 by country of adop- 
tion and farther subdivided with o like 930-999 for country of origin; 
e.g. 013.944 foren authors in France; 013.973 foren authors in U S; 
013.9730485 Swedish authors in U S; 013.9485073 American authors in 
Sweden. Ordinarily 013.94807 would be explicit enough; the longer 
number is not advised. This groups under adopted country; e.g. gathers 
under a given country all its foren authors 

014 Of special forms: anonyms, pseudonyms, etc. 

.1 American .a English .3 German, etc. like 030 


015 Of special countries 

Books publisht in the country. Publishers lists, current publications. Subdivided 
by countries like 940-909; e. g. 015.42, Bibliografy of books publisht in England, t« 
Lowndes or English catalog 

The history of literature, i. e. belles lettres, poetry, drama, fiction, etc. goes, of course, 
with those topics in 800; but the literary history of any given place or period covering 
the writings on all subjects as well as in literature, is bibliografy, and goes usually 
in 015, tho the literary history of some special class is 013 

016 Of special subjects 

Subdivided like the main classification, from 000-999; e. g. 016.01 Bibliografy ot 
bibliografies ; 016.091, of manuscripts; 016.5, of science; 016.942, of English history, 

See also next note 

Library and sale catalogs 

Catalogs of any special subject, whether subject, author, or dictionary, go under its 
subject number, in 016, which is the ruling heding wherever it conflicts with another. 
017-019 therefore includes only catalogs of general collections, limited to no one class 
or subject 

Under 017-019, 4 means catalogs of books for sale, not publisht, by booksellers. For 
publishers catalogs see 01$ 

017 Clast catalogs: systematic or logical 

.1 Public_ .2 Private .3*Auction .4 Booksellers 

Class here author and subject lists bound together, as they are much oftener used to 
see what has been written on some subject than whether a library has a certaia 

For all forms of alfabetio subject catalogs, see 019. See 016 for Bibliografies 

018 Author catalogs See OH for Bibliografies 

.1 Public .2 Private .3 Auction .4 Booksellers 

A volume containing both author and subject catalogs is more useful in 017. For 
auction catalogs of private libraries use 018.2, not 018.3. 018 includes accession, 
chronologic, and any other forms (except subject and dictionary) of catalogs of col- 

019 Dictionary catalogs Alfabeticoclast, etc. 

.1 Public .2 Private .3 Auction .4 Booksellers 

020 Library economy 


020-025 Science and administration of libraries in general 

021 Scope, founding, supporting 

022 Bildings and grounds 

023 Government and servis 

024 Regulations 

025 Administration 

026-027 Special libraries and collections; history, 
description and management 

026 Libraries on special subjects 

027 General libraries 
028-029 Allied subjects 

028 Reading and aids 

029 Literary methods 

010 Bibliografy 
090 Book rarities 

020.1 Theory 

.14 Library terms, definitions, etc. Discussion. For dictionaries, glossaries, etc. see 0JC.3 
.2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays .5 Periodicals 




























Societies, associations, clubs, conferences 

Official institutions; government department* 

For library commissions see 021.83 
Societies not under government control 
International associations 
National ■ 
Local clubs 

Associations of special groups 

State librarians, or class in 017.506 

Medical " " " " 026.6106 

Sunday school " " ■ 027.831 

Library dep't of N E A or class with subject in 031.3 
Mutual benefit associations 

Or class in 023 . 59, if preferd 

Library association publishing boards 

For children's library leagues see 027.6251 

Congresses, conferences, meetings, temporal/ organizations 
Commercial establishments Library Bureau 
For commercial circulars see 020.85 
Education Training Library schools 
Instruction, schools 

Standards location, cost, etc 
Library schools 

Use letter for each school, and if desired divide like 378 A-Z 
Summer schools 

Apprentis classes Training classes 
Correspondence schools 
Library institutes 

Similar to teachers institutes; local meetings with a conductor, for <lii« 

cussion of practical problems 

Courses in colleges and universities 
Courses in normal and high schools 

Private schools and instruction 
Research work 

Museums, exhibits 

Collections of illustrativ appliances, blanks, 6C0. 

Special pedagogic methods 

Competitions, prizes, traveling scholarships 

Individual polygrafy 

Extracts, maxims, anthologies 

Commercial circulars 

See also 020.65 Commercial establishments 

Curiosa, anecdotes, library humor, dummy book titles 
History of library economy 

For history of libraries both public and private see 027 

Lives of librarians are clast in 920.2. To keep them with the subject use 
020.9?. and for fotografs of librarians 020.921. Collected lives may be sepa- 
rated trom individual by use of the Olin booknumbers (following Index) 


021 Scope, usefulness and founding of libraries 

Also scope and founding of combined libraries and museums. Support, develop- 

.01 Arguments for libraries: purpose, benefits 

Impressivness of libraries. Discussion of free public libraries is better c'.ait 
here than in 037.4 

.02 Arguments against libraries: evils of libraries 

For paternalism in library see 031.201 

.03 Progress and future of libraries 

Reforms, improvements, projects, plans, profesies, library ideals 

.04 Ideals for special communities 

e.g. what a library can do for a manufacturing community 

.1 Library as a storehouse 

.16 Character of material appropriate to library 
.2 Library as an educator ; people's university 

Material on private reading is better in 038 than in 021 .2 

While the work of a library is nearly all educational in a broad sense, the rela- 
tions of the library to special classes of the community, outside of direct educa- 
tional work thru schools and home education work, ar best clast with libraries 
for special classe; in 027.6, or when a special subject predominates, in 026 

.201 Paternalism in library 

See also 024.58 Library censorship of news, 024.674 Restriction of Immoral 
books, 025.217 Exclusion of immoral or il made books 

.25 Library as a publisher 

.26 " bookseller 

.28 Work for special classes of users 

Physicians, lawyers, clergymen, women, foreners, etc. See also 021.3 

.3 Library in relation to schools and other institutions 

This is mainly for relations of general public libraries to school work. Class a 
library owned by and kept at the school in 027.82. School libraries, 371.622, is 
only to keep all school material together under 370. Class general work for 
children with children's libraries in 027.625. 

.31 Relations to teachers 
.32 " pupils 

Librarian's talks to pupils, either at schoolhouses or at library, on use of 

.33 Special libraries for schools 

Specially selected from general library and lent to school either for class or 
general school use. Duplicates for schools 


37 Work of individual libraries with schools 

Alfabeted by library; e.g. accounts of work with schools by Hartford public 
library under Hartford, by Osterhout library at Wilkesbarre under Osterhout 

.38 Relations to special institutions 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 021.38069 Library work with 


021.4 Home education 

This includes all servises or added fields of work undertaken by the library 
outside the use of books. For programs, reports, etc. of home education agen- 
cies, see 374 . x - -9 

.41 Study clubs Reading circles, etc. 
.42 Conferences, conventions, institutes, etc. 
.43 Lectures 

For extension courses, see 021 .44 

.44 Extension courses Lecture study 

.45 Entertainments: dramatic, musical, etc. 

.46 Museums and temporary exhibits 

.47 Science museums or collections 

.48 Art galleries " " 

.5 Library as a recreation 

Serving refreshments; e. g. tea 

.6 Library extension and cooperation 

For work done by the state see osi .8 

.61 Deliveries 

See also 025.6 and 033.16 

.62 Branches 

See also 093.15 

.63 Centralization Grouping of libraries 
.64 Cooperation between libraries 

Cooperation in any special department is clast with the department; e.g. 
interlibrary lending 035-6 

.65 Traveling libraries 

A collection (usually 35 to 100 volumes) either general or on one subject, 
lent to a community, library, study club or other organization. Book wagon 

.66 House libraries 

A small traveling library for use of a person or household. Originated 
at New York state library for isolated students 

.67 Home libraries 

Small libraries for children, each library kept at home of some child for 
use of a group, under supervision of a visitor. The libraries travel from 
group to group. Originated by Boston Children's aid society 

.7 Founding Developing and maintaining interest 

This is mainly for starting a library, interesting people and bringing them to 
the library. For most special methods of interesting those who ar alredy 
readers see 025 .5 and 025 .6 

.71 Personal canvass, visits and correspondence 
.72 Circulars 
.73 Advertizing 

In newspapers, posters, street cars, etc. 

.74 Press Publicity 

Discussion of use of newspaper colums (editorials, articles, letters, new book 
lists, etc.) to secure interest 

.75 Schools and teachers 

.76 Churches and ministers Pulpit 

.77 Literary and other organizations and institutions 

.78 Lectures Public meetings and addresses 

.79 Library propaganda 

Societies, local or general, for encouragement and stimulation 


1.8 Libraries and the state Library legislation 

.81 State supervision 

.82 Library departments or commissions 

Special work done by commissions is clast by its subject. Reports of com- 
missions, if largely a summary of the public libraries of the state, go in 027.4 
If important to keep all work c' commissions together, class their reports 

.83 Government aid 

.831 State grants of money 

.832 Local subsidies 

.84 Gifts of books 

.841 Public documents, etc. 

.842 Copyright books 

.85 Exchanges 

See 025 . 266 for systems of exchanges, management, routine in individual 
libraries. This number is for general exchanges by state or central authority 

.851 Local 
.852 Foren 

Vattemare international exchanges, Smithsonian exchanges 

.86 Privileges 

.861 Remitted duties Free importation 

.862 Free postage Franking privilege 

.863 Lower rates or special facilities Cheap library post 


.88 State or local hindrances Politics 

.89 Library legislation 

General; laws for a special subject ar clast with the subject; e.g. law for a 
library commission 021.82; law against injuring library books 024.8 

.891 National legislation 

.892 State " 

.893 Local legislation (county, city or village) 

.894-. 899 Legislation in special countries or places 

Divided like 940-999 

.9 Support, raising funds, etc. 

For state aid separate from local help see 021 .8 

.91 Taxes Appropriations Subsidies 

.92 Endowment 

.93 Gifts of money or books 

See also 021.84 Government gifts 

.94 Bequests 
.95 Subscriptions 

.96 Lectures Fairs Entertainments, etc. 

For raising money. For educational purposes ice 02i.43~-45 

.97 Membership fees 




.1 I 

. I 2 






• 2 3 







Library bildings 

Sec also 727.8 Architecture. For care of bilding see 035.9 

Location, site, etc. 

Location with reference to field of work 

Accessibility to population serve], to other libraries, educational institu 

tions, etc. 


With reference to space, air, light, soil, slope ot ground, etc. 

Provision for growth New bildings 

Delivery stations 
Newsrooms, reading rooms, etc. 
Material, protection 

Material: wood, brick, stone, steel, glass, etc. 

Relativ fitness for library bildings. See also 620.11 Strength ot materials: 
691 Bilding materials 

Fireproof construction 
Protection against fires 

Location and relativ efficiency of apparatus: hose, extinguishers, chemic 
engins, standpipes, etc. For watchman see 02s. 9. See also 614.84 Fire 


Library fires, burning of libraries 

Other dangers 

Flood, earthquake, cyclone, war, etc. 

Design Plans Construction 

Alfabet plans, elevations, exteriors, general descriptions, etc. by name of 
library. Use .3 1- .33 only for indexing 

By kind of library 

Divided like 027. Group plans for public libraries, 022.314, in 3 subsections 
022.3141 Libraries under 20,000, small: i.e. under this number list 
plans of such libraries, but shelv them in their alfabetic place 
under 022 .3 
.3142 Libraries from 20,000-100,000, medium 
.3143 Libraries over 100,000, large 

By subject 

Divided like 026; e.g. under 022.3234 list plans of law libraries so that they 
may be redily referd to in 022.3, or ' n journals or reports clast elsewhere 

By country 

Divide like 930-999 and use like 022.31-.32 only for reference 

Design and decoration 

Divided like 729 as follows: 

Elevation, style 

Only for general discussion; class elevation of a special library under 
022 .3 


Number, distribution and dimensions of rooms; special forms, spiral, 
circular, etc. See note under 022. 341 


2.343 Artistic forms 

344 Painted decoration, etc. 

.348 Staind glass 

.349 Accessories and fixt furniture 

Include paintings, statues, busts, etc. as decoration for hilding. Special 
library furniture, bookcases, loan desks, etc. ar 022.9 

.35 Construction 

Divided like 721. Class here only discussions limited to library bildings 


.37 Library rooms as part of other bilding 

.39 Remodeling old bilding 

Either other bildings (churches, residences, etc.) for library purposes, or 
remodeling a library to meet modern conditions 

.4 Storage and shelving 

For furnishing of private libraries see 645.63 

.41 Storage 

Capacity per square meter of floor, or running meter of cases; allowance for 

.42 Shelving round sides of room 

.421 Wall cases 

.422 Alcoves 

.423 Galleries 

.43 Stacks 

.431 Stack rooms 

Dimensions, maximum width with natural light only, dumber of 
rooms, one or several. Number of floors 

.432 Arrangement of cases 

Parallel, radial; light; open access, supervision 

.433 Movable cases 

.434 Ailes 

Position, width 

•435 Flooring of stack rooms 

Solid, glass, open grating 

,438 Maximum floor load 

.44 Cases, tiers 

.44 1 Material: wood, metal, glass 

.442 Dimensions of case and tier, hight, length 

See also 022.452 Dimensions of shelf 

.443 Plan of cases 

Open or closed ends and backs; I or 2 ledges 

.444 Fixt or movable shelvs 

.445 Quarto and folio shelving 

.45 Shelvs 
.451 Material 

Wood, metal, glass, stone, sheet iron, skeleton steel 

.452 Dimensions; length, depth, thickness; standard shelf 

.453 Surface finish or covering 

Paint, varnish, cloth or lether covering 

.454 Shelf supports: pins, brackets 


2.46 Cases and shelvs for large books, lying flat 

Dimensions, sliding or roller shelvs, etc. 

.47 Closed cases Doors: glass, screen or wood 

.48 Special cases 

.481 Hanging presses 

.482 New-book cases 


.485 Cases for maps, engravings, etc. 

.486 Cases for fotografs 

.487 Cases for lantern slides 

.5 Reading rooms 

See also 022.63 Rooms for special material 

.51 General reading room Central hall 

.52 Small reading rooms Study rooms 

Gallery study tables. For seminar and class rooms see 02a. 

.53 Reference room 

.54 Standard library 

.57 Women's room 

.58 Children's room 

.6 Administration and special rooms 

.61 Rooms for trustees or outside organizations 

.6 1 1 For trustees 

.612 " committees, commission, school board 

.614 For local societies 

.62 Administration rooms 

Divided like 025 

.63 Rooms for special material 

Divided like 025.17; e.g. 022.6332 Newsrooms 

.64 Special collections: patents, local history, etc 

.65 Instruction rooms, etc. 

.651 Lecture room or hall, theater, concert 

.653 Seminar room, class room 

.655 Museum 

.656 Art gallery 

.657 Exhibition room 

.658 Fotografic and dark room 

.659 Piano and music room 


022.66 Recreation rooms 

.661 Conversation room 

.662 Chess room 

.663 Other games 

.664 Billiards 

.665 Bowling 

.666 Gymnasium 

.68 Other rooms Lavatories, etc. 

For helth, comfort or convenience 

.681 Entrance halls and corridors 

.682 Waiting room » 

.683 Telefone booth or room 

.684 Lunch room 

.685 Coat room 

.686 Toilet room, lavatories, etc. 

.687 Garage, bicycle room, etc. 

.69 Residence quarters 

.691 Librarian 

.695 Janitor 

.7 Lighting 

.71 Natural lighting; windows 

For architectural side see 022.358; for staind glass see 022.348 

Position of windows; size and number; shape. Provision for opening; 

sliding, hinged or pivot sash, French casement 







Artificial lights: materials 


Lamps, oil, etc. 










Portable or semiportable lights 


Table lights 




Bracket lamps 




Lighting of stacks by electricity 

Fixt or movable lights 


Heating and ventilation 

General hygiene of library. Divided like 697 








.92 I 

•9 2 3 


•93 2 













•9 6 3 


fixtures, furniture, fittings 

General furniture 

Revolving cases 

Vertical files 

See also 6sl.2j6 Otfis equipment 

Public conveniences 
Umbrella stands 

Bulletin boards 
Furniture for exhibiting or using books, pictures,- etc. 
Exhibition cases, fixt or movable 
Wing frames 

Reference book holders 
Magazine and newspaper racks, files, etc. 
Appliances for getting or carrying books or messages 
Ladders, stepladders 
Book trucks 
Carrying trays 
Mechanical carriers 

See also 621.867 Conveyers, Telferage 

Book lifts 
Pneumatic tubes 
Speaking tubes 
Interdepartment telefones 

See also 621.3853 Intercommunicating telefones 


For carrying persons, goods, etc. See also 621.877. Class here unly dis- 
cussion of them for library use. For book lifts see 022.945 

Floor coverings 

For permanent flooring see ou.jc* 

Linoleum, corticine 




Door mats: rubber, wire, etc. 

Desk fittings, etc. 

Divided like 651.465 


023 Government and servis Personnel 

For government of special kinds of libraries see 026 and 027 

• 1 

{"*nncrifiirinn sinH huln wc fnr trftvprninff KnarH 
wUllolllUUUll clHU uyicLvvo 1UI eUVCl UHl^; 

Charters. Local ordinances, etc. 

rappUlUllllClIl dllU IC11U1C Ul UlllaClo U11U~1 id*-' VCl lllllt uuaiu 

State or local civil servis. Special library examinations. Promotions. Pro- 

bationary appointments. Temporary or limited period appointments. Ap. 

pointments by executiv offiser 


Governing board 

Trustees, committees, directors, regents, etc. 

1 T 

IvfptlinH nf Qplpot 1 r»rt 

Election, appoint lent, exofficio trustees, close corporation, i.e. selfperpetu- 

ating body 






Women as trustees 



n 1 n q vt r»i 1 H m inter ro 1 1 r\ti 




Time and place of meetings 


Executiv Consulting librarian Library expert 

For appointment see 023.2. See also 023. 5-, 9, which apply to executiv as 

well as to staf 


Responsibilities and privileges 



Including all subordinate positions. For method of appointment see 023.2 

•5 1 


•5 2 

Personality Character Moral and social equipment 


Mental equipment Natural ability 


General education 


Professional education Training 

See also 020.7 Library schools 


Reading of librarians 


Physical equipment Helth Exercise 


Staf meetings Relations to hed 


Women as librarians 

Including difference in salaries of men and women 


Worries and trials 




Library benefit associations 

See also 020.626 


023.6 Daily hours Holidays and vacations 

.61 Daily hours 

.611 Records Record clock 

.612 Punctuality Tardiness 

.62 Hours for meals Lunch room 

See also 022.6 Special rooms 

.63 Special work 

.631 Evening 

.632 Sunday 

.633 Holiday 

.64 Work by hour Overtime, extra hours 

.641 Making up lost time 

.642 Payment for overtime 

.643 Effect of overstrain on employees 

.644 " " on servis 

.65 Holidays 

.651 Weekly half holiday 

.652 Legal holidays 

.66 Vacations 

.661 Time of year 

.662 Length 

.663 Continuous or in instalments 

.664 Sabbatic year 

.67 Absences for sickness or other causes 

See also 023.641 Making up lost time 

.60 Attendance at meetings 

.601 International 

.682 National 

.683 State 

.684 Local 

.7 Titles and duties 

.701 Specialization Monotony Change of work 

.70? Understudies 

.71 Executiv Director 

Chief or principal librarian, keeper, etc. 

.72 Department, division or section heds 

Librarians, sublibrarians, chiefs, heds 

. 73 Reference staf or faculty 

Librarians of special subjects 

74 Assistants Catalogers 


023.7$ Pupil assistants, apprentises, volunteers 

Paid mainly by instruction 

.76 Clerical servis 

.761 Stenografers 

.762 Typewriters 

.763 Clerks 

.77 Mechanic servis 

.771 Binders 

.772 Electricians 

.773 Carpenters 

.774 Other mechanics 

.78 Pages, messengers, ushers, runners 

.79 Janitor servis 

.791 Janitor 

.792 Watchman 

.793 Elevatormen 

.794 Attendants, in coat room, etc. 

.795 Porters and packers 

.796 Cleaners, etc. 

.8 Remuneration: salaries, pensions 

Divided like 023.7. See 023.56 for difference between salaries of men an« 

.9 Rules for staf Codes 

Made by trustees or librarian 

For punctuality see 023 .612. For absences or sick leave see 013.67 

.91 Conversation 

.92 Personal calls or work 

.93 Soliciting money, subscriptions, contributions 

.94 Respect and care for library property 

.95 Uniforms 

.96 Curtesy Indifference 

See also 174 Business ethics; 177. 1 Curtesy (social ethic) 

024 Rules for readers 

For reference and circulating departments 

.1 Readers qualifications 

. 1 1 Age 

.12 Residence 

.13 Relations to community 

Membership in society, club or institution; official position; profession, etc, 

.14 Responsibility 

Reference, guarantor, money deposit 

.15 Registration 

.16 " for limited period 


,2 Fees Assessments Free use 

21 Membership fees 

Mercantil libraries, atheneums 

22 Book fees 

"Circulating library fees. For fines see 024.6 

23 Fees for readers card. etc. 

For petty expenses to gard against wastefulness 


25 Extra library fees; e. g. college library 

26 Public library fee 

For subscription departments see 024.76 


28 Free use 

3 Hours of opening 

31 Number of hours 

32 Time of day: morning, aftornoon 

33 Evening opening 

34 All night 

35 Intermission for meals 

Closing library during lunch, dinner or supper hours 

36 Hours for reference and circulating departments 

37 Cooperation of local libraries 

Agreement on hours so that some library shal always be open 

4 Days of opening or closing 

4T Sunday 

.42 Special religious days 

43 Holidays 

44 Vacation, summer 

.45 Inventory Examination 

Closing for annual examination of library 

46 Special occasions 

Closing for recataloging or rearrangement; public calamity, detht 

,47 Closing for epidemics 

,5 Reference use 

.51 Reading room rules 
,52 Decorum in library 

Unwelcome visitors; library cranks 

,53 Ladies in reading room 

For women's separate reading room see on 57 

.54 Access to catalogs 

For access to librarian see 023 .43 

,55 Open reference shelvs 

.56 Open shelvs in general 

.57 Restricted or selected access to shelvs 

Restriction as to persons or subjects 

58 Library censorship of news 

Obliteration or suppression, in reading room copies, of newspaper reports 
tending to lower morals; e.g. betting and racing news, report* of crime, 
criminal trials. See also o. 1 701 Paternalism 


024.6 Home use Loans 

.61 Number of books 

.611 Two book system 

.612 Summer vacation cards 

.62 Time: 7-day books, new periodicals 

.63 Delinquencies Fines 

For injuries, etc. see 024.8 

.64 Renewals 

Extension of loans by library 

.65 Relending 

Lending by borrowers 

.66 Reservations 

.67 Restricted books 
.671 Reference 
.672 Rare or costly 

.673 Medical 

.674 Of immoral tendency Library inferno 

See also 021.201 Paternalism 

.68 Interlibrary loans 

.681 International loans 

•7 Special privileges 

.71 Extra books Teachers cards 

.72 Extra time 

.73 Remission of fines Excuses 

.74 Favord classes: trustees, faculty, staf 

.77 Lending restricted books 

.78 Subscription department 

Novels and popular new books lent for fee. bxtra copies lor rent in public 
(tax supported) libraries 

.8 Injuries Abuses 

.81 Defacements 

Marks; corrections, notes and comments 

.82 Mutilation 

.83 Removal of plates, maps, etc. 

.84 Mutilating newspapers 

.85 Losses by readers; payment 

.86 Thefts 

.87 Restitutions 


.89 Prevention of abuse 

Methods of preventing injury and inducing better .-are of books. For 
children's library leag see 027.6251 

.9 Other rules 














Administration Departments 


Supervision 025.1 Executiv 



.3 Catalog 
.4 Classification 
. 5 Reference 
. 6 Loan 
.7 Binding 

Care of bilding 

025 is for the librarian's part. The trustees bild and furnish (on); make rules 
for government and servis (033), and regulations for readers (034): but the 
administration involvs questions of its own, which, however, ar closely allied 
to topics in 021-034 and elsewhere; e. g. the librarian must know his side of 
binding, and be able to giv proper directions and supervision, but need not know 
all the details of the binder's craft (686) 

Administration includes .1 Supervision .3 Acquisition .3-.6 Utilization 
.7-.9 Preservation; i. e. the librarian's duty to books is to Get, Use, Keep 

Executiv General supervision 


S«e also 023 .36 Financial administration of governing board 

Invested funds, endowments, gifts 

See also 021 .9 Support 

Appropriations: local or state 

See also 021 .8 Libraries and the state 

Other money receivd 

Fees, assessments, fines, payments for special servises and investigations, 


Accounts: receits and expenses, bookkeeping 
Salary payments Staf payrolls 

See also 023 .8 Salaries 

Expenses: fittings, supplies and incidentals 

Class with a department supplies peculiar to it, their kind, quality, cost, 
etc.; e.g. catalog cards with 025.3. Eor bookbuying see 025.2 

Cost of preparing books for shelvs 
Printing and publications 

Both preparation of material and details of printing, including size, stvle, 
type, etc. ^ 

Blanks and forms, stationery 

If relating to a special department class with it; e.g. bookplates in 025.2) 

Reports and statistics 

See also 037 


See also 017-019. For cataloging see 035.3 


Frequency, advertisements, etc. See also 017-019. For preparation of book 
lists see 025 .3; for newspaper publication of new book lists, see 031 .74 

Library magazine or paper 

Duplicating by neostyle, carbon, etc. 

For machines and processes see 652. Class here discussion of fitness fof 

library applications only 


15 Correspondence 

151 Stationery 

Material, weight, size and headings 

152 Stenografers, dictation machines 

1 53 Typewriters 

154 Copiers 

Roller, press, carbons, portable. See also ois.uq 

156 Letter files 

See 651.5 for methods 

17 Treatment of special material 

For general discussions of arrangement, care and use. Cla3S special work undel 
each department: e.g. cataloging of incunabula in 025.3 

171 Manuscripts, archives and rarities 

Divided like ogo 

172 Pamflets 

173 Serials, documents, etc. 

1 Periodicals, magazines, etc. 

2 Newspapers 

3 Annual reports 

4 Documents; national, state and local 

174 Broadsides 

175 Clippings 

176 Maps and charts 

177 Art material 

Engravings, fotografs, drawings, lantern slides 

178 Music: scores, rolls, etc. 

179 Museum material 

18 Administration of individual libraries 

Alfabet by name of library. For administration of special kinds of libraries- 
gee 026 and 027 


025.2 Accession Acquisition 


o»s . a 1 The library and its selection 

.21 Methods of acquisition 

. 13 Ordering and receiving 

.34 Accessioning 

.35 Marks of ownership 

.36 Duplicate and exchange department 

. 39 Special material 

.21 The library and its selection 

.211 What? Proper proportion of subjects 

Division of funds; endowments for special subjects; accession statistics 

.212 Specialization by libraries 

Division of subjects among local libraries. See also 021 .64 Coopera- 
tion. For collections on special subjects, economics, science, etc. see 



.214 Who? Selectors of books 

Trustees or trustee committee; librarian; staf committee, book board; 
advisory committee from outside; experts; central body (bibiiografic 
bureau, state commission, etc.) 

.215 How? Methods of selection 

Recommendations by readers; personal examination; visits to book 

stores; books sent on approval; printed reviews; first selection for new 

library. Want lists, books under consideration 

For lists of best books, ALA catalog, annual lists, etc. see 016 

For principles of selection and choice of editions see 038.3 

For selection for special classes see 037 .6, 037 .8, 038 . 5 

.216 Buying fiction 

Duplicating popular fiction: extra copies of best fiction 

.217 Rejection, exclusion, censorship 

Pernicious literature; badly made books; yellow journals. See alio 
03I.30I Paternalism 

.218 Weeding out, sifting 

Separating books no longer of servis to library. For wltn^rawal book 
see 035 . 349 

.22 Methods of acquisition 
.221 Buying new books 

Local bookstore; book center, general agent; publishers; subscription 
agent; bids on special lists; foren books thru home or American agent, 
thru foren agent. See also special material 035.39 

.222 Prices Discounts 

Net books. For free importation, see 03i.86r 

.223 Buying old books 

Secondhand catalogs; remainders, trade sales; dealers in old book*, 

bookstalls; value of old books 

.224 Auctions 

For auction catalogs see 017-019 

.225 Buying libraries in block 
.226 Exchange 
.227 Gifts 

Request blanks and records; gift lists; acknowledgments; privately 

printed books; propagandist books 

For government documents and copyright books see 031.84 
See 035.368 for gifts from library to library 


025.23 Ordering and receiving 

For gifts, see 025.227; for exchanges, see 025 . 266 

.231 Ordering 

Order slips or lists; order books or sheets; copies of oiders; order index- 
order numbers 

.232 Examination for duplicates and verification 

Misspeld names; changed titles; separates 

.233 Reception and opening 

Express, mail, etc; frequency of shipments; free delivery 

.234 Checking bills 

Prices and amounts 

.235 Collation 

.236 Receit index 

.24 Accession book 

.241 Importance of record 

Accession book vs shelflist. etc. 

.242 Printed headings Items Fulness of entries 

.243 Accession number: volume, work or invoice 

.244 Accession stamp 

.249 Withdrawal book 

.25 Ownership marks 

.251 Private marks 

.252 Stamping 

Ink, embossing, or perforating stamp. Table and foot power 

.253 Book plates Plating 

See also 097 

.254 Library name on outside of book 

Gilding or impressing name of library on back or covers 

.255 Card pockets 

,26 Duplicate and exchange departments 
.261 Duplicates 

Definition, rules and decisions, marking, stamp, plate, etc. 

.262 Duplicates of institution's own publications 

Either of library or larger organization including it; e.g. duplicate Colum 
bia publications in Columbia university library; stock on hand 

.263 Cataloging 

.264 Arrangement 

.265 Sale for cash 

.266 Exchange 

General exchange of publications; exchange accounts 

.267 Clearing house for duplicates 

See also 021.852 Vattemare international exchanges. Smithsonian ex- 

.268 Gifts to other libraries 
.269 Deposits 

By large libraries in small or in hospitals, prisons, etc also deposits in 
great collections by individuals or small libraries. See also 025 .2 18 

.29 Special material 

Divided like 025.17 


035.3 Catalog 

For printed catalogs themselvs, see 017-019. This is for cataloging 
Printed, manuscript, or card; Author, subject, title, clast; Dictionary or 
combined; Cooperativ rules; Size notation; Cooperativ cataloging; 
Duplicated titles, print or photografy; Mechanical accessories, cards, 
cases and fittings, drawers, trays, blocks, checks, guides, labels 

.4 Classification 

For philosofic classification of knowledge, see 1 1 2 Methodology. This is 
for practical classing of books, pamflets, and notes, rather than theo- 
retic speculation 

On shelvs; in catalogs; in dictionary catalogs; Systems of notation, fig- 
ures, letters, symbols, combined; Importance and advantages; Diffi- 
culties; Close vs broad classing; Mnemonic features; Basis of division; 
Coordination of special subjects 

.5 Reference Reference books Aids to readers 

See 038 lor general discussion of reading and aids. This is limited to 
library administration 

.6 Loan 

See 024 for rules for readers 

indicators; Charging systems, legers vs cards; Book cards, marks, pockets; 
Call slips, readers cards; Notises. reservs; Registers; Interlibrary loans; 
Mechanical accessories, slip cases, trays, tills, stamps, etc. 

.7 Binding and repair 

See also 686 Bookbinding 

Materials, durability, tight vs spring backs, sewing, color, lettering; Paper 
covers and temporary binders; Restoring, mending, cleaning, and oiling 

.8 Shelf 

See also 022.4, Shelving 

Arrangement; Shelf numbers; Shelf and book labels; Fixt and relativ 
locations; Sizes of shelvs; Arrangement and preservation of public 
documents, pamflets. papers, manuscripts, maps, drawings, and plans, 
music, broadsides, clippings; Chaind books; Injuries, heat, gas, insects; 
Stock taking; Shelf lists 

,9 Bilding: care, cleaning, safety Janitor Police 

See 032 for bilding and fittings. This is janitor s department 


026 Libraries on special subjects 

Histories, reports, statistics, bulletins, handbooks, circulars and every 
thing about the library not more required in preceding sections. Sub 
divided by adding clas number of subject; e. g. a Medical library is 026.61; 
a Ches library, 026.7941; but the catalog of a ches library is 016.7941. Blanki 
etc from any library go under subjects in 025, as more used in studying topics- 
but, if history of individual libraries is specialized, duplicates ar also desir. 
able under the library in 026-7, thus making a complete set of its publicationi 

027 General libraries 

This includes both circulating and reference: i. e. all not limited to special 

Clas here histories, reports, statistics, bulletins, handbooks, circulars and 
everything about the library not more required in preceding sections 

Subdivided if wisht (except 027.6 and 027.8) by countries, like 930-999; 
e. g. 027.744 College libraries in France. Or if wisht, group all by geografic 
location, using o in 4th place to indicate no division by kinds of libraries; 
e. g. 027.044 Libraries of France; 027.07471 Libraries of N. Y. city 

A private library is still clast 027.1, after it has been sold or merged in 
a public library. But a society library changed to a free public should 
take 027.4 for all publications after the change 

.1 Private and family 

.2 Proprietary, society, club and Atheneum 

.2 is limited to libraries that ar semiprivate, requiring an election for 
admission, while .3 includes all open to any one on payment of a fee. It 
is the difference between a club and a hotel. .3 is for libraries run as a 
business. A mercantil library, even tho it has endowments, if open with- 
out individual election, goes in .3 as a subsidized public subscription 
library. Many private subscription libraries go in .2 

.3 Subscription Circulating 

Mudie's, Booklovers, etc. 


027.4 Free public Rate supported Endowd 

Public library commissions. Fee also 33i-8s Libraries in intellectual life of 
laboring classes, and 027, last note 

.42 Special kinds of public libraries 

.422 According to area servd 

For national and state libraries see 027.5; see also 021.6 Library exten- 
sion, 021.65 Traveling libraries 

2 Urban, city 

3 Rural, country 

Include here general discussions of village libraries 

4 County 

5 Township 

New England 4 town ' libraries 

6 District School district 

See also 027.8 School libraries 

.423 According to means of support 

See also 021.9 Library support 

2 Rate or tax supported 

3 Endowd 

.424 According to function 

2 Circulating 

Free circulating libraries; for circulating libraries charging rental or 
fee see 027.3. See also 024.6 Rules for home use, 025.6 Loan depart- 
ment administration 

3 Reference 

See also 024.5 Rules for reference use, 025.5 Reference department 


027.5 State and government 
.6 For special classes 

See also 021.28 Library's educational work for special classes of users, 026 
Libraries on special subjects. A workmen's library of books on engineering is 
clast 026.62, not here, as the subject is more useful than the clas of readers 

.61 General questions 

.62 Libraries conducted with reference to age and sex 
.621 General questions 

.622 Libraries for adults 

For religious organization libraries for adults sec 027.674 

.623 Men 

For religious organization libraries for men see 0^7.6742 

.624 Women 

For women's room see 022.57. For religious organization libraries for 
women see 027.6743 

.62 5 Children's and yttng people's libraries and departments 

Library work with children. See also 021.3 Library in relation to 
schools and the yung, 021.67 Home libraries, 022.58 Children's room, 
027.675 Religious organization libraries for yung people, 027.8 School 
libraries, Sundayschool libraries, 028.5 Reading of yung 

1 General questions Method 

12 Instruction in use of books and catalog 

13 Disciplin 

15 Story telling 

.626 Groups by age 

Picture book group 

.627 Boys libraries 

Boy scout libraries, etc. For religious organization libraries for boys 
see 027.6752 

.628 Girls libraries 

Campfire girls libraries, etc. For religious organization libraries for 
girls see 027.6753 

.63 Foreners and special racial groups 

For library's educational work for foreners see 021.28 

.632 According to language 

Divide like 400, preferably using country divisions (027.633-.639) when 

.633-639 According to country of origin 

Divide like 930-909, e. g. libraries for negroes 027.636. Divide by 
country when possible, using language divisions (027.632) for groups 
like Semitic, Aryan, Teutonic, English etc 

.64 Industrial classes Workmen's libraries 

For discussion of library in relation to intellectual life of laboring classes 
see 331-85 

.642 Factory 

.643 Railroad 

.644 Marine Ship libraries 

Merchant marine libraries, library work with sailors, libraries in sailors 
homes. For warship libraries and library work with navy see 027.653 


027.65 Government units 

For general national and state libraries see 027. 5. For such government 
department libraries as ar primarily libraries on special subjects, sec 026 

.652 Army: military post libraries, camp libraries 

Work with soldiers. See also 940.477 Welfare work in World war 

.653 Navy: warships, navyyards 

For merchant ship libraries see 027.644 

.655 Police stations 

.656 Fire stations 

Clas here libraries for firemen, even when the fire organizations ar voluntary 

.657 Lifesaving servis: stations, lighthouses Bridge tenders 

.66 Welfare institutions Work for the afflicted 

.662 Hospitals and asylums 

1 General questions 

2 General hospitals Sanitariums 

3 Insane Feebleminded 

4 Def Dum 

5 Poorhouses 

6 Libraries for aged, infirm, invalids 
.663 Blind 

Library work for blind; reading for blind; types 

.664 Reformatories 

.665 Prisons 

.67 Religious organizations 

See also 026.2 Religious libraries, 027.83 Sundayschool and parish libraries 

.672 Monastic 

.673 Religious societies 

Salvation army 

.674 Adults 

2 Men 

See also 267.3332 Library as part of Y M C A 

3 Women 

See also 267 SS32 Library as part of Y W C A 

.675 Yung people 

2 Boys 

3 Girls 

.678 Sectarian (Christian) 

Not limited as to subject but selected with sectarian bias. Divide like 280 

.679 Non-Christian religious organizations 

Divide like 290 

.68 Social groups 

Social clubs, hotels, ocean liners. For society and club libraries where the 
library is the primary consideration see 027.2j027.68 is for libraries conducted 
incidentally (with or without charge) in connection with social clubs etc 

.69 Other 

Clas under 027.62-.68 libraries coverd by those general heds, even if not 
specificly mentiond. Clas here only those libraries not otherwize provided 
for. Divide like main clasification 

.7 College, university 

For libraries of professional and technical schools see 026 


027.8 School Sundayschool Parish 

.81 General questions 

.82 School libraries 

See also 021.3 Library work in relation to schools and the yung, 027.625 
Children's libraries, 027.7 College and university libraries, 028. 5 Reading 
of yung, 371.64 Libraries as school equipment 

.822 Types 

2 Elementary 

22 Kindergarten 

3 Secondary 

4 Traveling 

See also 021.65 Traveling libraries in general 

.823-829 In special countries 

Divide like 930-999 

.83 Sundayschool and parish libraries, etc 

.831 Sundayschool libraries 

See also 268.233 Library as part of Sundayschool equipment, 268.336 
Librarian as part of Sundayschool personnel 

.832 Parish or parochial libraries 

See also 257 Parish educational work 

.833-839 In special countries 

Divide like 930-999 

.9 Free reading rooms and newsrooms 

See also 022.17 Location of branch newsrooms and reading rooms, 022.5 Reading 
rooms (under Library bildings), 024.5 Rules for reference use, 025.5 Administration 
of reference department 

.92 Reading rooms 

See also 331.85 Reading rooms in relation to intellectual life of laboring classes 

.922 Newsrooms 

See also 022.6332 Newsrooms, under Library bildings 

•93~99 I n special countries 

Divide like 930-999 


Reading and aids 

See 374.1— .2 Self education by private reading and reading circles 


Tasting, skipping, reviewing, making synopses, abstracts, extracts, and 

index rerums (see 029), book marking 

Choice of editions 

Annotations, indexes, paper, type 

Courses of reading 

Both discussion and lists of books 

For sets of books representing prescribed courses for general culture, e. g. 
Harvard classics, see 080 

Fiction Novel reading 

Discussion. Short selected lists may be put here, tho all fiction lists are 
better together in 016.823 (in German libraries 016.833, French libraries 
016.843, etc.) 

Reading of young Juvenils 

Both discussion and lists of books 

Professorships of books and reading 

Lectures. Stimulus and guidance in schools 

Use of reference books 
Aids to readers 

Guidance, printed or personal. See also 028.6 and 025.5 

Character of reading in libraries 

Literary methods and laborsavers 

Much in 025 and 028 belongs equally under 029 In its full meaning, but 

practical convenience is best servd by referring to 025 and 028 insted of 
repeating the heds 

Study and teaching 

Exact reference; standard sizes; use of colors; thought study; intercalation 
or card system (see 025.3); cooperativ methods; records vs memory, etc. 
See 653 Abbreviations and shorthand; 154.1 Mnemonics; 035.4 Classifi- 

.1 is for what one learns how to do by an improved method 

.2 is for articles which one must make or buy in order to utilize. Where a 

pamfiet covers both appliance and method, class with predominant feature 

Appliances Laborsaving tools and devices 

See also 651. Most literary laborsaving devices go also under 651, Oftis 
equipment and methods; and are best kept together there; e. g. all offis 
and study furniture, fittings and supplies, cases, bookholders, reading 
desks, pigeonholes, files, etc. For pamfiet, map, etc. cases, see 025.8; for 
binders, 025.7 

Clippings Scrapbooks or files 

See also Files, 651.5 

Notebooks, notetaking, abstracting, etc. 

Indexing Index rerums Printed and patent indexes 

For alfabeting and transliteration see 025.3 

Authorship Writing for press Copy and proof 

See also 655.25 Proofreading; 655.52 Relations to publishers 


030 General cyclopedias 

Subdivided according to language 

031 American 

Limited to cyclopedias in English publisht in North America 

032 English 

All cyclopedias in English publisht outside North America 

033-036 Divided by language like 430-460 

E.g. 033 German, 033.931 Dutch, 034 French, 034.99 Catalan. But clas 
Scandinavian cyclopedias in 038 

037 Russian 

.8 Other Slavic or Slavonic 

Divided like 491.8; e.g. 037.8s Polish 

.9 Ukrainian Ruthenian 

038 Scandinavian 

.6-82 divided like 439. 6-82; e.g. 038.82 Norwegian 

039 Other 

Divided by language like 420-499, except for those specially provided for 
above; e.g. 039.89 Modern Greek, 039.94511 Hungarian 

040 General collected essays 

Subdivided like 030 

050 General periodicals Magazines 

Subdivided like 030 

060 General learned societies 

Subdivided according to country 

Academies of Paris, Berlin, Vienna, etc. Societies on a specific subject go with 
that subject; e.g. 550.6 Geologic societies. See also 360 Institutions and associa- 
tions, for filanthropic, political, social and similar organizations 

061-067 divided like 071-077 

E.g. 061.44 Massachusetts learned societies, 061.2 Mexican, 063.8 Polish, 
066.9 Portuguese 

068 Other 

Divided geografically like 930-999, except for those specially provided for 
above; e.g. 068.481 Norwegian, 068.82 Argentine 


069 Museums Museum economy 

The following classification is somewhat reduced from the schedules 
prepared by a committee of the American Association of Museums, 
consisting of L. V. Coleman, chairman, E. O. Hovey, H. W. Kent 
and H. L. Madison. Dcvelopt primarily for museum use, many 
subjects ar included in the ful schedules (for which see eds. 12 and 
13) for which provision is made elsewhere in the main classification. 
For these it is recommended that in general the other number be 
used (e.g. see note under 069.018). For complete list of form 
divisions see Table 2 following Relativ index 

.01 Theory: Objectivs, ideals, scope, etc. 

.011 may be divided like .01 in Table 2 following Relativ 
index, e.g. 069.01 11 General purpose of museums 
.012 Museums from standpoint of support and control 

.013 Public .016 Elementary and secondary 

.014 Association Society school Children's 

.015 College University .017 Private 

.018 Museums from standpoint of field coverd 

Including discussion of possible range of museum subjects 
and theoretic discussions on general museums covering 
several subjects, e.g. science, art and history. Material 
on museums devoted to a single subject may also be clast 
here, subdividing .018 like the whole classification, e.g. 
069.0185 Science museums; but in general prefer specific 
subject, e.g. 507.4 Science museums 
.019 Museums from other standpoints 

According to phisical character, outdoor museums, 
expositions, etc. 


069.1 Educational and recreational functions 

.2 Buildings 

.3 Equipment Furnishings Supplies 

.4 Collecting Preparing Repairing Restoring 

.5 Collections Exhibits 

.6 Administration 

.7 Publications and publishing 

.8 Research 

069.1 Educational and recreational functions 

Including museum functions in Americanization, conservation, 


.107 Principles of museum education 

Museum work with children, school service, adult 


.13 Lending objects, collections, exhibits 

For scope and character of lending collections see 069.56 
.14 Lending slides, films, projectors 

Includes lending of written lectures to accompany slides; 

also sale and exchange of slides and films. For scope of 

slide and film collections see 069.57 


069.15 Museum instruction 

Information buros, lectures, story hours, museum games, 
study clubs, field instruction, training teachers in use of 
museum facilities, etc. 
.16 Music in museums .18 Publicity 
.2 Buildings 

Clas here general works on museum buildings and works includ- 
ing descriptions and pictures of a considerable number of build- 
ings. Descriptions and pictures of an individual museum ar best 
clast with history of that museum in 069.09 
.21 Location, site, improvement of grounds, etc. 

.22 Architectural design and decoration 

.23 Materials Construction 

Including preservation and repair. Foundations, walls, 
roofs, floors, ceilings, windows and doors, stairs, fire escapes, 

.24 Construction of special rooms 

Including museum rooms in schools, libraries, etc. May be 

alfabeted by rooms 
.28 Reconstruction 

Remodeling, catastrofies, etc. 
.29 Service construction 

Including service machinery, fixtures and fittings. Plumbing, 

lighting, heating and air conditioning, power construction, 

fire protection, 1st aid cabinets, etc. For fixtures for specific 

rooms see 069.36 

.3 Equipment Furnishings Supplies 

For service equipment see 069.29 
.31 Exhibit cases Screens Pedestals 

Cases, etc. for special purposes should be clast with purpose 
.32 Exhibit apparatus 

Projection, viewing and sound apparatus. Lanterns, phono- 

grafs, etc. 

.33 Furnishings Fittings Furniture 

Including desk fittings, tools, implements, storage containers, 
museum glasware, etc. When limited to special purpose clas 
with purpose; furnishings for special rooms clas in 069.36 

.34 Supplies General materials 

Cleaning supplies and use, fuel, stationery, etc. Materials 
for general use: Wood, stone, metal, paper, glas, chemicals, 
glues, etc. 

.36 Equipment of special rooms 

May be alfabeted by rooms 

.4 Collecting Preparing Repairing Restoring 

This section is for all methods, special equipment and materials 
involvd in preparing objects and specimens for exhibit or for 
incorporation into a study collection. Since preparation of 
certain kinds of material is begun in the field, it is impossible 
to divorce the collecting from the preparation of these. On the 
other hand, much material, specially in art, is collected by 
methods treated under 069.51 Acquisition, so only its 'getting 
redy ' (restoration and repair) is included here. The tecnic 
of excavating (069.419), however, applies in part to works of 


069.41 Modeling Molding Casting Coloring 

Including materials used; e.g. clay, wax, plaster, glas and 

other plastics; fabrics, etc. 
.411 Modeling Pattern making .415 Coloring 

.412 Molding .419 Excavating 

.413 Casting 
.414 Electroplate reproduction 

.42 Construction of models 

Architectural, ethnografic, etc. Models of caves, animals, 

plants, etc. Relief maps, etc. 
.43 Construction of groups 

Composition, layout, field work, backgrounds and foregrounds. 

case and lighting, etc. 
.44 Expeditions 

Equipment, supplies, personnel, transportation, relations with 

nativs, guides, regional information, protection of materials, 

packing, etc. 

•45-.49 Collection and treatment of special materials 

.45 Science materials 

.451-.459 may be used corresponding to the divisions 51-59 of 500 Pure sciences, 
e.g. 069.455 Geologic materials: rocks, minerals. Use 069.4592 
Invertebrates, 069.4596 Vertebrates 

.46 Industrial and commercial materials 

.47 Art materials 

.471-. 476 may be used corresponding to the divisions 71-76 of 700 Fine arts, 

e.g. 069.473 Sculpture, ceramic materials 
.477 Textils Weaving 

.478 Wood and metal work 

.479 Other art objects 

.48 Literary material .49 History material 

.5 Collections Exhibits 

. 5 1 Acquisition Disposal 

Policy, manner of selection and disposal, terms of gift or 
bequest, purchases, sales, dealers, prices, terms of loan, 
exchanges, etc. 

.52 Registration and recording system 

Accession record, catalog, index, donor list, etc. 

.53 Exhibition 

Discussion only. Principles of visual presentation : arrange- 
ment of exhibits, museum fatigue. Originals v. reproductions; 
scope, classification, correlation of exhibits; temporary 
exhibits; installation methods and devices; labels and label- 
ing; public catalogs, guides, gallery leaflets, etc. 

.54 Specific museum material 

For data concerning museum objects thcmselvs, whether 
exhibited or in reserv, including thefts, forgeries, etc. May 
be divided by subject like the whole classification, e.g. 
069.54913 Data on antiquities as museum objects 


69.55 Study collections: scope, arrangement, housing 

Classification, tagging, shelving, storage, etc. 

.56 Lending collections: scope, arrangement, housing 

.57 Filed collections and materials 

Including all information concerning material and accessories 
which ordinarily ar filed for preservation. Photografs, 
ncgativs, slides, films, maps, broadsides, etc. 

.58 Library 

.581 and .583-585 may be used and subdivided like 021 and 023-025 of Library 
economy so far as applicable, e.g. 069.581 Scope of museum 
library, 069.5852 Acquisition of books. Clas material on 
construction of library room in 069.24, on equipment in 

.6 Administration 

.61 Organization 

including discussions of questions involvd in founding and in 
relationship to federal, state or local government, in so far as 
control is concernd; various forms of organization, etc. 
Charters, constitutions, bylaws, membership, etc. 

.62 Principles Regulations Ethics 

Including publisht codes of rules; regulations for staf, mem- 
bers, visitors, patrons, students, etc. 

.63 Personnel 

Professional requirements, qualifications and duties, appoint- 
ment, hours, vacations, etc. Governing board, staf, women's 
auxiliary, etc. 

.64 Finance 

Value of collections and other property, income, expenses, 
plant (including agreements with government for use of 
public land and buildings), endowment, accounting and 
budgeting; employes welfare, pensions, employe clubs, etc. 

.65 Office methods 

Filing, correspondence, statistics, etc. 

.66 Care of buildings and grounds 

.67 Branch museums Outdoor exhibits 

For outdoor museums see 069.019. Bee also 069.52 for 
registry of outside objects 

.68 Cooperativ relations 

Intermuseum relations; relations with" other institutions, 
groups, etc.: with schools, business world, etc. 

.7 Publications and publishing 

For discussions of publication and for complete file of an institu- 
tion's own publications: authorship, publishing arrangements, 
printing, binding, distribution, storage, etc. Also for other 
museum publications when clast as such, for use as format, sample 
publications, etc. When dealing with special subject they ar 
preferably clast under subject, e.g. museum reports in 069.09 

.8 Research 


070 Journalism General newspapers 

See also 029.3 Clippings Clipping bureaus 
179. 1 Morals of the press 
333.445 Liberty of the press (political science) 
351.751 Regulation of the press (government administration) 
396.507 Women in journalism 
655 Printing Publishing Copyright 
741 Cartoons Caricatures 

.1 Utility Theories Relations to other professions 

For government relations see 070.15 

.n Standards Ethics Influence Responsibility- 
General and higher view, educativ influence; for degradation of the press 
see 070 . 16 

.13 Endowd newspapers 

Independence of popularity 

.13 Liberty of the press Censorship 

Individual privacy; diplomatic secrets; seditious or anarchic influence 
See also political science, 323 .445 Freedom of the press 

.14 War censorship 

.15 Subservience to special interests 

Use by sectarian, partizan or private interests. Government relations and 
influence: subsidies, 'reptil fund' 

.16 Sensational or ' yellow ' journalism 

Fictitious news; scandals, murder and divorce trials; blackmail, bribes 


.18 Anonymous journals 

Those with editors or place of oublication unknown 

.10 Other general questions 

Comparison of field, importance and influence of newspaper, periodical and 


.2 Ownership and control 

.22 Newspaper names 
.23 Location 

.232 Metropolitan Large city 

.234 Provincial Small city 

.236 Rural or village 

.26 Syndicates Patent insides 

.3 Business management 

.31 Staf and workmen 

.311 Offis staf 

Manager, stenografers, bookkeepers, clerks, messengers 

.312 Workmen 

Compositors, foundrymen, pressmen, mechanics, laborers 
.315 Hours, shifts 

.318 Newspaper strikes 


Newspaper printing 

Clas here discussion of economy and other advantages of special methods 
and appliances 

For mechanism and operation of newspaper presses see 655.3' Printing 

Size of page 

Methods and appliances 
Composition: linotype, monotype, etc. 

Newspaper cuts: wood, zinc line, halftone 
Frequency of issue 

Daily, semiweekly, weekly, etc. 

Time of issue 

Morning, evening, successiv editions, extras 

Size of editions, number printed 
Distribution Circulation Sale 
Direct: subscription Mailing 
House delivery 

Indirect: newsboys, news agencies, etc. 

Crying and peddling in streets; news stands 

Advertizing methods 

Subdivided like 659.1 Advertizing 


As means of increasing circulation. For special departments see 070 43-. 44 

Regular: foren or marine news, stocks, sporting, etc. 

Occasional: adoption of popular causes, exposure of abuses, etc. 

Other means of increasing circulation 

Competitions, guessing contests, prizes, fairs, lotteries, expeditions, etc. 

Cost of production Expenses 

Plant : bilding and equipment, ofhses 

Duplicate plant. Depreciation of machinery 

Supplies: paper, stationery, etc. 
Salaries and wages 

Space rates. Pay of journalists, pecuniary inducements of vocation. 
Traveling expenses 

Postage: pound rates, free carriage 

Necessity and cost of advertizing itself to i£aiu circulation and secure 
advertizements. For methods see 070 336 

Sources of income Receits 

Sales, subscriptions, subsidies. For bribes see 070.16 

Advertizing department 

Including all business pertaining to a journal's advertizing colums. For 

advertizing agencies see 059. 112 

Foren offises 

Subdivided like 940-999; e.g. N. Y. herald office in Paris 070.394436 


070.4 Editorial management 

.41 General 

Editing rules: order of departments and articles; style; newspaper diction 

.42 Staf: reporters, correspondents 

Organization: hours, duties. For pay see 070.344 

.43 Editorial departments 
.431 News 

1 Sources and channels of news 

Telegraf, telefone, wireless, mail, reporters, carrier pigeoni, other 

Utilization and precautions; conflicting news 

2 Press bureaus: associated press 

Laffan and other news bureaus. For clippings see 039.3 under 
Literary methods and labor savers 

5 Foren 

6 Home 

7 Local 

.432 Leaders, editorials 
.433 Local interests 

Discussion of local affairs, questions affecting schools, library, publio 
works, etc. For local news department see 070.4317 

.44 Special subjects: departments and editors 

.443 Financial: stocks, business, shipping, etc. 

.445 Household Home Women Children 

2 Cookery 

4 Clothing Fashions 

6 Hygiene Care of children 

7 Women's clubs 

8 Children's department : games, puzzles, etc. 
.446 Recreation Sporting 

.447 Art, musical and dramatic 

7 Art 

8 Musical 

9 Dramatic 
.448 Literary 

1 Poetry 

3 Fiction 

.449 Other departments 

a Religion; 3 Education; 5 Science; 8 Humor 

.45 Voluntary correspondents Contributors 
.47 Special editions 

Sunday newspaper. Supplements. For extras see 070.337 

.48 Special kinds of journals 
.481 Official journals 
.482 Religious 
.484 For foren population 

In language foren to country in which publisht 

.485 Propagandist 

.486 Professional and technical 

.487 Humorous 

.488 Literary 


70 489 Other: amateur, etc. 

070.5-.9 Form divisions 
.5 Periodicals oh journalism 
.6 Press clubs Conventions Expositions 
.7 Study and teaching of journalism College courses 

Schools Personal qualifications for journalism 

.9 History of newspapers and journalism 

General History of American newspapers 071, of German journalism 073. 
etc. Clas history of a particular journal with that journal 

1-079 Newspapers of various countries 

The 3d figures 1-9 are used as follows: 

1 American 4 French 7 Slavic 

2 English s Italian 8 Scandinavian 

3 German 6 Spanish 9 Other 

In large collections use geografic divisions under I, American; a, English, etc. an 
in 970 and 940-999. Because of large size and very general character, it is better 
to keep newspapers together here than to clas with local history of the place 
where publisht. They could not go on shelvs with ordinary books, and a refer- 
ence is made as easily to them under 070 as anywhere. 


Polygrafy Special libraries 

For sets or ' libraries • so constituted as not to be redily scatterd by subjects, and 
miscellaneous information; but clas in 807.6 literary questions and ansers. 080 
includes works composed of several distinct writings, united in a singlo collection 
or scries other than periodicals, newspapers and collections of lerned societies. Col- 
lections conditiond by terms of gift on being kept together may be put here, but for 
preferable treatment of sets, see in Introduction, Assyning clas numbers, section 11, 
and Reference library. If limited to a special subject, treat like Phoenix library, 
but shclv the collection in a block before or after the regular books on the 
same subject; e.g. the Doe collection on Spanish painting, D750.6, would stand 
together, yet would be where it belongd with the rest of the books on that subject. 

Individual polygrafy 

Complete or partial collections of an author's works, treating of various subjects. If 
they treat cxclusivly or mainly of one subject they ar clast with that subject 

Collectiv polygrafy 

Distinct works of several authors, treating of different subjects and pubhsht in a 


Libraries or series 

Clas here only such as include several branches of knowledge 

Miscellanies, extracts etc. 

Clas here only such as include several branches of knowledge 

Official publications 

Official publications of countries, states, provinces, cities and other public bodies and 
powers may be clast together here but ar much better clast with subject treated or, if 
too general for that, with the body by which they ar issued 

Publications for various classes of readers 

Children's literature 

Children's collections may be clast here but ar much better kept as a separate 
collection markt J, the separate books being given their regular subject numbers 
(see section relating to Juvenils, in Introduction) 



090 Book rarities 

Books about these topics, and those chiefly valuable because of their rarity, go here. 
A rare early edition of Shakspere goes in 822.33 with reference from 09 \. oyo is mostly 
used for grouping references to books located elsewhere. 
See also 010 for bibliografy and bibliofily; 655 for printing and publishing. 

091 Manuscripts 

Clas in 096 mss important chiefly for illumination. Photografs of mss, when more 
valuable for subject matter, go with subject rather than here 

For Diplomatics and Paleografy. see 417. and under the special language, 421.7, 
431.7, etc. 

.5 Autografs 

.6 Printed works with notes in hand of celebrated writers 

When notes ar by author of work, clas in 091.5 

092 Block books 

093 Books printed before 1500 Incunabula 


094 Rare printing 

.1 Books of great rarity but later than incunabula 

Typografic masterpieces (Aldines, Elzevirs, Caxtons, etc.); small editions; 
privately printed books; books interesting from choice of type, accuracy etc. 

.2 Unique copies 
.3 Editions de luxe 

On colord or large paper or printed in colors 

.4 First editions 

095 Rare binding 

Noted binders, costly ornaments, curious bindings, bindings bearing coats of arms 

096 Rare illustrations or materials 

.1 Rare illustrations 

Illuminated. Illustrated by inserted plates 

.2 Rare materials 

Printed on vellum, silk, bark etc. in gold or silver letters etc. Workg in car- 
acters woven, carvd, engraved etc. 

097 Ownership Book plates Ex libris 

DECIMAL ci.A sir I cation 

098 Other classes of works, based on inner 


.1 Prohibited books 

Condemd by temporal or spiritual power. Books supprest or censord 

Library inferno. Obscene books, sold secretly 

.11 Prohibited by religious authorities 

Index expurgatorius. Index librorum prohibitorum. Books proscribed as 
contrary to church faith, tradition or disciplin 

.12 Prohibited by civil authorities 

Contrary to morality, government or social peace. Seditious, satirical or libelous 

.3 Books lost, imaginary, supposed, projected 

.5 Books with key 

099 Other classes of works, based en outer 

caracteristics Curiosa 

.1 Minute size, etc. 

Microscopic editions, dwarf books 


100 Philosof y in general 

Works limited to none of the 9 divisions 

101 Utility 

102 Compends Outlines 

103 Dictionaries Cyclopedias 

104 Essays Lectures Addresses 

105 Periodicals Philosofic magazines 

106 Societies: transactions etc. 

107 Study and teaching of philosofy 

108 Polygrafy, extracts, maxims etc. 

109 History of philosofy 

See also 140 Philosofic sistems, 180 Ancient philosofers. 189 Erlv Christian and 
medieval philosofers, 190 Modern philosof-js 


no Metaphysics 

III Ontology 

Nature of being. Substance and form 

.1 Analisis of idea of being, of ist substance 

. 1 1 Existence 

Distinction from essence 

.12 Essential being Essence Quiddity 
.125 Possible being Intrinsic possibility 

Divine essence and the possible 
.3 Substance Monad 

.31 Distinction from accidents Phenomenalism 

See also 142 Phenomenalism (philosofic sistem) 

.32 ist substance Individual substance 

Subsistent being, hypostasis 

.321 Formal reason of subsistence 

.322 Principle of individuation of corporeal beings 

Immultiplicability of separate forms in a given space 

.33 2d substance Abstract essence 
.4 Accidents 

.41 Existence of accident 

Conjunction with or separability from substance 

.42 Qualities Powers Operativ possibilities 

Forces Faculties 
.5 Relation 

.51 Existence of real relations 

Confuson of their reality with that of correlativ terms; relativistic theories 

.6 Acts Operations 

.61 Being in potentiality Being in act 

For applications to substantial action see 113 Cosmology, 231.& Theodicy 

.62 Motion Evolution 

General law: nothing actualizes itself. See also 116 Motion in cosmology, 
146 Evolutionism (philosofic sistem), 575 Evolution in biology 

.7 Created and uncreated being Immateriality 
.8 Transcendental properties of being 

.81 Distinction between being and its transcendental 

Number of transcendental properties, primary principles 

.82 Unity Nonexistence Plurality 

Unity and indivisibility of being 

.821 Real distinction Distinction of reason 

Oneness, identity; unity of composition, simplicity; metaphysical com- 
position; multitude, indefinit number; possibility of infinit multitude. 
See also 110 Number in cosmology 

.822 Unity Transcendental property of all being 

Reconciliation of unity of beings with their synthesis 



1 1 1.83 Truth 

See also 177.3 Ethics 

.831 Conformity with an ideal type 

God and truth. Unity or multiplicity, eternity or temporality, 

.832 Truth, transcendental property of all being 

The false in nature 

.84 Goodness Evil 

See also 179-9 Ethics, 216 Good and evil in natural theology 

.842 Goodness, transcendental property of all being 

.845 Evil: its relativity, its cause 

.85 Beauty 

See also 701.17 Esthetics 

.851 Objectivity and subjectivity of sentiment of 


.852 Beauty, transcendental property of all being 

112 Methodology 

Philosofic clasification of knowledge. Terminology. For book clasification see 025.4 

113 Cosmology 

Philosofy of nature, physical or inorganic world from philosofic viewpoint, cosmos, 
nature, universe; general laws of nature, substantial transformation and corruption, 
origin of world, cosmogony 

Philosofic theories and discussions. See also 117 Matter, 146 Mechanism, 510.1 
Philosofy of mathematic processes 

114 Space Locus Void 

Internal and external space, infinit space, plenum. See also 115. 4 Space-time; 
119 Quantity, number; 152.752 Space perception 

115 Time Duration Eternity 

Relation of time and motion. See also 116 Motion; 119 Quantity, number; 
152 753 Time perception; 218 Eternity in natural theology; 237.1 Eternity in 
Christian theology 

.4 Space-time 

116 Motion Change Transition 

Movement; transitional, inherent, remote action; event. See also 11 1.62 Motion 
in ontology, 115 Relation of time and motion, 152.754 Perception of movement 

117 Matter Body 

See also 118.2 Identity of energy and matter 

118 Energy Force Power 

Properties or accidents of inorganic substances. Sec also 531-6 Conservation of 

.2 Identity of energy and matter 

See also 117 Matter 

119 Quantity Number Extent 

Mesurement, bulk, mas; continuity, continuousness. Distinction from substance; 
quantity and principle of individuation of corporeal substances. See also 114 
Space, 115 Time 


Other metaphysical topics 

Epistemology Theory of knowledge 

Origin, sources and limits of knowledge. Relativity of knowledge. The unknow- 
able. Dout. Denial. Belie'. Faith. Theory of values, worth. See also 165 

Cause and effect Causality Causation 

Material cause, formal cause, efficient or moving cause, original cause; condition, 
occasion. See also 124 Final cause 

Freedom and necessity 

Contingence. Chance. Liberty. Determinism. Indcterminism. See also 159. 1 

Freedom and determinism in psychology, 233.7 Freedom in theology, 234.9 Pre- 

Teleology Purpose Final cause 

Norm, pattern, ideal, perfection, archetype, exemplars, exemplary cause 

Infinit and finite Indefinit 
Consciousness (Personality s 

The self. See also 153.7 Psychology, 233.6 Religious doctrin 

The unconscious The subconscious 

Unconsciousness, subconsciousness, automatism. See also 153-8 Psychology 

The soul 

Nature of life and deth 

Origin and destiny of individual soul 
Special creation 

See also 213 Creation 

Inheritance Traduction 

See also 136 3 Mental heredity, 233.3 Spiritual heredity, 575.1 Evolution 


Transmigration Palingenesis Metempsy- 

Incarnation, disincarnation, reincarnation 


See also 147 Pantheism, 212 Natural theology 


Immortality, survival, annihilation etc. See also 218 Natural theology, 237 
Future state 


130 Physiologic, abnormal and differ- 
ential psychology Metapsicology 

For general psychology see 150. See also note under 150 


131 Mental physiology and hygiene Physiologic psychology 

132 Mental derangements 

133 Transcendental psychology Occultism Occult sciences 

134 Hypnotism Animal magnetism 

135 Sleep and wakefulness D. earns Somnambulism 

136 Genetic psychology Mental caracteristics 

137 Individual psychology Individuality Personality 

138 Physiognomy 

139 Phrenology Mental photografs, etc 

.1 General theory 

For other subdivisions and other form divisions see Table 2 following Relativ index 

.16 Miscellaneous theories 

Relations of mind and body, psironeural parallelism. Philosofic anthro- 
pology. Mutual influences of sensitiv and suprasensible life 

.162 Dualistic theories 

2 Interaction 

22 Mutual interaction 

23 Occasionalism 

24 Cause thee y Influxus physicus 

See also 122 Cause and effect 

3 Parallelism 

32 Preestablisht harmony 

33 Methodologic parallelism 

Physiologico-psychologic parallelism 

34 Psychophysical parallelism Pseudomonistic 

342 Double or dual aspect theory 

343 Naturalistic theory 

See also 130.16322 Conscious automaton theory 

.163 Monistic theories 

2 Materialistic Materialism Mechanistic 

See also 146 Materialism 

22 Conscious automaton theory Automatism 

See also 127 Unconsciousness, automata; 130.16234 Psychophysical 

23 Epiphenomenon theory Epiphenomenalism 

3 Spiritualistic Spiritualism Idealism Animism 

See also 128 The sti', 141 Idealism 

32 Spiritual monism Psychic monism 

See also 147 Monism 

33 Panpsychism Spiritual pluralism 

See also 147 Pantheism 

34 Mind-dust or mind-stuf theory 


131 Mental physiology and hygiene Physiologic 
psychology Psychophysiology 

For anatomy and physiology of special senses and mental functions see 150; sec 
also 61 1.8 Anatomy of nervous sistem, 612.8 Physiology of nervous sistem, 150.72 

Experimental psychology 

.1 Anatomy of nervous sistem 

Evolution and development. May be divided like 61 1.8. Most important 

subdivisions ar given below 

. 1 1 Brain 

Form, size, weight. See also 6ii.8i Anatomy 

.12 Spinal cord 

See also 611.82 Anatomy 

.13 Ncrvs 

See also 611.83 Anatomy 

.139 Simpathetic and autonomic nervous sistem 

See also 61 1.8,30 Anatomy 

.2 Physiology of nervous sistem 

May be divided like 612.8. Most important subdivisions ar given below 

.21 Nerv fibers Neurons Fibrils 

Nerv elements, nerv impulse, nerv connections, synapse. Sec also 612.81 


.215 Physiologic morfology of nervous stimulation 

End organs and receptors of nervous sistem. See also 612.815 Physiology 

1 Sensory terminations 

2 Motor " 

.22 Nerv centers Brain 

See also 612.82 Physiology 

.222 Nerv eels and nerv centers 

1 Chemistry of nervous sistem 
.225 Cerebral convolutions (cortex) 

May be divided like 612.825. See also 612.825 Physiology 

2 Psychomotiv centers Localizations 

Divide like 612.8252 

5 Sensory functions of convolutions 

Divide like 152 Sense perceptions 

8 Intellectual and motor functions 

Divide 83-89 like 153-159 Psychology 

.23 Spinal cord and nervs 

See also 612.83 Physiology 

.233 Reflex and automatic functions 

See also 612.8216 Psychic reflexes, 612.833 Spinal reflex action 

.29 Simpathetic and autonomic nervous sistem 

See also 612.89 Physiology 

.3 Mental hygiene 

See also 132 Abnormal psychology, 613.8 Hygiene of nervous sistem 

.32 Mental helth Menticulture Helth pro- 
moting agencies 
.323 Influence of personal habits, diet etc on mental helth 

May be divided like 613 Hygiene 

.324 New thought 

Mental science, new metaphysic movement, metaphysic healing. 
See also 615.851 Mind cure 


I 3 I -33 Unhygienic agencies 
.334 Action of poisons 

See also 612.8214 Physiology, 615.95 Neurotic poisons 

1 Alkaloids 

2 Nonalkaloids 
4 Alcohol 

.335 Effect of disease 

See also 612.8215 Physiology 

.336 Effect of overwork, fatigue, mental strain 

.337 " " worry 

.34 Psychoanalisis 

See also 153.8 Depth psychology 

.3407 Clinics Training classes 

.341 Explanations of mental processes 

2 Dynamic 

22 Instincts: ego instincts, sex instincts, etc 

Libido, ambivalence 

23 Complexes: Oedipus complex, Electra complex, 
inferiority complex, etc 

24 Conflict: censorship, repression, regression, con- 
version, transference, fixation, rationalization, 
simbolism, sublimation, compensation etc 

3 Economic 

Plesure-pain principle, reality principle, etc 

4 Topografic 

Id, ego, super-ego 

.342 Technic and methods 

2 Cathartic method Abreaction 

4 Free association 

5 Suggestion 

7 Reeducation 

.346 Psychoanalitic schools or sistems 

2 Freud: sexual view 

3 Adler: purpose-force view 

4 Jung: energic view 

5 Stekel 

6 Kempf : dynamic mechanisim 
.348 Applications 

Divide like main clasification; e.g. 2 Religion, 37 Education, 572 
Anthropology, 615 Therapeutics 


132 Mental derangements 

Pathologic psychology, abnormal psychology, mental diseases, psychopathy, 
psychiatry, psychopathology, teratologic psychology. For legal aspects see 340.6 
Medical jurisprudence, 347.1 Legal capacity; for medical discussions see 616.8. 
The form divisions ar those of 616 and ar applicable to all subdivisions of 132. 
Clas pathology of special psychologic functions with those functions 

.01 Theory 

.011 Causes 

.012 Clasification 

.014 Language Terminology Nomenclature 

For dictionaries see 132.03 

.015 Theories derived from the pure sciences 

Divide like 500 

.016 Miscellaneous theories 

8 Popular theories and errors 

.02 Compends Handbooks Outlines 

.03 Dictionaries Cyclopedias 

.04 Essays Addresses Lectures 

.05 Periodicals 

.06 Organizations 

.061 Government departments, state boards, etc 

.062 Nongovernment organizations 

Societies, clubs etc 

.063 Congresses 

.07 Study and teaching .075 Diagnosis 

08 Polygrafy Collections Extracts 

.09 History 

.092 Case histories, biografy 


132. i Insanity Mental alienation 

Craziness, madness, lunacy. Use form divisions of 616 (being more fully 
developt). For housing, management and care see 362.2 Hospitals for 

.13 Organic brain diseases 

.14 Functional brain diseases 

.143 Neurasthenia Cronic nervous exhaustion 

.15 Neuroses Psychoneuroses 

.151 Chorea Huntington's chorea 

.152 Hysteria 

Shel shock, etc. See also 132.3 Hypochondria, 132.4 Catalepsy, 
I3S.S Somnambulism 

2 Psychasthenia Obsessional or anxiety neurosis 

Obsessions, phobias 

3 Dissociation of personality 

See also 137 Personality 

32 Depersonalization 

33 Alteration or transformation of personality 

34 Fragmentary personality 

Dual, secondary, alternating and multiple personalities 

35 Fugues 

. 1 53 Epilepsy Narcolepsy 

.155 Aphasia Alexia Amusia Agraphia Apraxia etc 

.156 Anesthesia Hyperesthesia Hypesthesia Paresthesia 

.16 Neuroses due to special poisons 
.161 Alcoholism 

See also 132.72 Dipsomania 

.162 Metallic tremor 

.19 Special psychoses and syndromes 
.192 General paralysis of insane Dementia paralytica 


.193 Confusional insanity 

Mental confusion: acute and primitiv. Delirium: acute, febril, collapse 
exhaustion (acute organic reaction types) 

1 Pathologic intoxication (mania a potu) 

2 Delirium tremens 

3 Abstinence delirium 

4 Traumatic delirium: immediate, protracted 

5 Exhaustion delirium Exhaustion psychosis 

6 Acute hallucinosis 

7 Acute pseudoparanoia 

8 Korsakow's psychosis 

9 Other 


Maniodepressiv insanity 

General unsystematized delusions; affectiv reaction types 

Manic type: mania, expansiv psychosis; euphoria 


Acute mania 

Delirious mania 

Cronic mania 
Alternating, periodic or circular type 

Circular insanity (folie circulaire); insanity of double form; 

cyclothymia, variability of mood 

Depressiv type 

Depressiv psychosis, pathologic sadness and grief, hypochondria, 
melancholia. See also 132.3 

Simple retardation 

Acute depression 
Stuporous type Depressiv stupor 
Mixt type 

Manic stupor 

Agitated depression 

Unproductiv mania 

Depressiv mania 

Depression with flight of ideas 

Akinetic mania 
Involution melancholia 

See also 132.35 Melancholia 

Paranoid reaction types 

Partial, systematized; unopposed, polymorfic diffused delusions; 

delusional insanity 


Paranoia querulans Querulous paranoia 

Paranoid states or paranoid constitution 



132.198 Dementia 

Cronic organic reaction types 

1 Acute or furious dementia Primary dementia 

12 Alcoholic dementia 

See also 132. 161 Alcoholism, 132.72 Dipsomania 

122 Alcoholic deterioration 

123 Cronic alcoholism 

124 Alcoholic pseudoparesis 

125 Alcoholic epilepsy 

See also 132.153 Epilepsy 

126 Cronic hallucinosis 

13 Traumatic dementia 

132 Traumatic constitution 

Vasomotor neurosis, explosiv diathesis 

133 Post-traumatic mental enfeeblement 

2 Dementia precox and schizophrenic reaction types 

Neuroepithelial dementia, discordant insanity, secondary or 
terminal dementia. See also 132.195 Manic-depressiv insanity 

22 Simple type: schizophrenia simplex 

23 Katatonic type: katatonia, katatonic dementia 

24 Hebephrenic type: hebephrenia, hebephrenic 

25 Paranoid type: paranoid dementia 

See also 132.197 Paranoid reaction types 

26 Mixt type 

3 Senile dementia 

3 1 Simple senile deterioration 

32 Presenile dementia 

33 Senile delirium; delirious and confused types 

34 Presbyophrenia 

35 Alzheimer's disease 

36 Deprest and agitated type , 

37 Senile and cronic pseudoparanoid type 

38 Arteriosclerotic type 

382 Post-paralytic dementia 

383 Post-apoplectic dementia 

39 Other 


132.2 Mental deficiency 

Amentia, foolishness, arrests of development, maldcvelopments, stupidity. 
Use form divisions as in 132. For housing, manaRement and care see 362.3 
Hospitals for idiotic, imbecils, feebleminded;, for education of feebleminded 

see 371-92 

.22 Psychopathic personality 

Constitutional psychopathic inferiority 

.222 Emotional 

2 Emotional instability 

3 Pseudoquerulance 

4 Eccentricity 

.223 Moral imbecility or insanity 

See also 132.6-.7 

.24 Intellectual defect 

See also 151.2 Intelligence tests 

.242 Grades 

2 Idiocy 

3 Imbecility 

4 Moronity Feeblemindedness 

5 Borderline and dul normal 
.243 Accompanying deformity 

2 Brachycephalism 

22 Mongolism 

23 Kalmukism 

24 Tartarism 

3 Hydrocephalism 

4 Microcephalism 

.244 Accompanying disease and injury 

1 Amaurotic family idiocy 

2 Cretinism Myxedemism 

See also 616.997 for medical viewpoint 

3 Paralytic types 

4 Epileptic types Eclampsic types 

5 Syphilitic types 

6 Inflammatory types 

7 Sensory-deprivation types 

8 Traumatic types 

9 Other 


2.3 Hypochondria Melancholia 

As separate mental states. See also 132.1934 Manic-depressiv insanity, 
depressiv type; 616.852 Hysteria 

.32 Hypochondria Hypochondriasis 

Use form divisions as in 132 

.322 Physical hypochondriasis 

.323 Psychic " 

.35 Melancholia Melancholy 

• Use form divisions as in 132. See also 132.1957 Involution melancholia 

.352 Acute (recent, recurrent) melancholia Melancholia 


•353 Cronic (excited or hypochondriac) melancholia Mel- 

ancholia agitata 

2 Cotard's syndrome 

•358 Special types 

1 Religious 4 Stuporous 7 Confusional 

2 Delusional 5 Suicidal 8 Impulsiv 

3 Resistiv 6 Anxious q Other 

.4 Catalepsy 

Use form divisions as in 132. See also 132.152 Hysteria, 132.153 Epilepsy, 
132.5 Ecstatics, 134 Hypnotism, 61O.852 Hysteria, from medical viewpoint 

.43 Degrees 

.432 Complete : physical and mental 

.433 Complete physical rigidity 

.434 Partial physical rigidity 

•435 Mental activity 

.438 Duration 

.44 Caracteristics 

.46 Effects 

.5 Ecstatics Ecstasy 

Mistic or religious insanity; illuminism; visionaries. Use form divisions as in 
132. See also 132.4 Catalepsy, 133.2 Hallucinations, 248 Religious ecstatics 

.52 Types 

.522 Voluntary or natural 

.523 Involuntary or supernatural 

.53 Degrees 
.538 Duration 

.54 Caracteristics 

Ecstatic visions, trances, frenzy, rapture etc 

.56 Effects 


132.6 Derangements leading to crime Criminal manias 

See also 132.223 Moral imbecility. For legal responsibility see 340.6 Medical 

jurisprudence, 347.1 Legal capacity 

.62 Kleptomania 

.63 Pathologic swindlers 

.64 Destructiv manias : pyromania 

.65 Homicidal and suicidal manias 

.7 Derangements leading to vice Vicious manias 

See also 132.223 Moral imbecility 

.72 Dipsomania 

See also 132. 161 Alcoholism, 178 Temperance, 616.861 Alcoholism from 
medical viewpoint 

.73 Drug addiction 

Morphinomania or morphinism, cocainomania, etheromania etc 

.74 Pathologic lying 

.75 Sexual manias and aberrations 

Including those leading to crime. Sexual anomalies, sexual psychopaths. 
See also 176 Sexual ethics 

.752 Eroticism Erotic delusions 

.753 Nymphomania 

.754 Sexual perversions 

1 General questions 6 Sexual inversion Homo- 

2 Exhibitionism sexuality 

3 Fetishism 7 Incest 

4 Masochism Sadism 8 Masturbation 

5 Bestiality 9 Other 
•755 Moral impotence Frigidity 

.8 Mnemonic derangements Memory defects 

Not knowing in one state what past in another. See also 154 Memory 

.82 Hypermnesia 

.83 Paramnesia Pseudo-reminiscence 

See also 132.74 Pathologic lying 

.84 Amnesia 

.841 Complete 

.842 Partial 

1 Anterograde 4 Periodic 7 Sistematized 
Progressive 5 Circumscribed 8 Hysteric 

2 Retrograde Lacunar 9 Other 

3 Continuous 6 Sensory 

Divide like 152 


133-135 Metapsychology Psychic fenomena 

Parapsychology, metapsychics. General works including occultism, hypnotism 
and dreams ar (unless one of the other subject"; strongly predominates) clast in 133 

133 Transcendental psychology Occultism 
Occult sciences 

Delusions, cabalistic art. For alchemy, hermetics, alkahest, elixir of life, philosofer 3 
6tone, transmutation of metals see 540.1 

.01 Theory 

.015 Theories derived from the pure sciences 

Divide like 500. Include under 133.015-.016 theories regarding hum- 
bugs and frauds in general, but clas those relating to a specific topic with 
that topic 

.016 Miscellaneous theories 

.07 Psychic reserch Psychic studies 

Clas reserch in a special field with that field 

. i Apparitions Ghosts 

Specters, wraiths, spirits, phantoms, shades, phantasms etc. See also 133.2 
Hallucinations, 398.3 Folklore 

.12 Localized 

Hauntings, haunted houses, house spirits, poltergeister, haunted graveyards, 
haunted forests, etc. See also 398.32 Folklore 

.13 Unlocalized 

.14 Supernatural beings 

Revenants, goblins, hobgoblins, loups-garous, werewolves, lycanthropes etc 
See also 398.4 Folklore 

.15 Sea specters: Flying Dutchman, etc 
.2 Hallucinations illusions 

.22 Hallucinations 

See also 132.1 Insanity, 132.5 Ecstatics, 133. 1 Apparitions, 133 322 Cristal 
gazing, 133.4 Witchcraft, 133.8 Telepathy, clairvoyance, 133-9 Spiiitism 
(veridic hallucinations), 134.52 Hypnotic hallucinations, 135.33 Dreams, hyp- 
nagogic hallucinations 

.221 Causes 

2 Peripheric stimulation 

3 Cerebral " 

4 Reductorless images 

5 Obstruction of neural paths 

6 Abnormal excitation of neural paths 

7 Emergence of subconscious imagery 
.222 Types 

2 Reproductiv 

3 Constructiv 

4 Creativ 


133.223 Forms 

1-6 may be further subdivided like 152.1-.6 

1 Visual 

2 Auditory 

3 Olfactory 

4 Gustatory 

5 Tactil or haptic 

6 Muscular, psychomotor, visceral 

7 Synesthetic or reflex 
.224 Degrees 

1 Pseudo- or semi-hallucinations 

2 Complete hallucinations 
.24 Illusions 

See also 152.73 Normal illusions 

.241 Causes 

2 Confusion of sense impression 

3 Misinterpretation of sense impression 
3 2 Passiv 

322 Determine! by organism 

323 " " environment 
33 Activ 

332 Voluntary preperception False recognition 

333 Involuntary " 
.243 Forms 

Divide like 133.223 

.3 Divination Predictions : oracles, 2d sight, 

Divinatory art, prognostication, profecies, Sibyllin books, etc. Sibyls, augurs, 

soothsayers, profets, seers etc 

.32 Autoscopic 

.322 Sensory automatisms 

Cristal gazing, shel hearing, premonitions, 2d sight, presages, deth warn- 
ing, etc. See nlso 133.83 Clairvoyance 

.323 Motor automatisms 

Divining rod (Cumberlandism), dowsing for water and preciou" metals 
(lee also 622.12 Prospecting), coscinomancy (divining with a balanst siv), 
ring divining, ordeal by Bible and key, sand divination, divination by auto- 
matic writing, trance speaking, etc. See also 133.93 Spiritism 

.324 Mental impressions 

Cartomancy, card fortune telling, reading coffee grounds and tea leave, 
etc. For Palmistry see 133.6, for Dreams see 135-3 

.33 Heteroscopic 

.332 Sortilage Casting lots 

Astragalomancy (divination with dice or small bones), bibliomancy (omens 


drawn from Bible and other books; sortes Virgilianac) etc 

Haruspication (inspection of entrails), hepatoscopy (in- 
spection of liver) , scapulimancy (divination by sholder- 
blade), divination by footprints in ashes, geomancy etc 


133-334 Augury and omens 

Behavior and cries of birds, meeting ominous animals, signs, auspices, 
thunder and lightning, falling stars, celestial signs, prodigies, portents etc 

.335 Simpathetic omens Simbolism 

Numerology etc. For Astrology see 133.5 

.4 Witchcraft Sorcery Magic Demonology 

Black magic, white or natural magic, necromancy, psychomancy 

.401 Theories 

6 Miscellaneous 

62 Religious aspects 

63 Legal 
.409 History 

See also 272.8 Persecutions 

.4093-. 4099 In special countries 

Divide like 930-999. For New England or Salem witchcraft see also 

.42 Activities and practises 

Satanism, witches sabbaths, nocturnal revels; incantations, evocations, spels, 
evil eye; demoniac obsession and possession, diakka; lycanthropy, incubi, 
succubi, vampires; flying thru air, riding on broomsticks, etc 

.43 Instruments and apparatus 

Black books, grimoire, conjuring books, magic metals, rituals, magician's 
wand, etc 

.44 Means of help and protection 

Exorcism, charms, amulets, talismans, philters etc 

.5 Astrology 

Judicial or mundane astrology only; for natural astrology see 520.1. Under 
this number and its subdivisions ar included both descriptiv and interpretiv 

.52 Zodiac signs 

.522 Works on individual signs 

.523 According to position 

2 Northern, commanding, masculin or strong 

Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo 

3 Southern, obeying, feminin or weak 

Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces 

.524 According to structure Triplicities 

2 Erthy: Taurus, Virgo, Capricornus 

3 Fiery: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius 

4 Airy: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius 

5 Watery: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces 
.525 According to time 

2 Diurnal 

Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius, Aquarius 

3 Nocturnal 

Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, Capricornus, Pisces 


Works on individual planets 

Uranus, Saturn. Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Asteroids (Juno, Pallas, Ceres. 

Vesta), Moon, Venus, Mercury 


Conjunction, sectil, quartil. trine, opposition 


Life or person, riches, brethren or kindred, parents, children, servants 
and sickness, marriage, deth, religion, magistracy, frends, enemies 

Special positions 

Joys, dragon's hed, dragon's tail, part of fortune, ascendent etc 


Hyleg, Amareta etc 

Tables of declinations 
General applications 

Clas nativities of special individual with biografy of that individual 

Horary questions 

Special applications 

Medical astrology, etc. Divide like main clasification. For Biblical 
astrology see 220.81335 

Palmistry Chirology 


Determination of type of intelligence from form of hand 

Anatomy and physiology of hand 

Anatomy, texture, hairiness etc of hand. See also 611.976 Anatomy 

Types of hands 

Elementary. Spatulate or activ. Conic or artistic. Square or useful. 
Knotty or philosofic. Pointed or psychic. Mixt 


Study of comparativ value of manual formations 


Divination by means of mounts, lines and other markings of hand and 


Jupiter, Saturn, Apollo or Sun, Mercury, Mars, Luna or Moon, Venus 


On palm 

Hed line; life line; hart line; fate line or line of Saturn; line of 
Apollo, of Sun, of fortune or of brilliancy; line of Mercury, of 
helth, of liver, hepatic line or hepatica; girdle of Venus; line of 
Mars; ring of Solomon or Jupiter; line of intuition, of Moon or 
Luna; via lascivia; lines of affection; etc 

On wrist 

Racettes or 3 bracelets 

On fingers 

On palm 

Star, square, spot, circle, iland, triangle, cros, croix mystique, grille, 
signs of planets quadrangle or table, percussion etc 

On wrist 
u fingers 


133.7 Humbugs Quackery 

Charlatans, impostors. Subdivide by type of humbug according to main 
divisions of 133; e.g. fraudulent magicians and sorcerers 133.74, fraudulent 
astrologists 133-75. fraudulent palmists 133.76, telepathic and clairvoyant 
frauds 133-78, fraudulent mediums 133.79. For humbugs not thus provided 
for use 133.77 divided like main clasification 

.8 Telepathy Clairvoyance Clairaudience 

See also 133.3 Hallucinations, 133.9 Spiritism, 134 Hypnotism, 135.3 Dreams 

.82 Telepathy 

Mind reading, thought transference, telepathic hallucinations 

.8201 Theories 

16 Miscellaneous theories 

161 Psychic 

162 Physical 
.822 Forms 

2 Physical 

Divide like 152 Sense perceptions 

3 Mental 

4 Emotional 

.823 Reciprocal telepathy 

.824 Collectiv " 

.83 Clairvoyance Clairaudience 

Clas here material covering both subjects. See also 133.3 Divination 

.8301 Theories 

16 Miscellaneous theories 

161 Psychic 

Lucidity, telepathy etc 

162 Physical 

Ray theories, corpuscular theories, hyperesthesia etc 

.832 Cryptoscopic 

Vision of normally invisible hidden objects, or hearing of normally in- 
audible sounds, near at hand 

.833 Psychoscopic Psychometric 

Supernormal knowledge of distant, future or past events connected witf 
objects at hand 

2 In space 

3 " time 
.84 Clairvoyance 

Divide like 133.83 

.85 Clairaudience 

Divide like 133.83 


33.9 Spiritism Spiritualism 

Psychism; communication with ded, with discarnate spirits or intelligences; 
mediums and mediumship; spiritistic or mediumistic fenomena with or with- 
out trance. For Bible and spiritualism see 220.81339, Christianity and 

spiritualism 289.9 

.901 Theory 

5 Theories derived from the pure sciences 

Divide like 500 

6 Miscellaneous theories 

61 Subliminal self Subconscious mentation Mental dis- 
sociation Multiple personality Dissociation of personality 
Multiple consciousness 

62 Telepathy Veridic hallucination Exteriorization of sen- 
sations or impressions 

63 Clairvoyance Retrocognition 

64 Hallucination and illusion 

65 Spiritistic possession 

.92 Objectiv or physical fenomena 
.922 Telekinesis 

Table-tipping, table-turning, typtology, raps, levitation, apports, 
transports, dematerialization of objects or 4th dimension, psychog- 
raphy or direct writing and drawing, etc 

.923 Ectoplasms 

Materialization of spirits, teleplasmy, bilocation, psychic or spirit 
photografy, fluidic body, emanation of substance, psychic rods, 
astral body, etc 

.93 Subjectiv or mental fenomena 

Telethesia or cryptesthesia. Sensory automatisms, ouija board and 
planchet messages, automatic writing and drawing, trance speaking, 
automatic speaking, intrapsychic conflict, interference, book tests, 
psychometry or pragmatic cryptesthesia, xenoglossis, monitions, pre- 
monitions, spiritistic messages, etc. See also 133.3 Divination, 133-8 
Telepathy, Clairvoyance 

.94 Psychic healing 

See also 615.85 Cures 

34 Hypnotism 

Mesmerism, hypnosis, Braidism, electrobiology, neurohypnotism, neurypnology 

.01 Theory 

.015 Theories derived from the pure sciences 

Divide like 500 

.016 Miscellaneous theories 

1 Psychologic 

Mental, cerebral or functional dissociation; secondary, submerged, 
subconscious or subliminal self; suggestion; etc 

2 Physical 

Odic or odylic force, ectenic force, magnetic fluid, animal magnetism, 
biomagnetism etc 

6 Physiologic 

7 Pathologic 

Hysteric susceptibility, neurosis etc 

.1 General questions 

" Legal aspects etc 


134.2 Induction 

.22 Methods 
.222 Domination 
.223 Cooperation 

.23 Means 

.232 Physical: monotonous stimulation of sense organs, etc 

.233 Mental: suggestion etc 

.5 Effects 

.52 Concurrent 

Hightend suggestibility, rapport, lethargy, hypnotic or artificial catalepsy, 
hypnotic or artificial somnambulism, hypnotic trance, anesthesia, positiv 
and negativ hallucinations, hypnotic delusions, organic effects, telepathy, 
clairvoyance etc 

.53 Post-hypnotic 

Amnesia respecting events occurring during hypnosis, post-hypnotic 
suggestions, unconscious reckoning of time, etc 

.6 Autohypnotism Autosuggestion 
.8 Applications 

Medical, psychotherapeutics etc. May be divided like main clasification 

135 Sleep and wakefulness Dreams Somnam- 
.2 Sleep and wakefulness 

State of being awake or waking. See also 612.8217 Physiology 

.201 Theory 

See also 612.82173 Physiology 

5 Theories of sleep derived from the pure sciences 

Divide like 500 

6 Miscellaneous theories 

63 Neurologic or histologic theories 

64 Psychobiologic theories 

Sleep as an instinct: hypnoidal state, muscular ielaxation 
theory, psychoanalitic theory, vasomotor control theory, etc 

66 Physiologic theories 

663 Mechanic or circulatory theories 

664 Chemic theories 

67 Pathologic theories 

Toxic and autotoxic theories 

68 Erly and popular theories 

.22 Conditions conduciv to sleep 

.23 Fenomena normally accompanying sleep 

See also 135.3 Dreams 

.232 Physical 

3 Cerebral circulation 

See also 612.82174 Physiology 

4 Chemic fenomena 

See also 612.82175 Physiology 

5 Positions during sleep 
.233 Mental 


135.24 Depth and length of sleep 

Partial sleep, rediness to wake in response to definit stimuli. Prolongs 

sleep. Hypnagogic state 

.25 Results of sleep 

.26 " " lack of sleep 

.27 Abnormalities 

See also 132.4 Catalepsy, 135.5 Somnambulism 

.272 Excessiv tendency to sleep 

.273 Insomnia or abnormal wakefulness 

.274 Sleep of insane 

.275 Drugs and sleep 

<>3 Dreams Visions 

See also 612.82176 Physiology, 132.5 Ecstatics, 133.2 Hallucinations 

.301 Theory 

5 Theories derived from the pure sciences 

Divide like 500, e. g. 135.30157 Biologic, recapitulation or ata- 
vistic theories 

6 Miscellaneous theories 

62 Free association theory 

63 Illusion theory 

64 Psychoanalitic theories 

Expression of represt desires or fears 

66 Physiologic theories 

68 Erly and popular theories 

Wandering of soul, divine origin, astrologic theories, various populai 
views, etc 

.32 Clasification of dreams 
.322 According to origin 

2 Presentativ 

Due to objectiv or physical stimuli 

3 Representativ 

Due to subjectiv or mental stimuli 

,323 According to type 

Premonitory, profetic, prodromic, collectiv, kinesthetic, recurrent, night- 
mares, night terrors, dreams of ded, etc 

•33 Content of dreams 

Imagery, past experiences, effect of special stimuli on content, hypnagogic 
hallucinations, etc 

.34 Caracteristics or peculiarities 

Speed, condensation, absurdity, sense of r;ality or unreality, effect of waking 
on dreams, etc 

.35 Effects of dreams 

As conservers of sleep, as influencers of waking life, etc 


135.36 Dreams of special classes of persons 

.362 Groups by age 

2 Children 

3 Aged 

.363 Sensory defectivs 

Blind, def etc. Divide like 152. including cripples etc under 135.3636 

.364 Insane 

.365 Drug addicts 

.366 Criminals 

.37 Day dreams Autistic thinking 

See also 155.1 Fancy 

.38 Interpretation of dreams 

.382 • Popular: oneiromancy, fortune telling by dreams, 
dream books, etc 

See also 398.7 Folklore 

.383 Scientific: psychoanalitic etc 

.5 Somnambulism Sleep walking Noctambulism 

Natural; for induced somnambulism see 134.52 Hypnotism; see also 132.152 
Hysteric somnambulism 

.51 Causes 

.53 - Degree of sensibility 

.532 Responsibility 

.55 Activities 

•553 Degree of difficulty 

2 Simple 

3 Complicated 
.554 Habitual 

•555 Unusual 

.56 Management Treatment 

.6 Sleep talking 

.61 Causes 

.63 Caracter 

.632 Coherent 

•633 Incoherent 

.634 Relation to waking interests 

-635 Rememberd on waking 


I36~ I 39 Differential psychology 

General works on Differential psychology clas in 136 

Genetic psychology Evolutional psychol- 
ogy Mental caracteristics 

See also 131 Mental physiology, 575 Evolution 

1 As influenced by sex Sex psychology 

11 Sex and intellectual qualities 

Divide like 150 Psychology. See also 376.2 Mental capacity of women 

12 Sex and mental derangements 

Divide like 132 Mental derangements 

17 Sex and personality 

Divide like 137 Personality 

2 As influenced by physical and social surroundings 

Psychology of physical environment. Bionorric influences. Mental euthenics 
See also 573.4 Natural history of man, 575. 3 Evolution 

22 Sensory influences 

May be further divided as under 152 " 

221 Vision: color, light, darkness etc 

222 Hearing: sounds, noises, silence etc 

223 Smel: odors 

224 Taste 

225 Touch: rufness, smoothness etc 

24 Topografic influences Landscape 

Divide "like 551.4 Surface features of earth 

25 Metcorologic influences 

Climate, wether. Divide like 551.5 Meteorology 

26 Residential influences 

262 Urban 

263 Suburban 

264 Rural 

265 Housing: rooms etc 

27 Social influences; neighbors, associates 

See also 301.15 Social psychology 

28 Clothing 

3 As influenced by ancestry Mental heredity 

Influence of evolution. Mental eugenics. Biologic survivals, etc. See also 
575.1 Evolution 

3 1 Inheritance of intellectual qualities 

Divide like 150 Psychology 

32 Inheritance of mental deficiencies 

Degeneracy, criminality, inferior families. Divide like 132 Mental derange- 
ments. See also 613.92 Hygiene 

33 Moral and spiritual qualities 

See also 129.2 Origin of soul; 233.3 Doctrinal theology 

37 Inheritance of personality caracteristics 

Divide like 137 Personality 


136.4 As influenced by race Racial caracteristics 

Race psychology, folk psychology, ethnic psychology, cthnopsychology. 
volkerpsychologie. See also 572 Ethnology 

.41 Prehistoric or primitiv man Paleopsychology 

Divided like 571 Prehistoric archeology 

.411 Paleolithic Erly stone age 

.412 Neolithic Late stone age 

.413 Bronze age 

.414 Iron age 

.48 Races divided by language like 400 
.49 " country like 930-999 

National psychology, psychology of nations and peoples. Divide by 
country where possible. Use language divisions for groups like Semitic, 
Aryan, Teutonic, English etc. See also 913-1)19 Description, national 

.5 As influenced by age 

For general works, also for adult period only, for erlier period sec 136.7 

.52 Maturity 

Adult manhood, period of greatest ability, efficiency, mental virility 

.53 Senescence 

Period of mental decline, old age, 2d childhood 

.6 As influenced by physical structure and conditions 

Stature, posture, physical abnormalities, deformities etc 

.7 Childstudy Paidology, pedology Child 

Influence of childhood, including adolescence 

.702 Methods Mental tests 

1 Laboratory 

2 Home 

.708 Observations Records Albums 

.71 Body: structure, growth, care 

Physical development of child; limited to development period. See also 
136.3 Mental heredity, 371.7 School hygiene, 612.64 Embryology, 
612.65 Growth, 613 Hygiene, 613.9 Heredity 

,72 Mind Intellectual development of child 

Divide like 150 Psychology. Limited to period of physical development. 
In a general library better clast in 130 and ISO, with only references here 

,73 Mental caracteristics 

Groupt by influence like 136. 1— . 6 

.735 As influenced by age Nascent periods 

2 Babyhood, infancy Infant psychology 

22 Pre-social period (ist year) 

23 Imitating and socializing period (1-2) 

3 Childhood 

32 Period of individualization (3-5) 

33 " " competitiv socialization (6-1 1 ) 

4 Adolescence (12-25) Puberty, youth 


136.74 Children's point of view What children think 

Divided like main clasification; c. g. 

.7417 Ethics .7479 Games, play 

.742 Religion .748 Literature 

.744 Language 

.75 Delineation of children 

Psychology of children from artists' and authors' point of view 

.757 In art .758 In literature 

76 Abnormal children 

Study of development. For methods of instruction see 371.9; for institu- 
tions see 362 Hospitals, asylums, 364 Reformatories 

,761 Physically defectiv 

1 Blind 5 Def-mutes 

2 Def 55 Blind def-mutes 

3 Blind-def 6 Crippld 

4 Dum 7 Deformd 
.762 Mentally defectiv 

Divide like 132 Mental derangements; e. g. study of idiotic children 

.763 Morally defectiv Delinquents 

.764 Wildings 

A clas of children who, having been lost or deserted, hav grown up 
away from the surroundings of children, alone or among animals. 
Paidology 1 :i96 (July 1900) 

.765 Exceptional Precocity 

Youthful prodigies. See also 151.1 Genius 

.766 Backward children Retardation 

See also 371.28 Education 

.767 Dependents 

Homeless children, a public charge, lacking ideas and associations of chil- 
dren in families. Abandond children, foundlings, orfans 

.769 Other abnormal classes 

.77 Boys The ' gang ' Boy problem 


•775 Girl problem 

.79 Childhood in various countries and times 

Divide like 930-999 

,791 The child among uncivilized and semicivilized peoples 


I 37 _I 39 Caracter analisis Caracterology 

Clas in 137 general discussions not limited to a special sistem 

137 Individual psychology Individuality Per- 

Psychology of caracter. Idiosincrasies, mannerisms, personal equation, etc. See 
also 170 Ethics, 153.7 Consciousness 

.3 Constituent elements of personality Traits 


.31 Physical 

Divide like 610 Medicin 

.311 Anatomic 

Divide like 611 Anatomy 

.312 Physiologic 

Divide like 612 Physiology 

.313 Helth 

Divide like 613 Hygiene 

.316 Pathologic 

Divide like 616 Diseases 

.32 Moral and religious 
.33 Social 
.35 Mental 

Divide like 150 Psychology 

.37 Esthetic 

.38 Special abilities or talents 

Divide like main clasification; e. g. 

137.3851 Mathematical ability 

.3878 Musical talent 

.389 Historical ability 
See also 151. 18 Classes of genius, 151.2238 Tests of talent 

.4 Types of personality Temperaments 


.42 Popular clasifications 

Choleric, sanguin, mercuric, flegmatic, bromidic etc 

.45 Scientific clasifications 

Introverts, extroverts etc. Apathetic, affectiv, intellectual, temperate, 
voluntary etc. Visual, audil, motor etc. See also 154.45 Types of lerners 

.5 Cultivation of personality 
.7 Grafology 

Caracter analisis by study of handwriting. See also 652 Writing 

.72 Popular and divinatory grafology 

Fortune telling by means of handwriting 

.75 Scientific grafology 

.8 Tests of personality and caracter 

Tests of specific traits clas with those traits. See also 15 1.2 Mesurements 


138 Physiognomy 

Expression of mentality thru the body. Bodily signs revealing caracter. Caracter 
analisis by study of physical features. Effect of expression of emotions on facial 
and bodily features as index to caracter. Pathognomy. See also 157.2 Expression 

of emotions 

.2 Divinatory Astrologic 
.3 Descriptiv 
.4 Physiologic 

139 Phrenology Mental photografs, etc. 

Cranioscopy, craniology (see also 573.7 Somatology), cerebral localization of facul- 
ties or functions. See also 131.2252, 612.8252 Psychomotiv centers, localizations; 
152 Sense perceptions 

.2 Caracter analisis by cranial bumps and depressions 

.22 Feelings 

.222 Propensities: internal impulses inviting only to certain 


.223 Sentiments: impulses prompting to emotion as wel 

as to action 

2 Lower: those common to man and the lower animals 

3 Higher: those proper to man only 
.23 Intellectual faculties 

.232 Perceptiv faculties 

.233 Reflectiv " 

.3 Anatomic aspects 
.4 Physiologic aspects 
.5 Psychologic " 


140 Philosofic sistems and doctrins 

Heds 1 40-1 49.9 ar for discussion of sistems and doctrins as such. Philosofic works 
of authors of these various schools ar clast under iyo, not here. Prom these heds refer 
in catalogs to authors clearly falling under them, without attempting to label each writer 
as an exponent of some one sistem. See also 150.19 
Psychologic sistems 

141 Idealism Transcendentalism Spiritualism 
Panpsychism Subjectivism Individual- 
ism Personalism Voluntarism Roman- 

e. g. Plato, see 184.1, 888.4; Berkeley, see 192.3; Fichte, see 193.3; Emerson, seo 
191.3, 814.36. See also 184 Platonism, 186.4 Neoplatonism 

142 Critical philosofy Criticism Neocriticism 
Kantism Neokantism Phenomenalism 

e. g. Kant, see 193.2. See also 111.31 Phenomenalism in ontology 

143 Intuitionalism Bergsonism 

e. g. Reid, sec 192.5; McCosh, see 191s; Bergson, see 194.9. Sec also 149.3 Misti- 
cism, 156 Intuitiv faculty, 17 1.2 Ethics 

144 Empiricism Pragmatism Humanism 
Instrumentalism Utilitarianism 

e. g. Descartes, see 194. 1; Bacon, see 192.1. See also 150.1943 

145 Sensationalism 

e. g. Locke, see 192.2 

146 Naturalism Materialism Positivism 
Atomism Mechanism Neomechanism 
Dynamism Energism Evolutionism 
Transformism Comtism 

e. g. Hobbes, see 192.9; Comte, see 194.8. See also 11 1.62 Evolution in ontology, 
149.2 Realism, 187 Epicureanism, 575 Evolution in biology 


Pantheism Panentheism Monism Ani- 
mism Vitalism Dualism Pluralism 
Parallelism Occasionalism 

e. g. Spinoza, sec 199.492 Sec also 130.16 

Theories of mind-body relations, 212 Pantheism in natural theology, 189.1 
Philosofic gnosticism, 273.1 Gnostic heresy 

Eclecticism Liberalism Syncretism Dog- 
matism Traditionalism 

e. g. Cousin, s»e 194.7 

Other philosofic sistems 
Nominalism Conceptualism 
Realism Neorealism Critical realism 

See also 146 Materialism 

Misticism Occultism Esoteric philosofy 
Theosofy Anthroposofy 

See also 133 Occult sciences; 143 Intuitionalism, 

Bergsonism; 181.5 Sufism; 189.5 Medieval misticism; 212 Theosofy in natural 
theology; 273.2 Mistic heresy 

Optimism Meliorism 

See also 141 Voluntarism, 144 Pragmatism, 216 Good in natural theology 


e. g. Schopenhauer, see 193-7. See also 216 Evil, 233 Doctrin of man 

Agnosticism Skepticism Rationalism In- 
tellectualism Innatism Nativism Sophisti- 

See also 146 Positivism, 183 Greek sophisticism, 211 Natural theology, 273.8 

Agnostic heresy 

Nihilism Fatalism 

See also 214 Fatalism in natural theology 

Other sistems 


Psychology General psychology 

Mind. Mental functions and faculties. Philosofy of intellect. For other 
aspects of psychology see 130 

An alternativ scheme of psychology incorporating all topics of 130 and 150 
was publisht in ed. 13 under 1599. Libraries and individuals who prefer to 
continue 159.9 arrangement may obtain it thru Forest Pres. Inc., Lake Placid 
Club, N. Y. 

Works on psychology as applied to various subjects ar in general best clast 
with those subjects, but may be kept together under 150.13. Relations of 
psychology to other subjects may be exprest by using 150.001 divided like the 
whole classification; e.g. 150.0012 Psychology and Religion, 150.0015 Psirology 
and Science, etc. For interrelations of psychologic topics use 0005 divided 
like 150, e.g. Conception and perception 153.1000527 


151 Intellect Capacity for knowing 

152 Sensation Sense perceptions 

153 Understanding Cognition Knowledge Comprehension 

154 Memory and lerning Reproductiv power Mnemonic apprehension 

155 Imagination Creativ power Imagtnal apprehension 

156 Intuitiv faculty or power Innate reason 

157 Emotions Affections Sensibility 

158 Conation and movement Instincts Appetites Motor functions 

159 Wil Volition 

50.1 Philosofy Theories Laws 

Metaphysical psychology. Rational psychology. See also 120 Metaphysics, 
130.1 Theories of mind-body relations, 140 Philosofic sistems, 180-190 Individual 

For other subdivisions and other form divisions see Table 2 following Relativ index 

.13 Usefulness Value Importance Appli- 

May be divided like the whole classification; e.g. 150.1337 Educational 
psicology, 150.1361 Medical psicology, 150.13658 Psicology of business 
management, etc. 

.18 Psychologic methods 

General; for methods of experimental psychology see 150.725 

.182 Sub j ectiv : introspecti on 

Observation of one's self 

.183 Obj ectiv 

. 1 84 Analitic 

. 1 85 Synthetic 

. 1 86 Descriptiv 

.187 Explanatory 


.19 Psychologic sistems or schools 

See abo 131.34 Psychoanalisis, 140 Philosofic sistems 

.192 Structural or existential psychologies 

2 Faculty psychology 

3 Mentalism 

4 Gestalt or configuration psychology 

5 Psychosomatic organism, or mind-body performance 

.193 Functional psychologies 

2 Dynamic psychology 

3 Purposiv psychologies 

32 Hedonic 

33 Hormic 

.194 Reaction or response psychologies 

2 Endocrin psychology Endocrinism 

Glandular reaction psychology 

3 Behaviorism Anthroponomy 

4 Reflexology 

5 Dialectic materialism 
.7 Study and teaching 

.72 Experimental psychology Experiment and 

See also 131 Physiologic psychology. For experiments in a specific 
field see that field 

.722 Laboratories 
.725 ' Methods 

For psychologic methods in general see 150.18 

2 Subjectiv Introspection (reflection, analisis, retro- 

3 Objectiv 

32 Reception methods Methods of impression 

33 Reaction " 

332 Methods of judgment 

333 " " execution 

334 " " expression 

34 Qualitativ methods 

35 Quantitativ " Statistical etc 

See also 151. a Mesurements, 152.8 Psychophysict. 3»o 


;i Intellect Capacity for knowing 

Intelligence, talent, intellectual life, the normal mind 

.1 Genius 

Men of superior attainments, eminent or illustrious men, supermen etc 

.12 Traits of genius 
.122 Physical 

Stature, pigmentation, deformity etc 

.123 Mental 

Precocity (see also 136.765 Childstudy), general intelligence, inventiv 
talent, inspiration, intuition, originality etc 

.124 Personality traits Temperament etc 

See also 137 Personality 

. 1 3 Genius as hereditary- 
superior families, royalty, ethnic incongruity, miscegenation etc. See 
also 136.3 Mental heredity 

.16 Genius as pathologic 
.162 Genius and insanity 

Manic-depressiv insanity, neurasthenia, secondary personality, idiots 
savants etc. See also 132. 1 Insanity 

.163 Genius and disease 

Tuberculosis, gout, general il helth, etc 

.164 Genius and vice 

Alcoholism; use of opium and other drugs, etc 

.165 Genius and degeneracy 

.17 Environment and training of genius 

Home life, position of family, occupation of parents, education etc. See also 
136.2 Influence of physical surroundings, 371.95 Education 

.18 Classes of genius 

Divide like main clasification, e. g. Mathematical genius 151.1851. See also 
137 38 Personality talents 

.19 Geografic distribution of genius 

Divide like 930-999 

.2 Mesurements Tests 

Mental tests, psychologic mesurements, mesurements or tests of innate mental 
capacity; including Intelligence tests. See also 152.8 Psychophysics, 371.26 
Education mesurements anJ tests 

.22 Clasification 

.222 Tests of general intelligence 

2 Individual 

22 Verbal 

Binet-Simon, Stanford revizion of Binet-Simon, Yerkes point s> ale, etc 

23 Non-verbal 

Healy picture completion test, army picture completion test, Pintner 
performance test, etc 

3 Group 

32 Verbal 

Otis group tests, army alpha tests, national reserch tests, national 
intelligence tests, Thurstone omnibus test, etc 

33 Non-verbal 

Army beta, Dearborn group tests no. 2, Myers mental mesure, etc 


151.223 Tests of special capacity or aptitude 

Individual or group, verbal or non-verbal. Clas preferably under 
special capacity tested; e. g. Association tests 153-28 

2 Tests of simpler processes 

Reaction times, coordination, motor control, sensory capacity, simple 
discrimination tests, space perception, attention etc. Divide like 152 

Sense perceptions 

3 Tests of higher central processes 

Association, lerning, retention, memory, reasoning etc. Divide lik« 
I53-I5S. e. g. 151.223332 Association, 151-22334 Memory, 151-22335 

4 Tests of emotion aspects 

Divide like 157 Emotions 

5 Tests of volition qualities 

Divide like 159 Wil, volition 

8 Tests of talent 

Musical, mathematical etc. Divide li'ce main clarification. See 
also 137.38 Personality traits, 151. 18 Classes of genius 

.23 Forms of tests 

Cancelation, completion, formboard, genus-species, pirture completion, ink- 
blot, nonsense sillables, maze, substitution, crossing out, whole-part, true-false, 
mirror, etc. If form and purpose ar discust together clas with purpose; e.g 
Army picture completion test 151.22223 

.24 Apparatus 

.25 Construction and administration of tests 
.26 Interpretation of results Statistical methods, 

.262 Scoring 

.263 Establishing norms 

Mental age, intelligence quotient (I.Q.) etc 

.264 Tabulating results 

Tables, curvs, grafs, histograms, psychograms, frequency polygons, etc 

.265 Correlations Correlational psychology 

r General questions 

Factor theory, etc 

2 Among tests 

3 " traits or abilities 
.28 Applications 

Divide like main clasification; e. g. Mental tests applied to industrial manage- 
ment 151.28658; but usually better clast with special subject, as 331. 115 
Mental tests for selecting workers 


1 5 1. 3 Animal psychology Comparativ psychology 
Biopsychology Zoopsychology 

ISI.33 and 151-35 may be subdivided like 130 and 150, e. g. Insanity in animals 
I5I-332. Tests of animal intelligence 151.3512. In general libraries better clast 
in 574-18 Irritability and movement in biology, 575.3 Biologic behavior, ecology; 
591.18 Nervous functions and sensations in animals, 591. s Habits and behavior, in 
animal ecology 

.307 Study 

2 Experiment 

25 Experimental methods 

258 Special methods 

1 Labyrinths 6 Method of salivation 

2 Boxes with special devices 7 " " associativ or 

3 Animal training and lerning conditiond reflex 

4 Observations on imitation Methods of Bechtercv, 
and insight Pavlov etc 

5 Observations on orientation 8 Method of psychogalvanic 

reflex, Veraguth's method 

9 Other 

.4 Plant behavior Organs and responses Phyto- 

In general libraries prefer 581.18 Irritability and movement in plants, 581.5 Plant 
behavior and ecology 

152 Sensation Sense perceptions 

Sense, sensible perception and representation, sense impressions, sensible 
knowledge. Relations of sense perceptions in general and of each sense in 
particular to other topics may be exprest by colon followd by number for 
specific topic; e. g. Esthetic relations of taste 152.4: 7 or, if preferd, use 0001 
divided iike main clasiflcation, e. g. 152.400017 Esthetic relations of taste. 
See also physiology 612.84-.88 

.01 Theory 

.012 Relation of sensation and sense perception 

2 Sensational theory (Sensation and perception 

3 Component theory (Sensation a component of 

4 Correlativ theory (Each a component of the othev^ 
.015 Theories of sensation derived from the pure sciences 

Divide like 500, e. g. 152.0153 Physical, mechanic; 152.0154 Chemic 

.016 Miscellaneous theories 

1 Metaphysical theories 
15 Psychologic theories 

Eccentric projection theory, etc 

2 Deistic theories 

6 Physiologic and psychophysical theories 

Specific energy theory, theory of specific disposition of sense organs, 


Passiv or receptiv faculty or functions 

Sensational qualities or modalities 

1 52. i Vision Visual sensations 

Divide like 611.84 Physiologic optics 

. 1 1 Fibrous tunics of eye 

.111 Cornea Conjunctiva Anterior chamber 

.115 Sclera 

.12 Vascular tunics Iris Choroid Ciliary 


.121 Iris accommodation Pupillary reflex 

See also 152.14 for general psychologic papers on accommodation 

i Pupillometers 

.122 Action of nervs and nerv centers on pupil 

.123 Effects of light 

.124 Action of chemic substances on iris Atropin 

.125 Choroid Eye pigments 

.126 Ocular circulation Intraocular pressure 

1 Ofthalmometers 
.13 Optic nerv Retina 
.131 Physiologic morfology 

2 Ofthalmoscope 

3 Retinal circulation 

4 " purple 

5 Physiologic morfology of retina 

Blind spot, yellow spot 

.132 Irradiation Simultaneous induction 

.133 Color sense Chromatic sensibility 

01 Theory 

016 Miscellaneous theories of color sensation 

3 3-color theory (Young-Helmholtz) 

4 4-color theories 

42 Color-contrast theory (Hering) 

43 Gradation theory (Wundt) 

44 Genetic theory (Ladd-Franklin) 
47 Zone theories 

472 Duplex or duplicity theory (von Kries) 

473 Theory of indirect values (Muller) 

1 Color sight 

Power to distinguish colors 

2 Sensitivness to color Color preferences 

4 Mixture of colors 

5 Contrast " " 
501 Theory 

6 Miscellaneous theories of color contrast 

61 Psychologic theory 

Deception of judgment (Helmholtz) 
66 Physiologic theory (Hering) 

52 Simultaneous contrast 

53 Successiv " 


152.134 Entoptic fenomena 

Purkinje's figures or images, Sanson's images 

.135 Persistence of retinal impressions 

2 After images or after sensations Successiv 


22 Positiv 

23 Negativ or complementary 

.136 Field of vision Visual acuteness and sensibility 

1 Photometry Photometric technic 

2 Field of vision 

22 Direct vision 

23 Indirect vision Perimetry 

3 Visual acuteness and sensibility 

32 Retinal adaptation and fatigue 

33 Twilight vision Purkinje fenomenon Pur- 
kinje spectrum Sensibility to contrast 

.137 Conduction in brain Perception 

1 Histology of fibrillae Center of sight 

2 Optic perceptions Localization of image in 

2 1 Binocular and monocular perception 

22 Stereoscopy Binocular fusion and rivalry 
Pseudoscopic vision 

23 Perception of distance, size and form 

Perception of differences in hight of surface 

2301 Theory 

16 Miscellaneous theories of visual distance 

163 Theory of identical points 

164 " " projection 

165 " " distance as an optic sensation 

232 Kinesthetic eye sensations 

2 Accommodation strains 

3 Convergence 8 

233 Parallax 

2 Binocular parallax 

3 Parallax due to hed movements 


152.137234 Associativ aids 

1 Apparent size 6 Lights and 

2 " bright- shadows 
ness 7 Relations 

3 Apparent rapid- among ob- 
ity of movement jects in field 

4 Linear per- of vision 
spectiv 8 Cooperation 

5 Haze and other of other 
atmosfcric - senses 
effects 9 Other 

3 Impression of color suggested by sound 

Auditus coloratus, colord audition. See also 152.77 Synesthesia 

4 Optic illusions 

See also 152.73 Normal illusions 

41 Primary illusions 

412 Illusions of movement 

413 Proofreaders illusion 

414 Double images 

415 Geometric illusions 

Of distance, size, direction, form etc 

01 Theories of geometric illusions 
016 Miscellaneous theories 

3 Eye-movement theory 5 Dynamic theory 

4 Perspectiv 7 Association or con- 

fusion theory 

2 Reversible perspectiv 

3 Illusions of extent 

Mviller-Lyer illusion, etc 

4 Illusions of direction and angles; confluxion and 

Poggendorf, Zollner, twisted cord, etc illusions 

5 Illusions of form 

6 " ■ area 

Apparent size of planets at horizon, etc 

42 Secondary illusions 

43 Mixt illusions 

5 Observations on those born blind 

8 Degenerations of optic nerv and fibrillae 

.14 Refractory apparatus Ocular refraction 


See also 152.121 Iris accommodation 

.141 Cristallin lens 

,,144 Aqueous humor 

0I47 Vitreous " 



152.15 Functional disorders or pathology of sight 

Blindness etc. See also 617.73 Disorders of vision from medical 

.151 Myopia .155 Daltonism Color 

.152 Hypermetropia blindness 

.153 Astigmatism See also 152.1331 Color sight 

.154 Presbyopia - r 5 6 Hemeralopia 

.16 Movements of eye 

.162 Binocular vision Convergence 

For perception see 152.13721 Binocular and monocular perception 

.163 Action of 3d cranial or oculomoto nerv 

.164 u " 4th " " trochlear " 

.166 " " 6th " « abducent 

.168 Strabismus Diplopia 

.17 Palpebral and lacrimal apparatus 

. 1 8 Tests of visual perception 

.2 Hearing Auditory sensations 

Divide like 612.85 Physiologic acoustics 

.201 Theory 

2 Clasification of sounds 

22 Tones 

23 Vocables 

24 Noises 

6 Miscellaneous theories of hearing 

61 Psychologic theories 

66 Physiologic " 

661 Resonance or simpathetic vibration theory (Helmholtz) 

662 Telefone theory (Rutherford, Lipps) 

663 Standing wave theory (Ewald, Lehmann) 

664 Advancing " " (Hurst) 

665 Propeld 8 " (ter Kuile) 

666 Displacement " (Meyer) 

.21 External ear: functions 

.24 Middle ear 

.25 Tympanic membrane or drumhed Tympanum 

.26 Eustachian tube 

.27 Bones 

.28 Internal ear 

.281 Conduction of sound in internal ear 

.282 Utricle Saccule 

.283 Semicircular canals 

.284 Cochlea Corti's organ or fibers Spiral orgar 

Basilar membrane 

.285 Acoustic nerv 

.286 Endolymf Perilymf 


152.287 Acoustic perception Conduction of acoustic exci- 

tation in brain 

1 Auditory acuteness 

12 Tonal gaps and ilands 

2 Auditory center in brain 

See also 131.22552 Sensory functions of convolutions 

3 Subjectiv sensations 

4 Musical psychology 

Distinction of tones and quality or tone color (timbre). See also 
781. 1 Psychology of music 

42 Tonal caracteristics 

422 Pitch 

423 Loudness, strength or volume 

424 Caracter, quality, timbre, tone color or brightness 

43 Analisis of tones 

432 Simple tones 

433 Compound tones or natural harmonics Clang 

2 Overtones 

3 Partial tones 

434 Combination or Tartini's tones 

1 1st order 

12 Difference or differential tone 

13 Summational tone 

2 Higher orders 

44 Consonance and dissonance: intervals 
441 Theories of consonance and dissonance 

2 Theory of beats (Helmholtz) 

3 " " tonal fusion (Stumpf) 

4 Genetic theory (Moore) 

45 Melody and rithm 

46 Sensitivness to tone Tone preferences 

5 Binaural and monaural hearing 

51 Localization of sound in space Estimation 
and effect of distance 

512 Interaural differences of sound intensity 

513 Complexity of pitches 

514 Movements of hed 

6 Sensibility of living beings to sound and vibrations 

7 Pathology Defness etc 

8 Tests of auditory perception 
.288 Auditory reflexes 


1 52. 3-4 Chemic senses 
152.3 Smel Olfactory sensations Odor 

See also 612.86 Smel, in physiology 

.31 Organs of smel 

See also Anatomy 611.83115,611.86 

.37 Olfactory perception Conduction in brain 

.371 Olfactory acuteness 

.372 " center in brain 

See also 131.22553 Sensory functions of convolutions, 612 82556 
Seat of smel, in physiology 

.373 Subjectiv odor sensations 

.374 Fusion of odors 

.377 Pathology 

.378 Tests of olfactory perception 

.4 Taste Gustatory sensations 

See also 612.87 Taste, in physiology 

.41 Organs of taste 

.413 Taste buds and papillae 

.415 Function of lingual nerv 

See also 612.8195 Special nervs, in physiology 

.417 Function of chorda tympani 

See also 612.81977 Special nervs, in physiology 

.419 Function of glossopharyngeal nerv 

See also 612.8199 Special nervs, in physiology 

.47 Gustatory perception Conduction in brain 

.471 Gustatory acuteness 

.472 " center in brain 

See also 131.22554 Sensory functions of convolutions, also in 
physiology 612.82557 

.473 Subjectiv taste sensations 

.474 Fusion of tastes 

.475 Contrast of tastes 

2 Simultaneous 

3 Successiv 

.476 Relations of taste and smel 

.477 Pathology 

.478 Tests of gustatory perception 

152.5-.6 Somesthetic senses or qualities 
.5 Touch Tactil sensations Cutaneous senses 

liaptic sensations 

.51 Anatomy and physiology of tactil organs 

See also 611.88 Anatomy, 612.88 Physiology 

.57 Tactil perceptions Conduction in brain 

•57 1 Tactil acuteness 

Epicritic and protopathic sensibility 

.572 Tactil center in brain 

See also 131.22555 Sensory functions of convolutions, also lo 
physiology 612.82559 



152.573 Types of tactil perceptions 

2 Temperature 

Hot and cold spots; indifference, zero or adaptation point; paradoxic 


Including all related fenomena; e. g. tickiing, itching, contact, 
resistance etc 

4 Pain 
.574 Fusions of tactil sensations 

Giving rize to sensations of rufncss, smoothness, dryness, wetness etc 

•577 Pathology 

.578 Tests of touch perception Esthesiometry 

Divide like 152.573 

.6 Muscular, articular and organic senses 


.61 Anatomy and physiology 

.67 Muscular, articular and organic perceptions 

Conduction in brain 
.671 Acuteness 
.672 Brain centers 

See also 131.22556 Sensory functions of convolutions, also in 
physiology 612.82558 

.673 Types 

5 Muscular and articular senses Power sense 

Proprioceptiv senses, tendon and joint senses 

52 Kinesthetic sensations; movement, activity 

521 Weight 525 Innervation 

522 Muscular and ar- 526 Exteriority 
ticular movement 527 Stereognostic 

523 Effort and power sense 
Tendinous strain 528 Electric sense 

524 Shock 529 Other 

53 Sensations of position or relativ attitude of 
limbs, joints and muscles 

6 Equilibrium Static sense, balance, labyrinthic 

61 Sense of direction and orientation; general 

62 Seasickness 

63 Vertigo Dizziness Giddiness Nystagmus 
Past pointing 

9 Organic or visceral senses Internal touch 

Feelings of helth, energy, hunger, thirst, fatigue etc. See also 157 
Feelings. May be divided like 612, according to organ experienc- 
ing sensation; e. g. 152.673932 Stomach sensations 

.677 Pathology 

.678 Tests of muscular, articular and organic perceptions 

Divide like 152.673 


152.7 Perception Perceptual apprehension Pri- 
mary incorporations 

.72 Elements of perception 

.722 Sense presentation 

.723 Attention 

1 Theories as to nature of attention 

12 Pure mental activity 

13 Emotion or feeling 

14 Change in clearness of ideas 

15 Muscular attraction and adaptation 

2 Conditions of selection 

22 Obrjectiv 

222 Vividness or 224 Suddenness 226 Definit form 
intensity 225 Novelty 227 Color 

223 Duration Repetition 

23 Subjectiv 

232 Mental attitude 234 Expectancy 236 Psychic 

233 Interest 235 Purpose fringe 

3 Varieties 

32 ' As to origin 

322 Innate or instinctiv Primary Natural 

323 Acquired or derived Secondary Artificial 

33 As to stimuli 

332 Sensorial Objectiv Explicit 

333 Intellectual Subjectiv Implicit 

34 As to development 

. 342 Involuntary Passiv Immediate 

343 Voluntary Activ 

See also 159 Wil 

2 Cause theory 

3 Effect " 

344 Spontaneous or nonvoluntary 

4 Physical reactions 

41 Vasomotor, circulatory 

42 Respiratory 

43 Bodily attitude 

5 Clearness and strength of attention 

52 Clearness 

522 Focal 523 Marginal 

53 Strength or degree 

532 Concentrated 533 Divided 

6 Scope and duration 

62 Scope, range or span 

63 Duration and fluctuation 

632 Sustaind 633 Shifting 

7 Acquired inattention and pathology of attention 

8 Mesurements of attention 


152.724 Apperception 
.725 Preperception 

See also 155-2 Imagery 

.73 Errors of perception Normal illusions 

For abnormal illusions and hallucinations see l.)2.i Insanity, 133.2 Hal- 
lucinations, illusions. See also 152.1374 Optic illusions. Divide like 
152.2-.6; e. g. Illusions of touch, Aristotle's illusion 152.735, Illusions of 
missing limbs 152.736 

.75 Special classes of perceptions 

.752 Perception of space and extent Localization of 


See also 114 Space (metaphysics) 

01 General theory 

016 Miscellaneous theories of space perception 

3 Nativistic theories 

32 Psychic stimulus theories 

322 Theory of local signs (Lotze) 

323 " " circles of sensitivity (Weber) 

324 Kantian theory of intuitiv space 

33 Extensity theories (James etc) « 

4 Empiric and genetic theories 

42 Associationist theories 

43 Creatn' synthesis, fusion, 'jn3ntal chemistry' or complex local 
signs theories (Herbart, Wundt etc) 1 

44 Unconscious inference theory (Helmholtz) 

45 Continuous differences " (Lipps) 

2 Elements of space perception 
2 2 Distance 

23 Size 

24 Form 

2 5 Direction 

3 Sensory factors in space perception 

Divide like IS2.I-.6. See also 152.13723 Binocular perception of 
distance, size and form, 152.28751 Binaural localization of sound in 


7 Pathology 

8 Mesurements of space perception 
.753 Perception of time (duration) and rithm 

See also 115 Time (metaphysics) 

7 Pathology 

8 Mesurements of time and rithm perception 
.754 Perception of movement 

See also 116 Motion (metaphysics) 

7 Pathology 

8 Mesurements of movement perception 



See also 152-1373 Colord audition, 612.887 Synesthesia (physiology) 

General theory 

Theories of synesthesia derived from the pure 

Divide like 500, e. g. 152.770157 Biologic, atavistic or ontogenetic 

Miscellaneous theories 
Psychologic theories 
Affectiv association theory 
Conditiond reflex " 
Physiologic theories 
Anastomosis theory 
Nervous irradiation theory 

Visual Synopsie Photisms 

Chromesthesia Pseudochromesthesia Chro- 

See also 152.1373 Colord audition 

Colors accompanying visual perceptions of lines, 
forms, figures, letters etc 
Colord smels 
" tastes 

" tactil sensations 

Temperature 253 Pressure 254 Pain 

Colord muscular, articular, and organic sensa- 

Figured or geometric audition: geometric forms 
accompanying sounds of words 
Number forms 
Auditory Phonisms 
Of visual origin 
" olfactory " 
" gustatory u 
" tactil 

Of muscular or organic origin 

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to origin 


Divide like 152.1-.6 according to origin 


'52-775 Tactil 

2 Temperature sensations accompanying other 

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to origin 

3 Pressure sensations accompanying other sensations 

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to.origin 

4 Pain sensations accompanying other sensations 

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to origin 

.776 Muscular, articular and organic 

Divide like 152.1-.6 according to origin 

.777 Personifications or dramatizations of ideas, letters, 

digits or words 

08 Psychophysics Psychometry Quantitativ 


See also 151.2 Mesurements 

.82 Psychophysics 
.82 1 Laws 

2 Threshold law 

3 Weber's law 

3 1 Interpretations of Weber's law 

312 Physiologic 313 Psychophysical 314 Psychologic 

4 Fechner's laws 

42 Logarithmic law 

43 . Parallel law 

5 Breton's (Fullerton and Cattell's) parabolic law 

6 Merkel's law 
.822 Principal formulas 

Including variations and interpretations 

2 Fundamental formula 

3 Mesurement " 

4 Difference mesurement formula 
.823 Methods 

2 Gradation methods 

22 Method of least or just noticeable differences 
or minimal changes 

23 Method of mean gradation or equal sense 

3 Error methods 

3 2 Method of average error 

33 " " right and wrong (or true and false) 

cases or constant stimuli 

4 Method of equivalents 


152.824 Apparatus 

Special apparatus adapted to study of each sense, divided like 

1 Optic : photoesthesimeters, tachistoscopes etc 

2 Acoustic : acousimeters etc 

3 Olfactory : olfactometers etc 

4 Gustatory 

5 Haptic or tactil 

52 Temperature: thermesthesimetcrs etc 

53 Pressure: esthesimeters, weights etc 

54 Pain: algometers, algesimeters etc 

6 Muscular, articular and organic 
.825 General classes of mesurements 

2 Stimulus threshold 

22 Lower, minimum sensitivity or threshold of 
consciousness, limen 

23 Upper, maximum sensitivity 

24 Range of sensitivity 

3 Difference threshold Difference sensitivity 

32 Just noticeable differences Units of sensation 

33 " not noticeable " 

34 More than just noticeable differences 
.826 Special fields of mesurement 

Maybe divided like 152-159, if one wishes to keep together, e. g. Esthesi- 
ometry, mesurement of touch perception, 153.82625; but in general 
use better :last with special field, e. g. 152.578 Tests of touch perception 

.828 Applications 

May be divided like main clasification; e. g. 152.828132 Sensitivity 
of the insane 

.83 Psychometry Psychochronometry Mental 

.8309 History 

902 Astronomic period : personal equation 

903 Physiologic period : velocity of nervous impulse 

904 Psychophysical period: duration of simple mental 

2 Period of mental tests 

See also 151.2 

905 Psychologic period: analisis of action consciousness 

.832 Apparatus 

2 Mesuring and recording instruments 

Chronoscopes, chronometers, stop watches, chronografs, psycho. 
dometers etc 

' 3 Control instruments 

Gravity chronometers, control pendulums, control hammers, etc 

1 4 Stimulators 

Special instruments adapted to stimulation of each sense organ 
Divide like 152.1-.6 

5 Reaction instruments 

Reaction keys, etc 


152-833 Methods 

2 Observation methods 

3 Recording " 

32 Visual 

33 Mechanic Chronografic 

4 Statistical 

.834 Classes of reaction time 

2 Physiologic or reflex reaction time 

3 Psychophysical reaction time 

32 Simple 

322 Sensorial 

323 Muscular or motor 

324 Psychologic, central or reduced 

33 Compound or complex 

332 Discernment, cognition or perception time 

333 Discrimination time 

334 Choice time 

335 Association time 

2 Free 

3 Controld or constraind 

32 Partly 

33 Wholly 

.835 Elements of reaction time 

2 Excitation of sensory nerv 

3 Centripetal conduction 

32 In sensory nerv 

33 " spinal cord 

4 Transformation of sensory into motor impulse 

5 Centrifugal conduction 

52 In spinal cord 

53 " motor nerv 

6 Releasing of muscular movement 


Conditions affecting reaction time 


Sense organ stimulated 
Caracter of stimulus 

Intensity 233 Quality 234 Duration 

Caracter of reaction 

Complexity 244 Accuracy 

Rapidity 245 Extent 

Caracter of instructions 
Environmental influences 

Physical: temperature, atmosferic pressure, etc 


General attitude 

Concentration and expectation 






Special fields of mesurement 

May be divided like 152-159, if one wishes to keep together, e. g. 
152.83724 Degree of taste, 152.837434 Mesure of recognition; but in 
general use better clastwith special field, e. g. Degree of taste 152.478, 
Mesure of recognition 154.834 


Divide like main clasification; e. g. 

152.838132 Reaction time of insane 
.83852 " " in astronomy 

See also 522.97 Personal equation, astronomy 


53 Understanding Cognition Knowledge 


See also 121 Theory of knowledge, 126 Consciousness, 131 Physiologic psychology 

Activ or thinking faculty or functions Intellection 

Ideation. Comprehensiv function or thinking about 

.1 Conception Concept or notion, idea, meaning 

Relations to other psychologic topics may be exprest by using colon to indicate 
relation, e. g. 

153.1 :i52.7 Conception and perception 

153. 1 :iS3-4 * " reflection 

153. 1 :iss " " imagination 

or, if preferd, use 153.10005 divided like iso, e. g. Conception and perception 

.101 General theory 

6 Miscellaneous theories of conception 

62 Nominalist 

63 , Conceptualist 

64 Sensationist 

66 Physiologic 

662 Kinesthetic or ideomotor 

. 1 1 Origin 
.112 Innate 
.113 Acquired 

. 1 2 Forms 
.122 Simple 
.123 Complex 

.13 Types 

.132 Of individuals or particulars, concrete 

.133 " generals or universals, abstract 

.14 Growth or development 

. 1 7 Pathology 

.18 Mesurements 


153.2 Association 

Association of ideas. Psychologic connections. Secondary and mixt incorpo- 
rations. -See also 154 Memory and lerning 

.21 Laws of association 

.211 Primary 

2 Contiguity or continuity in time and space 

External association 

2 2 Simultaneous 
23 Successiv 

3 Similarity 

4 Contrast 
.212 Secondary 

2 Primacy 

3 Frequency or repetition 

4 Recency 

5 Vividness 

6 Emotional congruity 

7 Interest 

8 Rithm 

9 Other 

.22 Physiologic mechanism 

.23 Types 

.232 Redintegrativ, compound or impartial 


.233 Ordinary or mixt 

.234 Similar 

.235 Dynamic 

.236 Serial 

.27 Pathology 

.28 Mesurements 

.3 Abstraction Selection Comparison 

.301 General theory of abstraction 

6 Miscellaneous theories 

62 Generic image theories 

63 Comparison or distinction of reason theories 

Law of dissociation by varying concomitants 

64 Attention and apperception theories 

65 Motor theories 

.32 Determining factors 

.322 Formulation of problem 

.323 Fixt trend of reproductiv tendencies 

.324 Effectivness or vividness of stimulus 



Discrimination of differences 

Recognition of similarities 

Topics: aspect topics 

Exemplifying images, simbols, recepts 

Classes or concepts : generalizing topics 

Indicatory transfers, flashes, attitudes, postures, awareness, cortical set 
(All these ar terms used to describe what goes on during process of reflec- 
tion). See also 153.72 Self-consciousness 


Clasification Types 
As to form 

Attributiv or predicativ 
Hypothetic or conditional 
As to method 
As to nature of response 
Formation of judgments 
Immediate apprehension 
Reasoning or thought 


153.6 Reasoning Induction and deduction Infer* 

Elaborativ function or thinking out. Problem solving. See also 100 Logic 

.62 Elements 

.622 Problem or task 

.623 Elaboration 

.624 Solution 

.63 Types 

.632 Elementary 

Reasoning from 2 particulars to a 3d particular 

.633 Inductiv 

.634 Deductiv 

.64 Processes 

.642 Mental 

.643 Physical 

.65 Use of simbols or secondary meanings 

.652 Thought and language Imageless thought 

.66 Products or results 

.662 Knowledge of reality 

.663 Beliefs 

2 Faith 

3 Dout 

4 Disbelief 

.664 Values Worth 

.665 Meanings 

.67 Pathology 

.68 Mesurements 

.7 Consciousness Personality 

Personal identity. See also 126 Metaphysics, 137 Mind and body, 233.6 

.72 Development or emergence of personality 

Self consciousness. The ego. Self and not-self, self and body, inner self, 
self as person, self and society. See also 132. 1523 Dissociation of personality, 
depersonalization, dual and multiple personality 

.77 Pathology 
.78 Mesurements 


i53«8 Unconsciousness Depth psychology 

Psychology of the unconscious, coconscious, foreconscious, subconscious. 
Subliminal consciousness, automatisms. See also 127 Metaphysics, 
130.16322 Mind-body relations, 133.32 Divination, 133.93 Spiritism, 
158.4 Automatic movements 

.82 Sistems or schools of depth psychology 

See also 131.34 Psychoanalisis 

.822 Psychologic school 

Prince, Rivers, McDougall etc 

.87 Pathology 
.88 Mesurements 

1 54 Memory and lerning Reproductiv power 
Mnemonic apprehension 

See also 15s Imagination, 132.8 Mnemonic derangements 

.01 General theory 

.015 Theories of memory based on the pure sciences 

Divide like 500, e. g. 154.0157 Biologic theories 

.016 Miscellaneous theories 

1 Metaphysical theories 

3 Representation " 

32 Image theories 

33 Assimilation theories 

4 Presentation theories 

42 Physical or physiologic theories 

43 Objectiv " 

5 Subjectiv or function theories 

52 Psychophysical function theories 

53 Psychic " " 

532 Mental habit theories 

533 " disposition theories 

534 Motor and emotion " 

2 Synergy theories 4 Self-recognition theories 

3 Attention " 5 Psychoanalitic " 

.07 Study of memory 

.072 Experimental study 

5 Methods 

58 Special methods 

581 Lerning method 

582 Saving " 

583 Method of paird associates, of hits and misses or scoring 

584 Memory span method 

585 Method of retaind members 

586 Reproduction 

2 By description 

4 " drawing 

587 Identification or recognition 

588 Comparison and selection 

589 Other 

.078 Materials or apparatus 

Nonsense sillables, objects etc 


1 54. i Mnemonics Methods of aiding memory 

Mnemotechny: memory training, mnemonic devices, memory sistems, 
mnemonic technic 

.12 Ingenious or artificial methods 

.122 Metric 

.123 Topical or local 

.124 Pictorial 

.125 Figure-alfabet 

.126 Progressiv suggestion or intermediate associa- 

.13 Mechanic or repetition methods 

.14 Judicious or logical methods 

.2 Types of memory 

.22 Sensimaginal Memory images 

.221 Visual .224 Gustatory 

.222 Auditory .225 Tactil 

.223 Olfactory .226 Motor 

.23 Organic 

.24 Affectiv or emotional 

.25 Abstract 

.3 Memory processes 

.32 Retention Retentivness 

.321 Basis of retention 

2 Mental state 

3 Physiologic or neural trace; disposition 

.33 Reproduction and representation Recall 


.331 Conditions or causes 

2 Perseveration 

3 Interest 

4 Association Suggestion 
•333 Types 

2 Free or spontaneous 

3 Determind or voluntary 

Recollection, reminiscence 

32 Empiric 

33 Logical 


1 54-334 Kinds of stimuli 

2 Perceptions 

3 Images 

4 Ideas 

5 Emotional complexes 
.335 Degrees of recall 

2 Partial or selectiv 

3 Complete 

.336 Interferences in recall 
34 Recognition or identification 

.342 Factors in recognition 

2 Mental associations 

22 Past reference 

23 Localization 

24 Personal ownership 

3 Affectiv associations or feelings 

32 Of familiarity or unfamiliarity 

33 " correctness or incorrectness 

34 " certainty or dout 

4 Kinesthetic or motor associations 
.343 Types of recognition 

2 Explicit or perceptual, direct or immediate 

3 Implicit or ideational, indirect or mediate 
•344 Forms of recognition 

1 Individual identity 6 Self recognition 

2 Material " 7 Relativ recognition 

3 Imaginal recognition 8 Absolute " 

4 Clas " 9 Other 

5 Formal or logical 


154.4 Lerning or acquisition 

See also 158.433 Motor lerning 

.42 Methods 
.423 Mechanic 

2 Practis and repetition 

3 Trial and error 

4 Imitation 
.424 Logical 

2 Association 

3 Discrimination 
•43 Types 

.432 Memorizing or rote lerning 

2 By parts 

3 " wholes 
,44 Aids to lerning 

.441 General questions .446 Rest periods 

.442 Attention and concentra- .447 Number and 

tion frequency of 

.443 Interest repetitions 

.444 Wil to lern .448 Recitation 

.445 Rithmic presentation .449 Other 

.45 Types of lerners 

May be further subdivided like 152.1-.6. See also I37-AS Tvpes of 

.451 Visual .455 Tactil 

.452 Auditory -456 Motor 

.46 Rate and curv of lerning 

.462 Effect of rate of lerning on memory 

.4,7 Transference of lerning 

Cros education 


154.5 Forgetting and lapses of memory 

See also 132.8 Mnemonic derangements 

.51 Causes 

.512 Inhibition 

.513 Selection 

.514 Weak associations 

.515 "or disturbd neural paths and centers 

.53 Rate and curv of forgetting 

.54 Degree of forgetting 

.55 Value " " 

.7 Pathology of special memory processes 

See also 132.8 Mnemonic derangements 

.73 Pathology of memory processes Divide like 154-3 

.74 " " leming " 

.75 " " forgetting " 

.8 Mesurements of memory 

Divide like 154.7 

155 Imagination Creativ power Imaginal 

See also 154 Memory 

.1 Fancy Imaging power Free or uncontrold 


See also 135.37 Day dreams 

.2 Imagery 

See also 152.725 Preperception 

.22 Physiology of imagery 

.23 Types Sensimaginal qualities 

155231-.236 may be divided like IS2.I-.6 

.237 Verbal .238 Eidetic 

.24 Images and sense perceptions compared 

.25 Localization of images 

.3 Forms of imagination 

.32 Reproductiv or representativ 

See also 154 Memory 

.33 Productiv or anticipatory 

.332 Constructiv .333 Creativ 

.4 Limits of imaginativ process 

.6 Applications 

Divide like main clasification. e. g. 
155 65 Imagination in science 
155-67 " " art 

155.68 " " literature 

.7 Pathology 
.8 Mesurements 


156 Intuitiv faculty or power Innate reason 

Implicit apperception, innate ideas, insight, intuition. See also 143 Intuition- 
alism, 153.6 Reasoning, 153 8 Unconsciousness 

.2 Intellectual or speculativ intuition 

See also 151.1 Genius 

.22 Direct cognition 

.222 Of the self (internal sense) 

.223 " " not-self (common sense) 

.23 Direct judgment 

.3 Sense intuition 

.32 Direct perception 

.33 " apprehension 

.4 Motor intuition 

.7 Pathology 

.8 Mesurements 


157 Emotions Affections Sensibility 

Feelings. See also 152.6739 Organic senses. For relations to other psychologic 
topics use colon to indicate relation, e. g. Emotion and memory 157 1154, Emotion 
and instinct 157 1158 or, if preferd, use 157.0005 divided like 150, e. g. Emotion 
and memory 157.00054 

.01 General theory 

.016 Miscellaneous theories of sensibility and emotions 

2 Intellectualistic theories 

Associationist etc 

3 Psychomechanic theories 

Dynamic, struggle among mental processes, etc 

4 Psychophysical theories 

42 Biogenetic 

Affectiv aspect of instincts, etc 

43 Identified with desire 
6 Physiologic theories 

62 Pathologic 

63 Sensationist 

632 James-Lange, peripheral or vasomotor 

633 Identified with organic sense 

64 Cerebral or central 

Resistance in neural processes, etc 


157.07 Study of feelings and emotions 

.072 Experimental study 

5 Methods 

53 Objectiv methods 

532 Method of impression 

533 " " expression 
58 Special methods 

582 Genetic method 

583 Questioning method 

584 Grafic " 

585 Association " 

586 Psychogalvanic " 

.1 Emotional states 

. 1 2 Sentiments 

e. g. Psychology of the beautiful, esthetics; better in 701.17 

.13 Moods 

.2 Expression of emotions 

See also 138 Physiognomy, 158 Instincts 

.21 Principles of expression 

.212 Law of utility or serviceable associated actions 

.213 " " analogous feeling stimuli 

.214 " " antithesis 

.215 " " direct nervous discharge 

.22 Forms of expression 

.222 Glandular 

2 External 

3 Internal 
.223 Vascular 

2 Circulatory 

3 Respiratory 
.224 Muscular 

Laughter, gesture etc 

023 Recognition of emotions 


157-3 Varieties of emotions 

As no authoritativ scheme {or clasifying emotions has yet been devized the 
individual emotions may be arranged alfabcticly 

.4 Passions or uncontrold emotions 

.5 Properties of sensibility 

.52 Affectiv quality or tone, feeling tone 
.521 One-dimensional theory 

Plesure-pain (hedonic tone), plesant-unplesant, agreeable-disagreeable 
or positiv-negativ 

.322 Bidimensional theory 

2 Plesure-pain (hedonic tone) 

3 Restlessness-quiescence 
.523 Tridimensional theory 

2 Plesure-pain (hedonic tone) 

3 Excitement-depression (calm) 

4 Strain-relaxation or tension-relief 
.53 Strength, intensity or vividness 
.54 Rithm and duration 

•55 Content 

.7 Pathology 

.8 Mesurements 

158 Conation and movement Instincts Ap 
petites Motor functions 

Action. Drives 

.1 Conation and feeling 

.12 Hedonic view: feeling precedes conation 

. 1 3 Hormic " : conation " feeling 

.2 Physiology of movement 

See also 612.821 Physiology 

.22 Organs 

See also 612.7 Physiology 

.23 Functional laws 

.232 Dynamogenesis 

2 Law of diffusion 

3 " " inhibition 

4 " " specific motricity 
.3 Types of movement 

.4 Automatic or involuntary movements 

.42 Innate 

.422 Tropisms 

.423 Reflexes 

Conditiond reflexes, etc 


158.424 Instincts 

1 Theories of instinct 

1 1 Philosofic 

12 Theologic 

13 Mechanistic 

14 Hormic 

2 Laws of instinct 

22 Law of individualization of instincts 

23 " " transitoriness " " 

24 " " survival " " 

25 " " convergence " tendencies 

26 " " inhibition " " 

3 Physiology of instincts 

See also 612.8213 Physiology 

4 Appetites and impulses, tendencies, dispositions, 

41 Purpose or basis 

42 Form 

43 Degree or intensity 

5 Varieties 

Arrange alfabcticly. Combativness, imitation, mating, sociability 
etc. For play see 790.1 

7 Pathology 

8 Mesurements of instinct 
.43 Acquired Habits 

.432 Physiology of habit Law of habit 

.433 Motor lerning Acquirement of skil 

See also 154.4 Lerning 

3 Methods 

32 Repetition Exercise Dril Practis 

33 Neural association Ligation (dynamic association) 

4 Results 

42 Simplification of movements 

422 Emfasis and fixation of useful or necessary movements 

423 Elimination and inhibition of useless or unnecessary 

43 Diminution of conscious attention 

.434 Forms of habituation 

2 Central 

3 Contributory 

4 Independent or bifurcate 
.435 Right- and left-handedness 
• 437 Pathology 

.438 Mesurements of habit 















Voluntary or consciously controld movements 

See also 159 Wil 

Work and fatigue 

Work or fatigue curv 

See also 154.46 Curv of leming 

Initial spurt 
Warming up 

Plateaus Breathing places 


End spurt 

Factors affecting efficiency 




Food and fasting 
Loss of sleep 
Climatic conditions 

Refractory period 
Diurnal variations 

Rest periods 

Change of work 



Elements in fatigue 

Metabolic fatigue 

Transferd metabolic 


Fatigue sensations 

Sensory adaptations 
Special motor functions 

Walking, running etc. See also 612.76 Physiology 

Vocal expression 

Speech, singing, whistling etc; dumness. Prefer 401 Philology for 
psychology of language, 784.001 Vocal music 

Grafic expression 

Reading, writing, drawing etc. Prefer 372-4 Reading, 372 51 Writing, 
372.52 Drawing 


159 Wil Volition 

.01 General theory 

.016 Miscellaneous theories 

2 Intellectualistic 

3 Absolute 

4 Heterogenic 

42 Associationist 

43 Genetic or evolutionary 

44 Physiologic 

5 Emotional or affectiv 
.1 Freedom of wil 

. 1 2 Elements of free action 

.122 Alternativ 

.123 Deliberation 

.124 Choice Decision Resolv 

2 Effortless 

2 2 Reasonable 

23 Accidental 

232 Determine! from without 

233 " " within; explosiv 

24 Resulting from change of mood 

3 Effortful Resolute Obstructed 

Feeling of effort. See also 152.673523 Sensatiens of effort and 

. 1 3 Responsibility 
. 1 4 Determination 
.2 Voluntary human action 

See also 15^-5 Voluntary movement! 

.22 Types 
.222 Ideomotor 
.223 Deliberate 

.23 Conditions of execution 
.232 Kinesthetic ideas 

2 Resident 

3 Remote 

.233 Feeling of innervation 

.24 Training of wil Mental self disciplin 

Initiativ, effort and accomplishment, self direction, self control 

.3 Habitudes Routines Accommodation and 
adaptation Adjustment 

See also 158.43 Habits 

.4 Intentions Motivs Desires 


.7 Pathology 
.8 Mesurements 


160 Logic Dialectics 

See also 153.6 Reasoning power. For logic of chance, see 519 Probabilities 

161 Inductiv 

162 Deductiv 

163 Assent Faith 

See also 234.2 Doctrinal theology 

164 Symbolic Algebraic 

Logical machines 

Logical topics 

165 Sources of error Fallacies 

166 Syllogism Enthymeme 

167 Hypotheses 

168 Argument and persuasion 

169 Analogy Correspondence 

See also 219 Natural theology 

170 Ethics: theoretic and applied 

Many topics in applied ethics occur also in law, specially in 343 Criminal law 

See also 377.2 Ethical education. 
.1 .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays .5 Periodicals 

.6 Societies; Society for ethical culture .7 Study and teaching .8 Polygrafy 

.9 History 

171 Theories Philosofy of ethics 

Theories of the basis of morality 

.1 Authority Will of God Christian 

For rules of Christian conduct see 241 

.2 Intuition Moral sentiment 

See also 143 Intuitionalism; 156 lntuitiv faculty 

.3 Perfection 

.4 Happiness Hedonism 

.5 Utilitarianism 

.6 Conscience Casuistry 

.7 Evolutionary or educational 

.8 Altruism 

.9 Egoism 

1 72 State ethics 

.1 Individuals and the state Duties of citizens Patriotism 

See also 320 Political science 

.2 Duties of public offisers Official corruption 
.3 Relations to church 

Duty of etate as to Eupport and protection of church 

See also 361.7 The church; 322 Church and state; 373 Persecution* 

4 International ethics Peace and war 

See also 341 International law 


173 Family ethics 

.1 Marriage and divorce s*e a uo 347.6 FamUy i*w 

.2 Polygamy and monogamy 

.3 Duties of husbands and wives 

.4 Infanticide 

.5 Duties of parents 

.6 Duties of children 

,7 Home life 

.8 Masters and Servants See also 647 Servants; 331 Labor 


174 Professional and business ethics 

.1 Clergy 

.2 Physicians 

.3 Lawyers 

.4 Merchants Business men Business virtues and vices 

.5 Speculation Mammonism A vans 

.6 Gambling Lotteries 

See also 17s below 

.7 Honor, honesty Dishonesty 

Compact, promis; chicanery trickery 

.8 Employers and employd 

175 Ethics of amusements f<* amusement.. ^ 70 o 

.1 Public shows and diversions Rinks, circuses, etc. 

.2 Theater Opera Private theatricals 

.3 Dancing Balls Round dances 

.4 Games of skill: billiards, chess, etc. 

.5 Games of chance: cards, dice, etc. 

.6 Prize fighting Animal fighting : bull, dog, cock, etc. 

.7 Racing: horse, boat, pedestrian, wheel, etc. 

.8 Novel reading 

.9 Betting Poolselling see 174.6 

176 Sexual ethics 

.1 Chastity 

«C Celibacy See also 1J3 Celibacy of clergy 

.3 Continence 

.4 Solitary vice 

.5 Social evil See also 258 Pariih care of fallen 

.6 Adultery 

„7 Immoral art 

.8 Immoral literature 



177 Social ethics 

.1 Curtesy 

See also 395 Etiquet 

.2 Conversation Gossip 

See also 374.1 Self cultun, 

3 Truth Slander Flatttry 
.4 Dress Display Sumptuary legislation 
.5 Caste Class feeling Welth and rank 

See also 204 Brahmanism, a: id 323 .31 Nobility, welthy claM 

.6 Friendship Courtship Coquetry 

.7 Philanthropy Humanity 

.8 Solitude vs social obligations 

(78 Temperance Stimulants and narcotics 

May be divided by form .oi-.oo; sec Index table 2, following Relativ index 

Sec also 132.72 Dipsomania, 331.84 Laboring 

classes, 613.3 Beverages, 613.8 Nervous system 

.1 Use of intoxicating drinks Beer drinking Medicinal use 

See also 616.861 Alcoholism; and Alcohol, Alcoholic, in Relativ index 

.2 Total abstinence vs temperance 

.3 Social drinking Wine at table Treating 

.4 Traffic in intoxicating drinks License High license 

See also 3J0.2 70 Taxation 

.5 Prohibition 

Including legal discussion of prohibition. See also 329.81 Prohibition patty 

.6 Inebriates 

Discussion, reformation. For reformatories and inebriate asylums Bee 362.13 

.7 Tobacco 

.8 Opium Hashish Chloral Ether and other drugs 
.9 Gluttony and other intemperance 

179 Other ethical topics 

.1 Morals of the press Newspapers 

See also Journalism, 070. n 

.2 Cruelty 

Societies for preventing cruelty to children and also general humane societies 
covering work for both children and animals. See also 173 .4 Infanticide; 331.3 
Labor of children 

.3 Cruelty to animals 

.4 Vivisection # 

See also 614.22 Vivisection laws 

.5 Oaths 

.6 Heroism Bravery Cowardis 
.7 Life Dueling Suicide 

See also 394.8 Dueling as a custom 

.8 Pride Covetousness Envy Anger Sloth Jelousy Hate 
and other vices 

.9 Humility Liberality Gentleness Patience Diligence 
Charity Modesty, and other virtues 


180 Ancient and Oriental philosofers 

See also 921.0 Biografy of ancient philosofy 

181 Oriental philosofers 

.1 Chinese : Confucius, Mencius 

.2 Egyptian 

•3 Jewish: kabala; Philo Judaeus, Maimonides 

.4 Indian: gymnosophists 

.5 Persian Sufism 

.6 Chaldaean 

.7 Sabeism 

.8 Phenician 

.9 Syrian 

182 Early Greek philosofers 

.1 Ionic: Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes 

Materialistic. Things are as they seem 

.2 Italic or Pythagorean Half idealistic 

.3 Eleatic : Xenophanes, Parmenides, Zeno, Melissus 

Idealistic. Existence denied. Thought is the only reality 

.4 Heraclitus 

.5 Empedocles 

.6 Atomistic 

.7 Democritus 

.8 Anaxagoras 

.9 Other early Greek 

183 Sophistic and Socratic philosofers 

.1 Sophistic: Protagoras, Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias 

.2 Socrates 

.3 Socratic 

.4 Cynic: Antisthenes, Diogenes, Crates, etc. 

.5 Cyrenaic : Aristippus, Hegesias, etc. 

.6 Megaric : Euclid, Eubulides, Diodorus, etc. 

.7 Elian and Eretrian: Phedo, Menedemus, etc. 

184 Platonic Older Academy 

.1 Plato 

Class his works preferably in 888.4, but discussion of his philosofy here 

.2 Speusippus 

.3 Xenocrates 

185 Aristotelian Peripatetic Lyceum 

.1 Aristotle 

Class his works preferably in 888.5. but discussion of his philosofy here 

.2 Theophrastus 

.3 Eudemus 

.4 Strato 


1 86 Pyrrhonist New Platonist 

.1 Pyrrhonism Skepticism Pyrrho, Timon 

.2 New Academy : Arcesilaus, Carneades, Plutarch 

See 888.8 Plutarch's works 

.3 Eclecticism : Cicero See 875 4 

.4 Alexandrian, Neo-Platonic: Philo of Larissa, Plotinus, Pro- 

ClUS, Porphyry, IamblkhUS See 239.4 Apologetics; 2 7 J. I Heresies 

187 Epicurean: Epicurus Lucreti US See also 871.x 

188 Stoic 

.1 Zeno 

.2 Cleanthes 

.3 Chrysippus 

.4 Panaetius 

.5 Posidonius 

.6 Seneca See 878.5; 873.6 

.7 Epictetus 

.8 Marcus Aurelius 

189 Early Christian and medieval philosofers 

.1 Gnosticism See 273.1 Basilides, Marclon. See 273-2 Manichelsm 

.2 Patristic : Tertullian, Augustine, Clement, Origen 
.3 Arabian: Avicenna, Averroes 
.4 Scholastic : Scotus, Aquinas, Anselm, Abelard 
.5 Mystic : Reuchlin, Cornelius Agrippa, Paracelsus, Servetus, 

190 Modern philosofers 

See also 921. 1 to 921.8 Biografy •>( philosofy, or lives may be put here with works, 
with references only under 920 Biografy. Philosofic works are put here, not under 
the School or System to which the author may be thought to belong. See note 
under 140 

1 9 I American and Canadian philosofers 


Jonathan Edwards 



Orestes A Brownson 



Ralph Waldo Emerson 



Laurens P Hickock 



James McCosh 



Noah Porter 



Francis Bowen 



William Torrey Harris 



Other American philosofic writers 

See 814.36 


192 British philosofers 

English, Scotch, Irish, Welsh 






See 144 Empiricism 



1 63 2-1 704 

See 145 Sensationalism 




See 141 Idealism 




See 824.64 English essays 




See 143 Intuitionalism 


Dugald Stewart 



John Stuart Mill 






Other British philosofic 


German and Austrian philosofers 



1 646-1 71 6 




See 142 Critical philosofy 




See 141 Idealism 












1 788-1 860 

See 149.6 Pessimism 



18 1 7-8 1 


Other German philosofic writers 

French philosofers 



1 596-1 650 

"See 144 Empiricism 



















See 148 Eclecticism 




See 146 Positivism 


Other French philosofic writers 


195-198 may be divided like 945-948; e.g. 196.9 Portuguese 
philosofers, 198. 5 Swedish 

Other modern philosofers 

Divided like 940-999, except for those specially provided for in 191-198 and for 
modern Oriental philosofers (181); e.g. 199-438 Polish philosofers, 199.492 Dutch, 
199.85 Peruvian 

The heds of 180-199 are for discussions of the systems of these men and for 
their philosofic " works not clearly belonging elsewhere, not for all their works. 
Mill's Logic is 160 not 192.7, but his complete works bound together are 
192.7. Plato and Aristotle have individual numbers, 888.4 and .5, where 
their works are more useful than in 184-S because of their classic prominence 


200 Religion General works 

201 Philosofy, theories, methods 

202 Compends, outlines, systems 

203 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

204 Essays, lectures, disputations, addresses 

See also 252 Sermons 

205 Periodicals, magazines, reviews 

206 Societies: transactions, reports, etc. 

General conferences. Societies whose work is 'argely done by pajd offisers, most 
members merely contributing money; e. g. Pan-evangelical alliance, Bible and tract 
societies. Put history, reports, etc. here, but their publications of course go with 

207 Education: theologic seminaries, training 

schools Divided like 940-999 

208 Polygrafy: collected works, extracts, etc. 

Many collections go under a more specific hed; e. g. 240 

209 History of religion 

General, including ecclesiastic antiquities, statistics, etc. See also 270 for 
Christian religion, and 274-279 for Christian antiquities of special countries. 

See also note under 290 

210 Natural theology 

Concerns evidence in nature exclusiv of revelation, also Christian or 6keptic discussion 
of specific topics (211-214, 216-218). For general defense of Christian theology, see 

2J9 Apologetics, subdivided according to kind of criticism 

211 Deism Atheism Theism 

Skepticism. Infidelity. Rationalism, etc. 

Atheism denies existence of God. Deism accepts existence, but denies revelation 
and rejects Christianity. Theism believes in a god supcrnaturally reveald, e. g. 
Judaism, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, etc. Arguments from nature in 6upport ol 

any of these views go here 

See also 231 Christian theism; 239 Apologetics; 273.8 Agnostic heresy; 149-7 Agnos- 

212 Pantheism Theosofy See 147 Pantheism; 129.S Origin of soul 

213 Creation See 113 Cosmology Evolution See S7S Science 

From religious viewpoint; attempts to harmonize Genesis and geology. See also 
metaphysics, 113 Cosmology; and pure science, 575 Evolution 

214 Providence s«e a3 i. s Doctrim Theodicy S^ji^J 



215 Religion and science s ee 2 39 .8 A P oiogeti« 

Antagonism or reconciliation between science and Bible religion. Pro and con 
arguments by scientists. Bridgewaler treatises. For creation, see 213 

216 Good Evil Depravity See 149.6 Pessimism; 233.2 Sin 

217 Worship Prayer 

Tests of efficacy of prayer: prayer gage. See also 264.1 Prayer; 248 Personal religion 

218 Future life Immortality Eternity 

See 237 Future state; 128 The soul 

219 Analogies Correspondences See also 169 Logic 

220 Bible General works 

For similar works limited to Old or New Testament, or individual books, 6ce 
specific hed below 

•i Canon Inspiration Authorship Profecy 

.2 Concordances Analyses 

.3 Dictionaries Cyclopedias 

.4 Original texts and early versions Codices 

Heds for old and new testaments are given, as they are also used for 221 and 

.42 Chaldee 
.43 Syriac 
.44 Hebrew 
.45 Samaritan 

.46 Other Semitic: Ethiopic, Arabic, etc. 

.47 Latin, Itala, Vulgate 

.48 Greek, Septuagint Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion 


.49 Other early versions: Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, etc. 

220.4 and 220.5 are pure texts. A Hebrew Bible with commentary goes In 

220.7 with reference from 220.44 
• 5 Versions Of Bible Polyglots Divide by languages, like 400 

These are translations from the original Hebrew and Greek. Translations from 
other early texts go with them in 220.4; e. g. an English translation of the Syriac 
goes in 220.43 

.6 Hermeneutics Exegesis Symbolism Typology 
.7 Commentaries on whole Bible, and annotated editions 

For notes, etc. on portions of the Bible, see the most specific hed in 221-229 

.8 Special topics 

Divided like general Classification; e. g. natural science of the Bible in 220.8s 

.9 Biblical geografy and history 

.91 Biblical geografy, description, etc. 

See 915.69, 9I3.33 Palestine 

.92 Scriptural biografy 

See also 922.1; 232.9 Lives of Christ 

.93 Antiquities, archeology 

See also 296 Jewish religion; 933 History of Jews 

.94 Chronology 
.95 History 

See 933 Jews 


221 Old Testament: texts, introductions, etc. 

Divided like 220; e. g. 221.7 Commentaries on Old Testament 

222 Historical books 


















Judges and Ruth 













223 Poetic books 

.1 Job 

.2 Psalms 

.3 Authorship and chronology 

.4 Special groups 

Messianic; Greater Hallel; Lesser Hallel; Vesper psalms; Penitential, 6, 32, 
38, si, 102, 130, 143; Hebraic five books. Psalms I-4XJ 42-72; 73-89; 90-106; 

.5 Liturgic use by Christians Metrical versions 

See 264.038 Anglican psalter; 24s Hymnology 

.6 Commentaries on psalms 

.7 Proverbs 

.8 Ecclesiastes 

.9 Song of Solomon, or Canticles 

224 Profetic books 


















224.9 Other minor prophets 

.91 Obadiah 

.92 Jonah 

.93 Micah 

.94 Nahum 

.95 Habakkuk 

.96 Zephaniah 

.97 Haggai 

.98 Zechariah 

.99 Malachi 

225 New Testament: texts, introductions, etc. 

Divided like 230 

226 Gospels and Acts 

.1 Harmonies 

.2 Matthew 

.3 Mark 

.4 Luke 

•5 John 

.6 Acts of the apostles 

.7 Miracles 

.8 Parables 

.9 Lord's prayer 

227 Epistles 

.1 Romans 

.2 Corinthians j 

.3 Corinthians 2 

.4 Galatians 

.5 Ephesians 

.6 Philippians 

.7 Colossians 

.8 Other Pauline epistlet 

.81 Thessalonians 1 

.82 Thessalonians 2 

.83 Timothy 1 

.84 Timothy 2 

.85 Titus 

.86 Philemon 

.87 Hebrews 

.9 Catholic epistles 

.91 James 

.92 Peter 1 

.93 Peter 2 

.94 John 1 

.95 John 2 

.96 John 3 

.97 Jude 


228 Apocalypse Revelation 

229 Deuterocanonical books Apocryfa 


.1 Esdras 1, 2 

.2 Tobit, Judith, Esther 

.3 Wisdom 

.4 Ecclesiasticus 

.5 Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Song of the three children 

.6 Story of Susanna, History of Bel and the dragon, Prayer 

of Manasses 

.7 Maccabees I, 2, 3, 4 

.8 Pseudo gospels 

.9 Other pseudepigrafa 

.9 1 Old Testament 

.911 Historical books 

.912 Poetic books 

.913 Profetic books Jewish apocalypses 

Book of Enoch; Assumption of Moses; Epistle of Baruch; Apocalypse of 
Baruch; Ascension or vision of Isaiah; 4th book of Esdras; Book of Eldad 
and Modad; Apocalypse of Elias; Apocalypse of Zephaniah; Apocalypse 

of Daniel 

.914 Testaments 

Testament of the 12 patriarchs; Testament of Abraham; Testament of Job 

.915 Other books by or about the profets 

Books of Elias, Jasher, Jesirah, Zorah 

.92 Pseudepigrafa of the Acts of the apostles 

.93 Pseudepigrafa of the epistles 

.94 Pseudepigrafa of New Testament apocalypses 

.95 Other recently discovered pseudepigrafa 
.951 Sayings of Jesus 

230 Doctrinal Dogmatics Theology 

General doctrinal works may be subdivided by churches like 280-289. See also 252.3 
Clas here polemics either offensiv or defensiv, when distinctly doctrinal; but clas 
in 280 history of a sect, even if largely controversial and of a limited period, Clas 
controversy about a special doctrin with its subject; e.g. controversy on the atone- 
ment 232.3 

231 God Unity Trinity 

.1 God the Father, Creator 

.2 God the Son, Redeemer 

Second person of the Trinity, irrespcctiv of his appearance on earth as the 
historic Christ 

.3 God the Holy Ghost, Giver of Life, Sanctifier 

.4 Divine attributes: omniscience, omnipresence, omnipo- 


.5 Divine providence See also Natural theology 214 

.6 Divine love and wisdom 


231.7 Divine law Government of God 

.73 Miracles 

Supernatural events. Wonders. Thaumaturgy. The miracle as an argu- 
ment of faith; belief in miracles. Bible miracles and post-Bible miracles. 
Miraculous places. Miraculous objects: relics, statues, images. Miraculous 
cures. Stigmata 

.74 Revelation, vision and appearing of God 

.8 Theodicy 

Vindication of God's justis in permitting evil. See also Natural theology, a 14 


232 Christology 

.1 Incarnation Messiah 

.11 Messiah according to the Bible 

.12 Messianic profesies 

.121 Protevangelium Promis to Adam of a redeemer 

.122 Promises to the patriarchs 

.123 Profesy of Jacob 

.124 Promises to David 

.125 Profesies in Psalms 

.126 Profesy of Isaiah 

.127 " " Daniel 

.128 Other profesies: Zechariah, Jeremiah etc. 

.129 Apocryfal profesies 

.13 Waiting for Messiah 

.2 Logos, the Word of God 

.3 Atonement 

.4 Sacrifice 

.5 Resurrection 

.6 Second COming See also 286.7 Second adventiata 

.7 Judgment 

.8 Divine humanity 

. Divinity of the man Jesus, pro and con 

.9 Lives of Christ 

General biografies of Christ: His person, teaching, worka, influence 

.91 Annunciation 

.92 Infancy 

.921 Nativity 

.922 Adoration of the shepherds 

.923 The 3 wize men Epiphany 

.924 Circumcision 

.925 Massacre of innocents 

.926 Flight into Egypt 

.927 Retired life in Nazareth 

.928 Presentation in temple 

.929 Jesus among the doctors 

.93 Holy family 

.931 Mary 

.932 Joseph 

.933 Parents of Mary : Joachim, Anne 

.94 John the Baptist, forerunner of Christ 


232.95 Public life of Christ 

.951 Baptism 

.952 Temptation 

.953 Calling apostles 

.956 Transfiguration 

.957 Lord's supper 

.958 Last words 

.96 ^Passion of Christ 

.961 Betrayal by Judas 

.962 Trial Condemnation 

.963 Crucifixion Deth 

.964 Burial Laying in grave 

966 Relics of passion 

.967 Descent into hell 

.97 Resurrection and ascension 

.971 Appearances of Christ 

.972 Ascension 

.98 Agrapha 

Christ's words not contained in Gospels 

.99 Legendary, apocryfal and imaginativ, accounts of Christ 

.991 Poetry .992 Drama .993 Fiction 

233 Man 

.1 Origin Fall 

.11 Creation of man Preadamites Coadamites 

.12 Primitiv state of innocence Elevation to supernatural 

order Theory of supernatural and of state of pure 


.13 Erthly paradise Eden 

.14 Fall Nature of original sin Its results Transmission 

See also 273.5 Pelagian heresy 

.2 Sin 

.21 Mortal and venial sin 

.22 Sins against the Holy Ghost 

.3 Moral and spiritual heredity 

See also Biology, 57S-I; Psychology, 136.3; Metaphysics, iag.a 

.4 Accountability 

.5 Natural and spiritual body 

,6 Personality See also Metaphysics, ia6 

Freedom See also 334 9; 133; 159 


234 Salvation Soteriology 

.1 Grace 

See also 273.7 Jansenist heresy 

. 1 1 Actual grace 

.111 Nature and form 

.112 Necessity 

Doctrin of Pelagians, Socinians, Remonstrants and Rationalists; of 
Lutherans, Calvinists, De Bay, Janscn and Quesncl 

.113 Free grace 

114 Distribution of the graces 

.115 Relation between grace and free will Premotion Molinism 

See also 234.0 Predestination 

. 1 2 Sanctifying grace 

.123 Nature of sanctifying grace 

.13 Merit 

.14 Innate virtues 

.15 Gifts of the Holy Ghost 

.2 Faith 

.21 Nature 

Natural elements and natural motivs in exerciie of faith. Formal motiv: 
authority of God 

.22 Necessity of grace for belief 

.23 Relation between faith and science, revelation and reason 

See also 215 Religion and science; 239.7 Apology against rationalists 

.24 Rule of faith Test of truth in theology 

See also 262.7 Tradition; 262.8 Authority of the church 

.25 Reveald mysteries in general 

.26 Religious doubt 

.3 Redemption 

.4 Regeneration 

.5 Repentance 

.6 Obedience 

.7 Justification 

.8 Sanctification 

.9 Predestination and freewill Seeeiso 233.7; 113; 150 

235 Angels Devils Satan 

236 Eschatology Last things 

.1 Deth 


.3 Millennium 

.4 Intermediate state Sheol Hades 

.5 Purgatory 

.6 Paradise Limbus patrum 

,j Limbo Limbus infantum 

.8 Resurrection 

•9 Judgment See also Christoloijy, 333.1 


Flltlire State See also Natural theology, aiS 


Conditional immortality 

Hell Gehenna 
Retribution Future punishment 

Eternal punishment See also 289.1 Universalis 

Creeds Confessions Covenants Catechisms 

Divided more closely if wisht like 280-289; e. g. 238.19 Greek church 

Apostles, Nicene, and Athanasian creeds 
Creed of Pius 4 (Trent) and later Roman 

Anglican 39 articles, A. D. I551 See also 364.037 Liturgy 

Continental protestant Lutheran Calvinist Dort 
Westminster Saybrook Cong'l Cambridge Savoy 

.6- 9 Of Other SectS Divided like 286-289 

239 Polemic theology Apologetics Evidences 
of Christianity 

If preferd, courses of apologetic lectures may be kept together; e. g. 239-01 Bamp- 
ton; .02 Boyle; .03 Hulscan; .04 Bohlen; .05 Paddock; .08 Miscellaneous. More 
usefully each book is clast under the most specific hed that will contain it 
See also natural theology 211-218 and doctrins 231-237 for discussion of separate 

.1 Apostolic age 

.2 Against the Jews 

.3 Against the heathen 

.4 Against the NeO-PlatOniStS See 2731 Gnostic heresy 

.5 Against the English and Scotch deists See2n Deism 
.6 Against the French encyclopedists 
•7 Against the rationalists 

See 211 Natural theology; 273 8 Agnostic heresy; 149-7 Agnosticism 
.8 Against the Scientists For nonchristian view, see 21$ 

.9 Other special denials 





240 Devotional Practical 

241 Didactic 

Specifying the Christian's duty to <lo and to avoid. For Catechisms see JjS 

242 Meditativ, contemplativ 

Consolatory. See also 248 Personal religion 

.1 Thomas a Kempis 

243 Hortatory, evangelistic 

Urging sinners to Christian repentance 

244 Miscellany: religious novels, Sunday school 

books, allegories, satires, etc. 

But clas Bunyan in 823.42 because of his literary prominence 

245 Hymnology Religious poetry 

Hymns without music. For hymns with music 9ee 783.9 

Divided by languages, like 400. and then, after o. by churches, like 280, if denomi- 
nation is clearly markt 
See also 223.5 Psalms 

246 Ecclesiology Symbolism Religious art 

246-7 cover religious bearings. For art side see 704.948 

.1 Byzantine and Gothic ecclesiology 

See 723 Medieval architecture; 726 Religious architecture 

.2 Primitiv church and heathen art 

.3 Images in churches Iconoclasts 

.4 Protestantism and religious art 

.5 Emblematic and cryptografic art : catacomb symbols 

.6 Liturgic symbolism: altar, colors, lights 

See also 264 Public worship 

.7 Evangelistic use of music and art, pictorial and plastic: 
Delia Robbias 

.8 Eucharistic music : Ambrose, Gregory the Great Later 

development See also ? 8 3 Sacred music; 264.2 Public worship 


247 Sacred furniture Vestments Vessels Orna- 

ments, etc. 

.1 Font Baptistery Lectern Pulpit 
.2 Tabernacle Rood screen Reredos 
.3 Sculpture and mortuary design 

See 71S Monuments; 726. S Mortuary bildings; 730 Sculpture 

.4 Illumination Mosaics Enamels Staind glass 

See also 745 Ornamental design; 748 Staind glass 

.5 Fresco and religious painting See also 75° Painting 
.6 Pallium Miter Crozier Ring 
.7 Vestments and altar cloths 

.8 Eucharistic Vessels See also 265 3 Sacr?ments 

.9 Ornaments, etc : crucifix, banners, thurible, incense 


248 Personal religion Asceticism 

See also 273-2 Ascetic heresy 

249 Family devotions see 2 e 4 pomc worship 

250 Homiletic Pastoral Parochial 

251 Homiletics Preaching s C r 2 6 4 6 Pubuc worship 

Divided like 252, for matter about special kinds of sermons 

252 Sermons 

When too varied for any of the subheds . I-.9. may be divided with .0 by churches 
and sects, like 280; e. g. protestant episcopal sermons 252.03, but a collection of 
bishop's addresses 252 . 1, Sermons on specific topics ar more useful, like other 
pamflets, clast with the topics, e. g. a sermon on family devotions is 249, not 252.4; 
on strikes, 331 892. Tho the 9 hejs below ar for collections and cross references, 
they may be used for separate sermons if preferd 

.1 Episcopal charges Pastorals 
.2 Controversial Polemic 

•3 Doctrinal Dogmatic See also 230 Dogmatics 

.4 Practical Devotional 

•5 Academic Educational See also 378... K Baccalaureates 

.6 Political Public occasions and duties 

Thanksgiving and Fast day 

.7 Consecration Ordination Installation 

See also 265.4 Ordination; 265.9 Consecration; 262.16 Orders 

.8 Expository 

.9 Memorial Obituary Biografic Historical 

Memorial of a special church goes with that church in 280. See also 920 Biografy 

253 Pastoral life and duties Celibacy 

254 Church finance Cleric support 

255 Brotherhoods Sisterhoods 

In the parish. For Monastic orders, see 271 

256 Societies for parish work: gilds, sodalities 

Local societies. Discussion of desirability of such work. For general societies 
see 206 and 267 

257 Parish educational work 

Schools, libraries etc. See also 377.5 Education; 027.832 Parish libraries 

258 Parish welfare work 

Work for sick, fallen, afflicted etc. See also 265.8 Ministry of sick; 176.5 Social 


259 Other ministrations and work 


260 Christian church: institutions and 


261 The church 

Its influence on morals, civilization, etc. Relation to social questions, laboring 
classes, etc. 



.3 Church vs barbarism 

.4 Church and morals 

.5 Church and intellectual development See also 377.* Education 

.6 Church and civilization 

.7 Church and civil government 

See 172.3 State ethics; 322 Church and state 
Their relations: religious liberty; tolerant e and intolerance; state religion; 
patronage of church by civil government, suppression; disestablishment; union 
of church and state; concordat; etc. 

.73 Power of church over temporal power of princes Theocracy 

.75 The church and modern freedom 

Papal syllabus of Pius 10 

.8 National churches vs organic unity 


262 Ecclesiastic polity 

.1 Ministry 

. 1 1 Apostolic succession 

.12 Episcopate 

. 1 3 Papacy Primacy Papal supremacy 

.131 Caracteristics of the papacy 

Primacy of see of St Peter and pontifical infallibility 

.132 Temporal power of pope Pontifical states 

.135 Conclave Election of pope 

,136 Organization of the pontifical curia 

.14 Priest Presbyter Minister Lay ministry 

.15 Deacon Deaconess Evangelist 

.16 Orders Ordination See 265.4 Sacraments; 252.7 Sermons 

.17 Episcopal 
.18 Presbyterian 
. 1 9 Congregational 

.2 Parish Congregation See 250 'or Parochial work 

.3 See Diocese Cathedral system 

.4 Council Synod Presbytery Congregation Convention 

Polity only, here. Proceedings go with churches, 281-0 

.41 National 

.5 General or ecumenic council see also 270.2 
.6 Canons Decrees 

.7 Traditions 

.8 Authority Church and ministerial Private judgment 

.9 Disciplin Courts Trials For church law see 348 


263 Sabbath Lord's day Sunday 

.1 Hebraic sabbath 

.2 Modern sabbath Seventh day 

.3 Lord's day Christian Sunday 

.4 Sunday observance 

.5 Work 

.6 Amusement 

.7 Opening libraries and museums See also 024.4 Library rules 

.8 Sunday laws 

264 Public worship Divine servis Ritual 


Prayer books. See also 246 Ecclesiology; 247 Sacred furniture. General works 
ar divided with .0 by churches like 280; e. g. Roman catholic prayer book 
264 02 . Under various churches the servises may be further divided, as e. g. 

.03 Anglican and American P. E. ritual 

.03 1 Calendar Festivals and fasts See also 529.44 chronology 

.032 Lectionary and rubrics 

.033 Morning prayer Litany 

.034 Evening prayer Vespers Compline 

.035 Sacraments, ordinances, and servises See also 26s Sacrament* 

.036 Collects, epistles and gospels 

.037 Ordinal Articles Creeds See also 238 3 Creeds, doctrins 

.038 Psalter and Other See 223.5 Psalms; 24s Hymnology 

.039 History of successiv prayerbooks 

.1 Prayer Extempore Liturgic 

See also 248-249 Private and family prayer 

.2 Music Singing Instrumental Praise meeting 

See also 783 Sacred music; 246.7, 246.8 Ecclesiology 

.3 Scripture readings 

.4 Antiphonal or responsiv readings 

.5 Confessions of faith Creeds s ee also 238 Creeds 

.6 Sermons Exhortations Instructions 

See also 251 and 252 Preaching and sermons 

.7 Prayer and conference meetings 

.8 Clas and covenant meetings Love feasts 

•9 SacramentalS See also 265 Sacraments 

265 Sacraments Ordinances 

.1 Baptism 

.2 Confirmation Church fellowship 

.3 Eucharist Holy communion Sacrifice 

.4 Holy Orders Ordination See also 262.16 Ministry; 252.1 Sermons 

.5 Marriage See also 173 Ethics of the family 

.6 Penance Confession Absolution 

,6l Contrition See also 234.5 Repentance 

.62 Confession 


265.63 Satisfaction 

.64 Absolution 

.65 Censures: excommunication, suspension, interdiction 

.66 Indulgences 

.67 Ancient public penance 

.68 Reconciliation of heretics 

.69 Ministration of the sacrament 

.7 Extreme unction Viaticum 

.8 Ministry of sick and ded: faith cure, healing, burial 

•9 Consecration Dedication See 262.16 Ordination; 252.7 Sermons 

266 Missions: home and foren 

Subdivided by churches, like 280. See also 269 Parish missions; 377.6 Missionary 

Missions in special countries or places covering the work of several sects go under 
the geograficly divided Religious history 274-279. The mission of a single sect in a 
special country or place may, according to preference, be clast with Missions in 
266, subdivided by sect, or with Religious history 274-279 

267 Associations 

General societies demanding of members activ personal work. For local societies, 
see 256. For Bible, tract, and similar general societies see 206 

.1 Religious societies of both men and women 

.11 U. S. Christian commission 

. 1 s Salvation army 

.18 Denominational 

Divided like 280; e.g. 267.186 Baptist adult union 

.2 Religious societies of men 

For Y. M. C. A. see 267 .3 ; missionary societies, 266; ministerial education societies 
207; Bible societies, 206 

.21 17th century or earlier 

.22 1 8th century 

.23 19th century or later; inter- and undenominational 

.231 In educational institutions 

Divided like 940-999. If preferd, cancel .231 and put all together In .234-9 
For work of Y. M. C. A. see 267.361 

.232 Nasmith societies 

.233 Young men's Christian unions; i. e. not "evangelic," 


. 2 3 4-. 239 Others Divided like 940-999 

.24 19th century or later; denominational 

.241 In educational institutions 

Divided like 282-289. If preferd, cancel .241 and put all together in 
.242-9. For work of Y. M. C. A. Bee 267.361 
.242— .249 Others Divided like 282-289 

.3 Young Men's Christian associations 

Following subdivisions may also be applied to 267.432 Women's 
and 267.5 Young women's Christian associations 
.31 General questions 

Objects, field, extension. Relation to church. Methods of 
local, state, national, international work. For history, reports, 
etc. see 267.39 
.32 Buildings 

Location, plans, provision for special rooms; lighting, heating, 
ventilation ; furniture and fixtures. See also 726.973 Architecture 

May be divided by countries like 940-999 


267.33 Organization 

Incorporation, brandies and suborganizations, managers, 
trustees, standing committees, membership, etc. 
;34 Salaried officers: Duties, qualifications, training 

,341 General secretary and assistants 

Including international and state secretaries 
.342 Librarian and assistants 

For library administration see 025 Library economy, 267.353 
Library in Education dept 
. 143 Phisical director and assistants 

See also 267.355 Phisical dept, 613.7 Recreational hygiene and 
.344 Other salaried officers 

.345 Training: Need, methods, demand, supply 

.346 Training schools 

.347 Apprenticeship training 

.348 Institutes .349 Conferences 

Methods only; for reports see 267.39 
.35 Departments 

Organization, committees, work, methods, etc. For similar 
aspects of work with boys see 267.357 Boys dept 
.351 Business dept .352 Religious dept 

.353 Education dept: Including library; for librarian see 267.342 

.354 Social dept 

.355 Phisical dept 

For phisical director see 267.343; see also 613.7 Recreational 
hy^u-ne and gymnastics 
.356 Dept of information, relief, etc. 

Boarding house, employment, savings, etc. buros; visitation of 
sick, aid to destitute, etc. 
•357 Boys dept 

2-6 may be used like 267.^52-356 for such work in Boys 
dept; e.g. 267.3575 Phisical work of Boys dept 
.359 Janitor's dept: Including safety and police mesurcs 

.36 Work among special classes 

Limited to Y.M.C.A. ; for other religious societies of men see 267.2 
.361 College and school 

.362 Railroad employes 

.363 Commercial travelers 

.364 Foren-speaking 

May be divided like 400; e.g. 267.3643 German 
.365 Negroes .367 Soldiers 

.366 Indians .368 Sailors 

.369 Other: police, firemen, fishermen, etc. 

.39 History, reports, periodicals, etc. 

General and international. For methods see 267.31 
•394 _ -399 Special countries divided like 940-999 

.4 Religious societies of women 

.43 19th century or later; inter- and undenominational 

.432 Women's Christian associations 

Divided like 267.3. To shorten the number, W may be used for 267.432 
thruout; e. g. W I would mean ' Objects, field and extension' 

.433 King's daughters 

.44 19th century or later; denominational Divided like 282-280 

•5 Young Women's Christian associations 

Activ membership confined to members of ' evangelic ' churches 
Divided like 267.3- 390 

To shorten the number Y may be used for 267. Si e. g. Y3, Organization, insted 

of 267.53 


267.6 ReligiOUS SOCietieS Of yOUng people For Sunday nchooli 108 

.61 Interdenominational and undenominational 
.613 Young people's society of Christian endevor 

1 Reports, etc. 

2 Periodicals 

.6 j Denominational Divided like 282-289 

.7 Religious societies of boys Not Y. M. c. a. Divided like 267.6 

.8 ReligiOUS Societies Of girlS Not Y. W. C. A. Divided like ;6?.6 

268 Sunday schools Religious education 

. 1 Establishment Administration 

. 1 2 Constitution Bylaws 

. 1 4 Business department 

.142 Finances 

2 Budget 

3 Regular subscriptions Sistematic giving Duplex envelop 

4 Soliciting Collecting 
6 Disbursements 

.144 Printing 

Programs, announcements, school paper, school manual 

.145 Publicity 

Local prcs, concerts, posters, invitation cards, ' go to Sunday school ' button! 

146 Bilding up attendance 

Entertainments: concerts, socials, picnics, Christmas tree 

.15 Branches Missions 

.2 Premises Equipment 

. 2 1 Grounds 

Site; provision for growth 

.22 Bildings 

See also 726.4 Architecture; 697 Heating and ventilating; 628,9 Lighting 

.23 Plan and arrangement of rooms 

.231 Administrativ rooms and offises 

.232 Study, lecture and assembly rooms 

.233 Library and museum 

.234 Manual work rooms 

• 2 35 Social rooms 

Parlors, kitchens, pantries etc. 

.236 Gymnasium 

.237 Sanitation Lavatories 

.239 Accessories 

Elevators, lifts, telefones etc. 

.24 Furnishing Decorating 

.241 Furniture 

Blackboards, desks, chairs, benches, sand tables , book cases, gtereooticon* 
maps, globes 
.245 Decoration 

.3 Personnel 

.32 Trustees Directors 

Body responsible for policy, funds, appointments 

33 Administration Supervision 

332 Pastor Associate pastor 


368-333 Superintendent Associate or assistant superintendents 

2 Relation to pastor 

3 « u church aims 

4 " " congregation 

5 " " school 

52 Relation as chief executiv 

§3" " to teachers 

54 " " pupils 

55 " " Sunday school exercizes 
.334 Secretarial force 

2 Registrar 

3 General secretary 

4 Report secretary 

5 Custodian of supplies 

6 Superintendent of absentees 
•335 Treasurer 

.336 Librarian 

For library see 027.83: , 

•337 Chorister 

For music see 783.7 

.338 Director of hand work 

.339 Other 

.34 Committees 

Publicity, reception, welcome, evangelism and home cooperation, social lite 

and recreation, special days, music, library 

37 Teachers 

.371 Qualifications Personality 

.372 Need of training ; kind, amount 

-373 Examination Certificates 

.374 Appointment Organization of teaching force 

.376 Promotion Salary Amount of servis 

.4 School organization 

.42 Membership 

.422 Extension department 

District plan, permanent visitini; committee, house to house visiting 

.423 Welcome committee at church servises 

.424 Securing new scholars 

Members of school bring new scholars 

.43 Teaching departments 

•432 Children's division 

Cradle roll, birth 3 yrs; beginners dep't, 4-5 yrs; primary, 6-8 yrs; junior, 
9-1 a yrs 

.433 Young people's division 

Intermediate dep t. 13-14 yrs; senior, 15-17 yrs; young people's, 18-24 yrs 

.434 Adult division 

Men's dep't; women's dep't; parents training clas 

.435 Home departments 

Domestics, invalids etc.: i. e. those carrying on regular Sunday school 

course but prevented from attending 

.436 Correspondence courses 

•437 Special classes 

Army, navy, special types, races, etc. 

•44 Grading Graded school 

.45 Scholarship records Marking sistem 

.46 Examinations Promotions 

•47 Certificates Diplomas 


268.48 Outside activities 

^ For discussions of relation of Sunday school to church, community, weekday 

schools, fisical activities, clubs etc. 

.5 Disciplin Incentivs 

. 5 1 Rules 

.52 Attendance Tardiness Absence 

^ Help of home influence; invitations and reports to parents. Follow-up cardt, 

** Attendance charts 

.53 Rewards Inducements 

Prizes, decorations. Printed honor roll. Cards to be redecmd with reward. 
Special holiday or summer plans 

.54 Punishment Penalties 

.6 Sistems Methods of instruction and study 

.61 Lesson sistems 

.62 Textbook method Graded subject matter 

.63 Lecture method 

.635 Visual instruction 

2 Stereopticon lantern and slides 

3 Motion pictures: travel, missions 

4 Pictures 

5 Charts 

6 Maps 

7 Blackboard 
.64 Inductiv method 

.65 Question and anser method Reviews 

.66 Heuristic or source method 

Use of Bible, catechism, church doctrin 

.67 Dramatic interpretation of Biblical events 

See also 244 Religious miscellany; 702. 1 Passion plays; 822.1 Erly English drama 

.68 Manual work 

.682 Note-book work 

Copying or original; titles or verses describing pictures; written ansers to 
questions; historical outlines; thesis work 

.683 Geografy work 

Maps: line work, map marking, modeling in clay and pulp 

.684 Illustrativ work 

Picture books; simbolic and descriptiv drawings; sand-table picture work; 
constructing models of life and customs 

.635 Decorativ work 

Designing, lettering, illuminating 

.6?7 Museum work 

Collecting and constructing illustrativ material 

.69 Other 

.7 Servises 

. 7 2 Order of servises 

.73 Music and worship 

.75 Rallies 

Rally day, children's day, parents' day 

.76 Anniversaries Special days and festivals 

Christmas, Lent, Easter, Thanksgiving 

.77 Vacations 

.8 Sunday schools of various denominations 

Subdivided like 280 

269 Revivals Retreats Parish missions 


270 General history of Christian church 

Ancient period: to conversion of Germans 

See 281.1-2111.4, for collected works of early theologic writers, etc. 270 is for religious 

history of these periods 

For religious history of special countries, cither general or for special periods, see country 
divisions, 274-270; e. g. English reformation, 274.2 

.1 Apostolic Nativity to Constantine 

.2 Period of ecumenic councils Centralization 325-787 

The Greek church acknowledges these 7 councils as really Ecumenic. Anglicans 
generally recognize only the first 6. See also 262.5 Polity 


First of Nice A. 

D. 325 


First of Constantinople 



First of Ephesus 






Second of Constantinople 



Third of Constantinople 



Second of Nice 


Medieval period: Charlemagne to Luther 
270.3 Charlemagne Papacy vs empire 787-1054 

Church planted among the Germans. Feudalism. Great schism, last is west, 

.4 Hildebrand Roman supremacy 1054-1200 

Temporal power. Scholasticism. First 3 crusades 

.5 Later medieval Renaissance 1200-15 17 

Innocent 3. Papal schism. Avignon. Nominalism vs realism. Greek church 
under Moslems. Education. Arts. Inventions Pre-reformation 

Modern period: Reformation to present 
.6 Reformation Counter reformation 1517-1648 

Council of Trent, A. D. 1545-63. Diet of Augsburg. Luther. Melancthon. 
Calvin. Knox. Religious wars. Jesuit missions in east. See also reformation 
In England, etc. 274.2 

.7 Peace of Westphalia to French revolution 1648- 1789 

Union of church and state. Deism. Materialism 

.8 Modern Rationalistic 1789- 

Holy alliance. Greek church in Russia. Atheism. Pantheism. Protestant 


271 Religious orders 

Including monasticism, monastic foundations, monasteries 

See also 255 Brotherhoods; 726.7 Architecture of monasteries, etc. 

.1 Benedictines founded 529 

.12 Cistercians " 1098 

.125 Trappists " 1150 

.13 Olivetans 

.2 Dominicans " 1170 

.3 Franciscans " 1182 

.3 1 Original order, not divided 

.32 Conventuals 


271.33 Observantines 
.34 Recollcts 
.35 Alcantarines 
.36 Capuchins founded 1525 

.4 Augustinians " 1256 

.5 Jesuits " 1540 

.6 Passionists, 1720 Redemptorists, 1732 

.7 Lesser Roman orders 
.71 Carthusians, founded A. D. 1086 

.73 Carmelites 12th century 

.75 Sulpicians, 1642 

.76 Oblates 
.77 Lazarists, 1624 

.78 Christian Brothers, 18th century De la Salle 

.79 Other lesser Roman orders 

.8 Nonroman brotherhoods 

Divide like 280 (except 282, which is provided for under 271. 1-. 7) 

.9 Sisterhoods 

.91 Sisters of Charity Vincent de Paul founded A. D. 1629 

.92 Sisters of Mercy Augustinian " " 183 1 

.93 Ladies of the Sacred Heart Jesuit " " 1800 

,94 Sceurs de bon Secours Nurses 

.95 Little Sisters of the Poor 

.96 Contemplativ Cloisterd nuns 

.97 Other Roman sisterhoods 

.971 Carmelites 

.972 Second of St Dominic 

.973 Franciscans 

.974 Ursulines A. D. 1537 

.975 Of the Visitation " 1610 

.976 Of St Joseph " 1650 

.977 Of the Presentation " 1777 

.98 Nonroman sisterhoods 

Divide like 280 (except 282, which is provided for under 271.91-.97) 

.99 Other protestant orders Deaconesses (Kaiserwerth) 

272 Persecutions 

See also special sects, 280; and history of special countries, 940-999 

.1 Apostolic church by imperial Rome ist-4th century 
.2 Heretics by Inquisition or Holy Offis Since 1470 
.3 Waldenses and Albigenses nth-i2th century 

By Roman church. See also 284.4, Protestant sects 

.4 Huguenots French protestants 

By Roman church. St Bartholomew, 1572. Edict of Nantes, 1598; revocation 

See also 284.5 Protestant sects 

.5 Molinists and Quietists 

By Roman catholics. Close of 16th century to destruction of Port Royal, A. D 
1709. See also 273.7 Heresies 


272.6 Marian Anglican reformers by Mary A. D. 1553-58 
.7 Elizabethan Later 16th century 

Persecution of Roman church by Anglicans 

.8 Quakers Baptists Witches Later 17th century 

Persecutions by puritans. See also 133.4 Witchcraft 

.9 Other persecutions 

273 Heresies 

For the history of special doctrins see 230-239, Doctrinal theology 

.1 Gnostic First 3 centuries 

Reaction of pantheism and heathen philosofy on Christianity. See also 189. 1 
Gnostic philosofy; 186.4 Neo-Platonism; 239.4 Apologetics 

.2 Manichaeism Parsee dualism 3d century 

Opposition of good and evil. Mystic. Ascetic. See also 149.3 Mysticism; 
248 Asceticism; 289.8 Shakers, Mystics 

,3 Sabellian 

That the Trinity is not of persons, but of successiv manifestations. About 23° 
A. D. 

.4 Arian Denying divinity of Christ 4th century 
.5 Pelagian 5th century 

Denying original sin and supernatural grace 

.6 Antinomian 16th century 

Denying force of law, under Gospel dispensation 

.7 Molinist and Jansenist Pietists A. D. 1580-1700 

Port Royal. Augustine's doctrin of grace vs the Roman doctrin of good works 

.8 Agnostic 

Denying possibility of revelation. Holding that theology and the supernatural 
lie outside the domain of human knowledge. See also 149-7 Philosofy; 211 
Atheism; 239 Apologetics 

.9 Minor heresies 

274-279 General church history by countries 

274-279 is divided geograficly like 940-999 

280 Christian churches and sects 

28 1 . 1 -289.8 may be subdivided where needed like 940-999 

281 Primitiv and Oriental churches 

See also 270.1-270.3, Early religious history 

.1 Apostolic church, to time of great schism, A. D. 1054 

Works of apostolic and Christian fathers here; use 270 for religious history of 
these periods. See also 229.9 Apocryphal books 

.2 Primitiv apostolic, to end of first century 

.3 Ante-Nicene, A. D. 100-325 Seeaiso 270.1 

.4 Post-Nicene, A. D. 325-1054 See also 270.2-.3 

.5 Oriental churches 

.6 Monophysite Eutychian 

.62 Armenian 

.63 Jacobite 

. 7 Coptic Abyssinian 

.8 Nonmonophysite Nestorian 

.9 Eastern or Greco-Russian or Holy orthodox church 

The great schism, mutual excommunication, A. D. 1054, separates the Catholic 
church into Eastern and Western churches, which from this time have separate 


282 Western or Roman catholic church 

Divided geograficly like 940-999 

283 Anglican and American P. E. church 

Divided geograficly, when needed, like 940-999; e. g. the Anglican church in Australia 
Is 283.94; in India, 283.54 

284 Continental protestant sects Protestantism 

. 1 Lutheran 

.2 Calvinist Zwinglian Reformd See also 285 and 200.1 

.3 Hussites Anabaptists Leyden See 286.1 

.4 Albigenses Waldenses Vaudois see 372.3 

■ 5 HugUenOtS See 272.4 

.6 Moravian 

.7 Scandinavian Swedish 

.8 Modern schisms in Catholic church 

.81 Old catholic 

Here ar clast those denying papal infallibility, or for other cause cut off from 
Rome, tho catholic in other respects 

.82 Gallican schismatics Constitutional church 

.83 Little church of France 

Those who do not recognize the concordat (anti-concordataires) 

.84 Jansenists 

See also 273.7 Jansenist heresy 

.9 Other 

285 Presbyterian Reformd Congregational 

Next 2 subdivisions are sectarian, not geografic 

.1 Presbyterian church in America 

Subdivided geograficly; e. g. 285.173 Presbyterian church in United State* 
285.175 Southern presbyterian church 

.2 Presbyterian church in Great Britain 

.3 Cumberland presbyterian 

.4 United presbyterian 

.5 Reformd presbyterian 

.6 Minor presbyterian sects 

.7 Reformd (Dutch) church in America e- g 285.77471, in n. y. dt? 

.8 Congregational 
.9 Puritanism 

286 Baptist Immersionist 

.1 Calvinistic or Regular 

Including Arminian or general b .ptists, reunited with Calvinistio in 1891 

.2 Free wil 

.3 Seventh day 

4 Old school (Primitiv, Antimission or Hardshel) 

.5 Other baptist sects 

May be clast if preferd with any of the larger sects which they moit cloiely 

resemble or of which they ar offshoots 

.6 Disciples (Campbellite or Christian) 

.7 Adventists 

.9 Other immersionists 


287 Methodist 

.1 Wesleyan methodist 

.2 Calvinistic methodist 

.3 Welsh Calvinistic methodist 

.4 Primitiv methodist 

.5 Primitiv Wesleyan 

.6 Methodist episcopal 

.7 Methodist protestant 

.8 African methodist 

.9 Minor methodist sects 

288 Unitarian Socinian Antitrinitarian 

See also 273.4 

289 Other Christian sects 

.1 Universalist 

.3 Mormon 

.4 New church or Swedenborgian 
.5 Christian science 
.6 Quaker Friends Hicksites 
.7 Mennonite 

.8 Shaker MyStiC For Mystic heresy see J73 » 

.9 Other Christian sects 

290 Nonchristian religions 

Including comparativ religion and general histories of religion where an equal or 
minor place is given to Christianity 

291 Religious topics of general nature Com- 
parativ mythology 

Subdivisions given below ar for general works on these topics. Material relating 
to a special religion should generally be clast with that religion 

.1 General ideas 

. 1 2 Religious emotions 

Awe, veneration, submission, confidence, love, etc. See also 157 
Emotions, in psychology 

.13 Comparativ mythology 

The.myth: its constituent elements, growth and changes in form 

.14 Clasification of religions 

Monotheistic, polytheistic, mystic, rcveald, etc. 

. i s Genealogic connection between religions 

.16 Attitude of religions to each other Tolerance 

.17 Relations between religion and science, art and morals 

.2 Religious doctrins Dogmas Theology 

.21 Divinities 

Object of religion. Worship of various divinities. Special myths. 
Functions of gods. Worlds of gods and spirits. 
.311 Animism, spiritism, fetishism, totemism, polydemonism 


391.212 Naturism 

Adoration of the forces of nature and personified objects and phenomena 
Nature myth 

1 Mountains and rocks (litholatry) 

2 Water (hydrolatry) 

3 Plants and trees (dendrolatry) 

4 Animals: dog, crocodile, serpent, birds (zoolatry) 

5 Atmosferic fenomena: atmosfere, rain, clouds, winds, lightning, 
thunder etc. (meteorolatry) 

6 Fire (pyrolatry) 

7 Celestial bodies: sun, moon, stars etc. (astrolatry) 

8 Sky and earth (ouranolatry and chthonism) 
.213 Worship of human beings (apotheosis) 

Demi-gods, heroes, saints, absolute monarchs 

4 Worship of ancestors 

Domestic worship, manes, lares, penates 

5 Worshio of the ded (necrolatry) 
.214 Gods 

Personified abstractions and divinities considerd as pure spirit 
.215 Hierarchy of gods 

Servants and messengers of divinity 

.216 Demons and evil spirits 

.217 Strife among the gods and between gods and men 

.218 Images of divinity Idolatry 

.3 Forms of worship Religious practises 

Liturgy, etc. 

.35 Sacred places 

Holy places, altars, temples, pagodas, woods and groves, sacred grottos and 
streams, holy cities and villages 
See also 726 Religious architecture 

.37 Symbolism 

General and nonchristian 

.6 Religious organization Sacred persons Religious men 

.61 Representativs of divinity 

Incarnation, priesthood, priests. Ministers of worship and other mediators. 
Recruiting of the clergy. Types of priests. Theocracy, hierarchy. 

.62 Men endowed with supernatural power 

Thaumaturgists, sorcerers, magicians, exorcists, charlatans. Relation 
between priesthood and sorcery 

.63 Divinely inspired men Profets 

.64 Interpreters of divinity 

Revelation of truth and of divine wil. Sacred writers. Religious law 
givers, founders of religions, religious reformers and apostles 

.7 Deeds inspired by religious motivs 

Religious wars, warlike or peaceful propagandism (see also 172.4 Peace and war, 
in ethics). Home and foren missions 

.8 Sources of religion 

Sacred books; oral traditions; ecclesiastic decisions 

292 Greek and Roman religion and mythology 

293 Teutonic and Northern religion and my- 


294 Brahmanism Buddhism 

Also religions derived from them. For other Indie religions, let 200.11. See also 

891.2 Sanskrit literature; 177.5 Caste 

.1 Vedic religion 

.2 Prebuddhic Brahmanism 

.3 Buddhism 

.3 1 Buddhism of the south 

.32 Buddhism of the north Lamaism 

.4 Jainism Sect of Jainas 

.5 Hinduism 

Changes introduced into Brahmanism during and after struggle with Buddhism 

.55 Various sects of Hinduism 

.551 Cakta sect Worship of the Caktis 

.552 Brahmo Somaj sect 

•553 Sikhism 

295 Parseeism Zoroastrianism Mazdaism 

For other Iranic religions, see 299.15. See also 891. S2 Zend literature 

296 JudaiSITl For other Semitic religions, see 299.2 

297 Mohammedanism 

299 Other nonchristian religions 

Subdivided ethnicly like 491-499; e. g. Egyptian religion, 299.31; Afghani religion, 


Social Sciences 

300 Social sciences Sociology in general 

301-309 all hav Sociology in general as their subject, but it is treated in these various 
forms. A periodical on Education is 370.5. not 305, which is only for periodicals on 
Sociology in general. In Sociology, most works in these forms ar limited to one division; 
e. g. to Political economy. Education, Law, etc. All these hav the same subdivision 
of General works; i. e. essays on the various divisions ar 310.4, 320.4, 330.4, and so on to 
essays on Manners and Customs in general, 390.4. A naught in any clas number shows 
the subject to be general, not specific 

301 Sociology: philosofy, theories 

See also 901 Philosofy of history; 320.1 Theory of state 

.1 General conception 

Nature and caracter, definition, limits and extent 

. 1 5 Social psychology 

Individual and group interstimulation, institutions as cultural stimuli, social 
forces and responses, collectivistic mentality, complex behavior. See also 
136.27 Social influences on mental characteristics, 390 Custom, fashion, 

.151 Psicologic background 

Considerd with relation to social science. Instincts, emotions, intelli- 
gence, imitation, suggestion, etc. Divided like 150, e.g. 301.1517 Emotions 

.152 Group unity and continuity 

2 Group morale 

Coordination, group loyalties, etc. See also 320.158 Political loyalty, 

3 Group or social cont-rol 

Social pressure, control exerted by groups, propaganda; for police 
control of groups see 351.752. See also 323.4 Individual rights 

.153 Group activities and changes 

2 Conflict 

Interference, opposition, discussion. See also 323.2 Revolutions, riots, 
etc. , 

3 Compromize 

Modification, accommodation 

4 Assimilation 

5 Social or institutional progress 

Socialization, culturalization. culture, reform, social ideals 

6 Disintegration 

Maladjustment, reversion, decadence 

.154 Public or group opinion 

.155 Leadership and prestige 

. 1 58 Special groups 

2 Crowds Mobs 

See also 323.2 Revolutions, riots, etc. 

3 Assemblies 

Meetings, committees, audiences, etc. 

4 Youth 

See also 369.4 General young people's societies 


302 Compends, outlines 

303 Dictionaries, cyclopedias, etc. 

304 Essays, lectures, addresses 

305 Periodicals, magazines, reviews 

306 Societies: transactions, reports 

307 Study and teaching see ai* 370 Education 

308 Polygrafy: collected works, extracts, etc 

Put here collected works of Ltatesmen ; e. g. works of Adams, Jefferson, etc. 

309 History of social science 

.1 Social surveys 

Divided like 030-999 and including general works on social conditions in ape 1 il 
countries. May, if preferd, be clast in 913-919 or, if strongly historical, in 
930-999. For general histories of civilization see 901 

310 Statistics 

311 Theory, methods Science of statistics 

.2 Methods, procedure, technic Preparation of statistics 

.21 General questions 

.22 Collecting 

.23 Analysis Testing Verifying 

.24 Arrangement Clasification Tabulation 

.25 Correlation 

.26 Forms of presentation 

Diagrams and cartograms; grafs; frequency tables; index numbers 

.3 Organization and direction of official statistics 

.39 By country 

Subdivided like 930-999 

.4 Organization and direction of unofficial statistics 


312 Demografy Population 

Distribution and progress of population. General enumeration 
and census. Vital statistics (may be clast here or under 614. 1 
Public hclth, as prefcrd). See also 323.3 Social classes, 325 Migra- 
tion, colonization, 364.42 Crime prevention by control of population 

.1 Births and birth rates Natality 

Fecundity and sterility (see also 612.663 Phisiology of fecundity, 
616.69 Functional diseases of male generativ organs, 618.17 
Gynecology). Limitation of birth rate, Malthusianism, etc. 
(For birth control see also 173.3 Ethics, 612.63 Phisiology, 
613.94 Eugenics). Illegitimacy (see also 347.6 Family law, 
362.72 Child care) 

.2 Deths and deth rates Mortality 

Stilbirths (sec also 618.39 Pregnancy) ; infant mortality ; longevity 
(see also 612.68 Phisiology of longevity). Mortality from 
special causes: disease, accidents, murder, suicide, etc. Mor- 
tality and survival tables; determination of mortality rates (see 
also 368.31 Life insurance, 519.5 Life contingencies) 

.3 Sickness and sick rates Morbidity 

Incidence of disease. See also 616-618 Pathology 

.5 Marriages and marriage rates 

Celibacy, proportion of unmarrid persons. Separation, divorce 
(see also 173. 1 Family ethics). See also 392.5 Marriage customs 

.6 Phisical condition of population 

Somatologic statistics: stature, helth, phisical infirmities, etc. 
See also 572 Ethnology, 573 Somatology 

.7 Moral condition of population 

See also 170 Ethics, 364 Criminology 

.8 Progress of population 

Population changes: increase, overpopulation; decrease, 

.9 Distribution and composition of population 

According to origin or nationality, sex, residence, language or 
race, age, occupation, social status, education, religion, etc. 


313 Special topics 

May be divided like the whole classification. But see note under 314-310 below 

'Uzi-^ig General statistics Divided geograficly like 940-999 

The statistics of any special matter ar put with the subject, e. g. of Domestic animals 
in 636, of Shorthand in 653, of French novels in 843, of Theaters in 792, etc. Statistics 
too general to be included in any topic ar divided by countries. Statistics of New 
York city would be 317.471. but the statistics of Medidn in New York would be put 
with 610 Mcdicin; i. e. the topic outranks the locality 

320 Political science 

.1 Theory 

. 1 1 Origin of the state 

.12 Nation and territory 

.121 Ethnografic 

People of same race comprise the nati n 

.124 Geografic 

Unity of territory 

.126 Expansion Acquisition of terriloi 

1 By discovery 

3 " occupation and possession 

5 " cession Annexation 

7 " purchase or exchange 
g " conquest or revolution 

.127 Alienation of territory 

128 Frontiers Boundaries 

1 Natural boundaries 

a Mountains 

4 Rivers 

6 Lakes 

8 Coast 

9 Artificial boundaries 

.15 Nature, entity, concept of the state 

.151 Juridic theory 

.152 Political theory 

.153 Social and evolutionary theories 

.154 The state as a moral organism 

.157 Soverenty 

See also 341 International law 

.158 Allegiance Loyalty, etc. Patriotism 

See also state ethics 172. 1 Duties of citizens 

.159 National growth and decay 

.13 Symbolism, emblems: arms, flag, seal, etc. 

Better clast in 929.8 and 929.9 Heraldry 

,2 Compends, statecraft 

.3 Dictionaries 

.4 Essays 

.5 Periodicals 

.6 Societies 

.7 Education 

.8 Polygrafy 

.9 History of political science, divided like 930-999 

321 Form of state 

.01 Simple state Soveren state 

.02 Mixt state 

.021 Federal state Bundestaat Federation 

.022 Confederation of states Staatenbund 
Union of soveren states Alliance 


321.023 Suzerain states 

.025 Semisoveren, dependent and vassal states 

.026 Mediatized state 

.027 Protected state 

Protectorates, spheres of influence 
.028 Vassal states 

.03 Empire, imperialism 

.04 World state 

.041 Internationalism 
.07 Ideal state Utopias 

See also 33s Communism and socialism 

.09 Change of form of state 

.092 Revolution 

.094 Coups d'etat 

.1 Family Patriarchal age 

.2 Tribes Clans Marks Village communities 

See also 333. 2 Community ownership of land 

.3 Feudalism 

.4 Democracy Pure; e. g. Athens, town meeting 

.5 Aristocracy e. g. Italian republic; medieval German cities 

.6 Absolutism Absolute monarchy, dictatorship 

.7 Constitutional monarchy 

.8 Republic Modern democracy, delegated powers 

322 Church and state See aIso v*-*- State ethics ; **-i> The church 

Political aspects of combination or separation of state and church affairs 

323 Internal relations with groups and individuals 

.1 Movement and questions, of nationalities, races and lan- 

Divided by country like 930-999; e. g. struggle of nationalities in Austria 333. 1436 
For immigrant nationalities in a country see 32s 

.2 Political struggles and troubles 

Revolutions, revolts; riots, uprisings. See also 331.09 

.3 Social groups 

Classes, orders, estates 

.3 1 Nobility, aristocracy ; welthy clas 

.32 Middle clas, bourgeoisie 

.33 Proletariat, laboring classes, pesantry 

See also political economy, 331.8 Laboring classes 
.34 Serfs Villenage See 326.3 Serfs and serfdom 

.35 Communities 

.352 Urban .354 Rural 

, Suburban ^ ee a ' so< >30-I Rural life. Clas in 323-354 material 

dealing with community life in rural sections, in 
630. 1 material dealing with life and interests of in- 
dividuals and families 

.4 The state and the individual 

Natural rights, individual rights, individualism 

.41 Equality of individuals, races, etc. 

.42 Equality before the law; justis, etc. 

.43 Life 

.44 Liberty 

.441 Freedom of action 


333.442 Freedom of conscience 

.443 " " speech 

.444 Academic freedom See 378.121 Freedom of teaching 

.445 Freedom of the press 

See also Journalism 070. 13; Administration 351. 7JI 

.446 Freedom of drama 

.447 " " art 

.45 Family 

.46 Property 

.47 Right of assembly, association 

.48 Right of petition 

. 49 Limitation and suspension of individual rights and guaranties 

.491 Martial law 

.492 State of siege 

.6 Citizenship 

.6l LaWS Divided by country like 030-999 4 

.62 Naturalization 

.63 Alien races and citizenship 

.64 Loss and restoration of citizenship 

.65 Duties and obligations of citizens 

Scholar as citizen 

.67 Rights of aliens 

.68 Eligibility to offis 

324 Suffrage Elections 

.1 Qualifications, conditions and bases 

For sex see 324.3 Woman suffrage 

. 1 1 Age 

.13 Property 

Household suffrage 

.14 Education Competency Capacity 

.15 Nationality Race Religion 

.16 Residence, domicil 

Length of residence 

.162 Voting by soidiers 

.164 " " students 

.17 - Exclusion from and suspension of suffrage 

.171 Incompetency, incapacity 

Insane, idiots See also 324. 14 

.172 Bankruptcy 

.173 Pauperism 

.174 Conviction of crime; bribery, selling vote 

.177 Government servis 

Military servis: soldiers and sailors 
Civil servis, police offisers 

.178 Other special classes 

Students, domestic servants, etc. 

.2 Forms of suffrage Systems Voting, etc. 

.21 Electoral systems 

.211 Universal suffrage 

.212 Partial suffrage, limited 

,213 , Plural vote 


324.214 Clas vote, clas system 

.215 Compulsory voting 

.216 Short ballot 

Aiming to reduce number of electiv offises 

.22 Constituencies and representation of interests 

.221 Single member constituency 

Scrutin d'arrondissemcnt 

.222 Multimember constituency 

Scrutin de liste, block vote, general ticket 

.223 Minority representation 

Single vote, limited vote, cumulativ vote, proxy syatnm 

.224 Proportional representation 

Preferential: alternativ, contingent, trans erable vote. Quota: simple 
Droop, d'Hondt, substitute or Gove method. Graduated aysta.n List 

system. For second ballot see 324.248 

■ 2 2 7 

HrfLOiioiinc duel i>ocidJ groups 

• 2 3 

Selection of candidates 

Declaration and presentation of candidacy 

O 1 T 
•23 1 


.rdriy organization ^omerences 


Caucus primary 


Direct " 




Voting procedure 

9 AT 

Electoral lists' formation revision 


Registration system 

Poll lists and tally sheets 


Jurisdiction Examination of credentials 

Appeal, petition 


Open voting 


Secret ballot 


Voting place 


Absent voting Voting by mail 

Traveling salesmen, railway employees, mail cier'. 


Second ballot 

• 249 

Indirect voting Electoral college 








Party ballots 


Blanket ballots 


Party colums 


Offis groups Australian ballot 



Voting machines 


Results and announcements 

Inspectors of election, meeting, etc. 


Count of ballot 


Majority elect* Absolute majority 


Plurality " Relativ majority 


Announcement of vote 


324.27 Corruption Electoral fraud 

.271 Bribery and undue influence: intimidation, selling votes 

.272 Fraud in voting: personation, repeating, illegal voting, 


.273 Election contributions and expenditures 

Limitations on expenditures; publicity. Restriction on contributions; 

political assessments 


.275 Fraud in counting 

Miscount of ballots; certification of false returns 


.277 Election contests 

.28 Suffrage reform 

.3 Woman suffrage 
•4-.9 Suffrage by country 

Divided like 940-909 

325 Migration Colonization 

See also 312 Demografy, 364.42 Crime prevention by control of 
immigration and emigration, 572.3 Migration in Ethnology. For 
complete list of form divisions see Table 2 following Relativ index 

.1 Immigration Immigrants 

Under following subdivisions clas material dealing with special 
features of human migration in general, as wel as with immigra- 
tion. For immigration to a special country see j,2$.^~.g. See 
also 323.6 Citizenship, 364.256 Immigration and crime 

.11 General questions 
.12 Types of migration 

Intercontinental, interracial; international, internal; from 
country to city, rural depopulation; from city to country, 
rural rehabilitation. Permanent, temporary, seasonal. Indi- 
vidual or family; collectiv, transfer of populations, group 
migration. Voluntary; involuntary, exiles, refugees, deported 
prisoners of war,, deported criminals; etc. 

.13 Causes Purpose 

Phisiografic; climatic; economic, food supplies, commercial 
relations, overpopulation; political; religious; social; hostil 
invasions, conquests; disasters, fires, epidemics, floods, etc. 

.14 Effects of immigration 

On immigrant, on country of settlement. See also 325.314 
Effect of colonization on country colonized 

.15 Regulation Control 

For general discussions of immigration and the state, official 
organization of immigrant service and official treatment of 
immigrants. For official immigration buros and departments 
use 325.1061 

.152 Inspection Registration 

.153 Fees, capitation, hed tax, etc. 


325.154 Restriction Exclusion Selection 

Quota system, etc. Tests and bases of exclusion or selec- 
tion; deportation 

.16 Promotion and assistance Protection 

Information, sanitary and medical services; exploitation. 
For manuals of general information needed by immigrants use 
325.102, for commercial immigration agencies use 325.1065. 
See also 360 Welfare associations, 614.86 Protection of travelers 

. 1 7 Distribution Transportation 

Migration routes, natural aids and barriers to migratory 
movements. Control of distribution, official or unofficial. 
Means of distribution 

.18 Assimilation of immigrants Amalgamation 

For assimilation in special countries see 325.4-.9, e.g. 325.73 
Americanization. See also 323.62 Naturalization 

.19 Other topics 

.2 Emigration Emigrants 

Divided only geografically by country of origin like 930-999, thus 
bringing together material on emigrants of a special country or 
race, e.g. Chinese emigrants 325.251. May be further subdivided 
after 09 by country of settlement, e.g. Chinese emigrants in 
Mexico 325.2510972. Material on emigrants is usually most 
important in respect to country of origin, so is best clast in 325.2. 
Most libraries wil hav little except on immigrants to their own 
country, hence in United States 325.2 wil relate almost wholly to 
specific nationalities in United States, e.g. 325.26 Negro question. 
For immigrants in a special country irrespectiv of origin see 

.21 General questions 

May be divided like 325.1 (see examples below). For types of 
migration see 325.12; for causes see 325.13 

.214 Effects of emigration 

On country of origin ; for effects on emigrant and on country 
of settlement see 325.14 

.215 Regulation Control Restriction 

Emigration and the state. For official emigration buros 
and departments use 325.2061 

.216 Promotion and assistance Protection 


For commercial emigration agencies use 325.2065, manuals 
of general information needed by emigrants 325.202. See 
also 325.102 for manuals for immigrants 

.3 Colonization Colonies 

•Activ promotion and establishment of colonies or settlement of 
foren possessions, also discussions of special aspects of groups of 
colonies. Divided only geografically by mother country like 
930-999, e.g. 325.342 British colonies. This brings together 
colonies planted by a special country. May be further subdivided 
after 09 by country of settlement, e.g. 325.342096 British colonies 
in Africa. For colonies in a special country irrespectiv of origin 
see 325.4-9 


325.31 General questions 

For types of migration see 325.12; for causes see 325.13 

.312 Types of colonies 

Colonies of migration, ' swarm colonies '; colonies of expan- 
sion; economic colonies, commercial settlements, conces- 
sions, establisht by government or by private enterprize, 
proprietary colonies; colonies of exploitation, governmental 
or private; military colonies, strategic posts; protectorates, 
dependencies, mandates, spheres of influence (see also 
321.027 Form of state); penal colonies, etc. 

.314 Effects of colonization 

On mother country, on country colonized. For effects on 
colonist see 325.14 

.315 Organization Administration 

Acquisition and settlement (see also 320.126 National 
expansion). Relations with nativ races; nativ autonomy, 
chieftainships, nativ councils. Public domain, administra- 
tion of vacant lands. Types of colonial government 

.316 Promotion and assistance Abuses 

For official colonization buros and departments use 325.3061 ; 
for commercial colonization agencies use 325.3065 

.317 Colonial empire Colonial federation 

Imperialism; see also 321.03 Form of state 

4-. 9 in special countries 

Both immigration and colonization divided like 940-999 by country 
of settlement; e.g. 325.73 Foren population of United States; 
Americanization (see also 331.86 Industrial nationalization). 
For ancient countries 325.093 may be used, e.g. 325.0938 Immigra- 
tion and colonization in ancient Greece. For source of immigra- 
tion see 325.2, of colonization 325.3 

326 Slavery Serfdom Emancipation 

See also 973.7 Civil war; 371 .974 Education of freedmen 

.1 Slave trade 

.2 Coolies and contract slaves 

.3 Serfs and serfdom 

.4 Antislavery documents 

.5 " periodicals 

.6 " societies 

.7 Proslavery 

.8 Emancipation and freedom 

• 9 History Of Slavery Divided geograficly like 93°"999 

.92 Biografy of slaves 

327 Foren relations 

Divided like 930-999. May be further subdivided after 09 fef. IcdaMd na4-<Ve£.) 
tr <P t-(isra>t other by a second country; a i|i 3^»<Mflt*44- F«tan^MMis 

r t ri f „,;n. u — r. „ , |VT r ^^ n f nrrn —i-'- ■■, .r re,., i 1 ,1 n .. 

328 Legislation ' Lawmaking Legislativ bodies 

Legislativ annals 

.1 Parliamentary law 


328.2 Legislation 

.21 Interpretation of law 

.22 Uniform laws 

Uniformity of law on same subject in different states .>r countries 

.23 Codification 

.24 Policy Tendencies 

.241 Overlegislation 

.243 Special legislation For private and local bills see 328-378 

.25 Legislativ powers 
.251 Juridic " 

.252 Executiv 8 

.253 Implied 8 

.256 Restrictions and checks on legislation See also 328. 

.26 Direct legislation 
.261 Initiativ 

Voters by petition originate legislation 

.264 Referendum 

.27-.2Q Subjects Of legislativ action Divided like 351. 7-351. 9 

.3 Legislatures 


328.3 Legislatures 

.31 Upper house 

.32 Lower " 

.33 Membership Election 

.34 Prerogativs and powers 

.35 Sessions 

.36 Internal organization and disciplin 

•37 Legislativ procedure 

•39 Form of legislature 

.31 Upper house 

.32 Lower " 

.33 Membership Election 

.331 Conditions of membership, eligibility 

Age, residence, property Membership without voting power 

,33a Exofficio members 

1 Cabinet and government offisers 

2 Expresidents 

3 Other exoffisers 

4 Clergy, bishops 
.333 Compensation 

Annual salaries, per diem payment. Milage, traveling expenses. Special 
sessions. See also 328.347 Privileges 

.334 Representation 

1 of states 

2 territories 

3 colonies and dependencies 
^ , # 4 . classes 

Universities, landowners, Irish and Scotch peers 

5 election districts Apportionment 

Equalization of representation; unfair apportionment; * rotten boros ' ; 

6 Gerrymandering 

9 Number of members 

















Methods of appointment Election 
Appointment by government or crown 

For life or for a term 

Hereditary right 

Election by direct vote : plurality or majority 
Length of term 

Entire or partial renewal of membership; holdover member 

Vacancies, resignations 

Method of filling vacancies', special elections 

Contested elections 

Official membership lists, directories 
Unofficial lists or directories 
Prerogativs and powers Restrictions 
Power over revenue and appropriation 

to judge of elections 

over members 

Power to Investigate or punish members 

Power of expulsion 

" over nonmembers 

Power of investigation for impeachment, see 351.06-.90 
" to imprison citizens 

Treatymaking power 

Franking privilege, postage and stationery; railroad passes; free distribution 

of books 


From arrest 


Offisholding Instructions by electors 

Direct mandate See also 328.26 Direct legislation 


Method of summoning 

Parliamentary writ 

Date of session 

Fixt or movable 

Frequency of sessions 

Annual, biennial, quadrennial 

Length of session Life of legislature 

Adjournment Prorogation Dissolution 
Executiv session: procedure 
Special session Extra session 


328.36 Internal organization and disciplin 

Verification of powers, credentials 

.361 Oath of offis 

.362 Offisers: appointment, election 

1 Presiding offiser, speaker 

3 President protem 

3 Secretaries, clerks 

Bill clerk Enrolling, engrossing clerks 

4 Sergeant at arms 

5 Pages, messengers, door keepers 

6 Payment of employees: gratuities, fees, extra pay 

Unnecessary attendants 

7 Committees 

Standing, special, joint 

8 Special commissions 

For investigation, not administrativ commissions 

.363 Records 

.364 Supplies: daily papers, postage stamps 

Telegraf and telefone bills 


.366 Disciplin: suspension, investigation 

.367 Bribery Illegal practises 

Graft bills, blackmail 

.368 Lobbying 

Including that by heds of depts and institutions 

•37 Legislativ procedure 

.371 Rules, manuals 

See 08 under 328. 4-. 9 divided by country 

.372 Petition, addresses 

Parliamentary inquiries, commissions 
Recommendations from executiv 

.373 Bills 

Technic: bill drafting, introduction 
Printing, enrolling, engrossing 

.374 Action by legislature before passage 

1 Readings: ist, 2d 

2 Reference to committees 

Committee work or procedure: investigation, hearings, conferences 

3 3d reading 

4 Contest over passage 

5 Party caucuses, logrolling 
.375 Final passage 

Rules committee, ' lifting ' committee, ' steering ' committee 

Vote: viva voce, by roll call; by ballot; obligation of voting in person, 


Required majority. Veto, see 353-03 

Passing over veto. Bills left in hands of executiv: 30 day bills, pocket 

Bills which become law without executiv action 
,376 Special bills 

Financial, omnibus riders 

•377 Joint resolutions 

.378 Local and private legislation 

.379 Procedure in special cases 

I Impeachment 


328.39 Form of legislature 

.391 One chamber 

.392 Two chambers 

See also 328.31 Upper chamber; 328.33 Lower chambtr 

.393 Other forms 

.394 Reform 
.395 Abolition 

.4-.0 Of special countries 

Divided by countries like 940-009, and under each, works may be divided: 

01 Jurnals, 02 Debates, 03 Abstracts, 04 Documents, 05 Rules, 08 Legis- 
lativ manuals, 09 History of bodies, but It is recommended that American 
libraries make an exception for U S and states of U S, by omitting o 
and using, for example, 328.739 History of U S congress, 328.7478 N Y 
State legislativ manual. For foren countries the o is in some cases needed 
(and it is therefore recommended for uniform use and to prevent possible 
future, if not present, conflict) because of otherwize conflicting numbers; 
e. g. unless o is used 328.469 might mean either a general work on law- 
making body of Portugal or a history of the lawmaking body of Spain 

329 Political parties Party conventions 

i.',ui U. S. presidential campain document! of all parties, arranged by campalna 

.1 Federal 

.2 Anti-Federal 

.3 Democratic 

.4 Whig 

.5 American Knownothing 

.6 Republican 


.8 Minor parties 

.81 Prohibition, see also 178.5 Ethics; .82 Greenback, sec also 332.52 Paper money; 
.83 Woman suffrage, see also 324.3 Woman suffrage; .84 People's; 85 Labor 
see also 331.8 Laboring classes 
•9 Parties in Other Countries Divided geograficly like 940-999 


330 Economics Political economy 

Science of welth. For ful list of form divisions see Table 2 after 
Relativ index 


331 Labor and laborers 

332 Financial economics 

333 Land Natural resources 

334 Cooperation 

335 Socialism Collectivism 

336 Public finance 

337 Tarif policy Protection and free trade 

338 Production Economic organization 

330 Capital Distribution and consumption of 

.1 Theory 

. 1 1 General conception 

Economic psicology, needs, personal interest 
.15 Economic systems Capitalism 

For socialism see 335 
.151 Mercantilism 

Balance of bargain, balance of trade theories; bullionism, 

.152 Phisiocracy 

Pule of nature, agricultural system 
.153 Classicism Individualism 

Laissez faire; Manchester school; neoclassicism, Cam- 
bridge or Marshallian economics 
.154 Historical school 

German revolt against classicism 
.155 Universalism Neolibcralism 

Romantic and institutional schools 
.16 Miscellaneous theories 

.161 Theories of welth 

Economic goods, services 
.162 Theories of value and utility 

Labor-cost theory; marginal utility theory, Austrian or 

psicologic school; service theory. See also 338.5 Prices 
.18 Economic methods 

.182 Mathematical methods 

Mathematical school 
.19 Pelations to other subjects 

May be divided like the whole classification; e.g. 330.196 


331 Labor and laborers 

Employers and capital in relation to labor. For economics of 
Capital see 339; for industrial personnel management sec 658.3, 
See also Capital in Relativ index following Tables. For complete 
list of form divisions see Table 2 after Relativ index 



Relations of capital and labor 


Remuneration for work 


Labor of children 


" " women 


Work under certain unfavorable conditions 


Pauper labor Cheap foren labor 


Different classes of workers Skild and 

unskild labor 


Laboring classes: working conditions, 

organization, etc. 


Other questions 


.oil General conception Nature and character of labor 

Freedom of labor, psicology of labor. See also 150 

.013 Importance, utility, dignity of labor 

.016 Miscellaneous theories 

Commodity, humanistic, etc. theories 

.1 Relations of capital and labor 

.11 Labor contracts in general Employment (i.e. 
engaging workers) 

Agreements, recruitment, responsibilities. See also 651.34 
Office workers 

.112 Labor supply Agencies 

For immigration and colonization see 325; see also 331.1 1 51 
Employment buros 

.113 Classification of work and workers 

Direct and indirect; race adaptability; age (see also 331.3 
Labor of children); sex (see also 331.4 Labor of women); 
abnormal, unfortunate: apprentice, handicapt, etc. (See 
also 331.5 Work under certain unfavorable conditions); 
aliens (see also 331.62 Cheap foren labor) 

.114 Equipment of workers 

Mental and phisical qualifications. Personality, char- 
acter, natural ability, general and professional or tecnical 
education, experience, tastes, helth, etc. 

.115 Selecting workers 

Applications; references (see also 331.123 Service records, 
testimonials) ; interviews ; character analisis ; tests : mental 
(see also 151. 2 Psicologic tests), trade, etc. 

i Securing applicants 

Employment buros or agencies, labor exchanges; 
advertizing for workers. For general labor supply 
agencies see 33 1 . 1 1 2 

.116 Engaging workers 

Bargaining: individual, collectiv 


331.12 Department organization 

.123 Service records Testimonials 

See also 331. 115 References 

. 1 24 Staf Grades Titles and duties 

Officers; employes: clerks, stenografcrs, laborers, etc. 
Material on positions more prominently provided for 
elsewhere is better clast under the other number, e.g. 
bookkeepers 657 

.125 Labor maintenance 

Follow-up, transfers, promotions, rating of workers 

.126 Turnover 

Causes, calculations, cost, statistics 

.13 Termination of labor Unemployment 

Causes of termination, warnings, indemnities; cancelation of 
contract: by employer, layoff, discharge; by employe, 
quit (see also 331.892 Strikes) 

.137 Unemployment 

Causes, effects, distribution and incidence. Reduction of 
unemployment rolls without reemployment ; elimination of 
least fit, advancement of retirement age (see also 331.2544 
Social insurance); elimination of young people, prolonga- 
tion of schooling (see also 33 1. 3 Child labor); elimination 
of women, back to the home movement (see also 331.4 
Labor of women). Irregular or seasonal employment, 
underemployment. See also 364.26 Unemployment and 

7 Unemployment relief 

Financial aid; aid thru necessaries; furnishing worth- 
while employment for idle time, e.g. recreational, 
educational, etc.; struggle against demoralization and 
vagabondage of unemployd. See also 331.61 Aid to 
paupers by furnishing work 

8 By industry 

82-899 may be divided like 620-699 with 81 divided 
like the whole classification for other industries; 
e -?- 33 T - T 378 22 Unemployment in mining, 331.1378177 
Unemployment in photografy 

9 By country 

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 331.137972 Unemployment 
in Mexico 

.138 Reemployment 

.14 Rules for workshop and office employes 
Incentivs Disciplin 

Conversation; personal calls or work; soliciting money, 
subscriptions, contributions; respect and care for property 
(tools, etc.); personal appearance, dres, uniforms; courtesy, 
indifference; suggestion systems; fines, stoppage of privileges 
or wages (for general question see 331.212). See also 331.9 
Encouragements to work, offerd by government, etc., medals, 
decorations, rewards to workers 


33 1 . 1 5 Labor relations within the plant 

Prevention and peaceful settlement of differences. See also 
331.89 Disagreements between capital and labor 

.151 General questions 

.152 Cooperativ management Industrial 

democracy Representation in industry 

Joint board of control, works council, works or shop 
committees, company unions. See also 335.82 Syndical- 
ism, corporatism 

. 1 53 Conciliation 
. 1 54 Mediation 

Official or unofficial 

. 1 55 Arbitration 

See also 338.91 Industrial parliamentarism 

.156 Joint conferences 

.157 Trade agreements 

.158 Investigation 

. 1 59 Other topics 

.16 Jurisdiction over work Industrial and pro- 
fessional tribunals 

.17 Patronal institutions favoring the personnel 

Clas here only general works, either on patronal institutions 
as a whole, or on such institutions as a whole of the same 
establishment. Clas publications on an individual patronal 
institution in the number for such institution. Funds for 
pensions and for aid in general; employe stockownership. 
Patronal institutions in special industries. See also 331.23 
Payment in shares, 331.24 Profitsharing 

.18 Relations of capital and labor by industry 

.182-. 1 899 may be divided like 620-699 with .181 divided like the whole classi- 
fication for other industries; e.g. 331.1822 Relations of capital and 
labor in mining, 331.18177 in photografy 

.19 By country 

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 331.1972 Relations of capital and 
labor in Mexico 

.2 Remuneration for work 

Wages, hire, pay, salary. See also 364.26 Wages and crime, 
651.38 Salary, etc. in office economy 

.21 General questions 
.211 Payment of wages 

Payrolls; mode, place, time or frequency of payment, etc. 

.212 Stoppage Deduction Withholding 

See also 331.14 Disciplin by wage stoppage 

.213 Preferd claims for wages due 


Wage theories 

Statistical data: collection, compilation, use, value, etc. 
as bases for theoretic study of wages. Wage fund doctrin, 
residual claimant theory, normal value or exchange 
theory. See also 331.215 Wage rate theories 

Fixing wage rates 

Wage fluctuations, raising and lowering wages; relation of 
wages to supply and demand, to competition; relation of 
wages to bargaining power, bargaining theory of wages; 
wage rate theories. See also 331.214 Wage theories in 

Relation of wages to production 

Marginal productivity or final utility theory of wages 
Relation of wages to cost of living 

Living wage; money wages v. real wages; minimum 
cost of subsistence theory of wages, iron or brazen law 
of wages; saving wage. See also 331.831 Cost of living 

Minimum and maximum wage 

Plurality or cumulation of wages 

By plurality of employment of single individual (see also 
331.65 Abuse of plurality of offices); by earnings of 
various members of family, wages of husband and wife 

Wage scales Scale contracts 

Sliding scale; extra pay or wages, efficiency bonus, subsidies, 
bounties; progressiv wage; family allowance systems. For 
deductions, stoppage, fines, etc. see 331.14 and 331.212 

Bases of wages and kinds of payment 

By work done: job, task, piece; by time: hour, day, week, 
month, year; kinds of payment: truck system, store orders, 
shares (see also 331.17 Employe stockowncrship), payment 
in kind; intervention of middleman: farming out, sub- 
contract, sweting system (see also 331.5 Work under unfavor- 
able conditions, 331.794 Home workers), commissions 

Payment by other than employer 

Fees, gratuities, tips 


See also 331.17 Employe stockownership, 631. 114 Share 
systems in farming 

Pensions Insurance Benefit agencies 

See also 368 Insurance 

General questions 

Voluntary v. compulsory insurance. State or national v. 
private insurance 


Sickness, old age, invalidity pensions 

Group insurance 

See also 331.825 Employer's liability 


Individual insurance 

Life insurance, etc. 
Social insurance 

Accident, sickness, etc. May be divided like 368.4, 
e.g. 331-25444 Unemployment insurance. See also 
331 -!37 Unemployment, 331.82 Working conditions, 

accidents, etc. 

Homes for the aged 

See also 362.6 Charitable institutions 

By industry 

2-99 may be divided like 620-699 with I divided like the 
whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.25822 
Pensions and insurance in mining, 331.258177 in 

State and wages 

Legislation Laws 

Divided by country like 930-999, e.g. 331.26171 Wage 

legislation in Canada 

Wages for state labor 

See also 331.795 Public service employes 

Professional remuneration 
Wages divided by industry 

.282-2899 ma y be divided like 620-699 with .281 divided like 
the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.2822 
Wages in mining, 331.28177 in photografy 

Wages divided by country like 930-999 

E.g. 331.2942 Wages in England 

Labor of children 

Including adolescents up to 1 8 yrs, or thru period of compulsory 
schooling. See note under 331.4. See also 179.2 Cruelty to 
children, 331. 1 13 Age of workers, 331.137 Prolongation of 
schooling as unemployment mesure, 331.86 Apprenticeship, 
362.7 Child welfare, 364.26 Child labor and crime, 379.14 Work- 
ing permits in public education 

General questions 



Length of day, night work, overtime, holidays, etc. See also 
331.81 Duration of work in general 

According to age 
Working conditions 

Safety, accidents, sanitation, etc. 

In special industries 

.382-3899 may be divided like 620-699 with .381 divided like 
the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.387 
Child labor in factories, 331.381792 Child actors 


Labor of women 

Include here discussions covering both labor of children and of 
women unless the former topic predominates. See also 331. 113 
Sex of workers, 331.137 Elimination of women as unemployment 
mesurc, 396.5 Women 


Length of day, night work, overtime, holidays, etc. See 
also 331.81 Duration of work in general 


Work of marrid women 

Of women with child 

Work of young women 
Working conditions 

Safety, accidents, sanitation, etc. 


See also 331.137 Unemployment in general 

In special industries 

.482-4899 may be divided like 620-699 with -48i divided 
like the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.487 
Women in factories, 331.48177 in photografy 

Work under certain unfavorable conditions 

At reduced wages, unpaid labor. See also 331. 113 Unfortunate 
classes of workers, 331.23 Sweting system 

Prisons Convict labor 

See also 365.65 Employment of prisoners in general 


See also 364.765 Employment of reformatory inmates 

Convents Charity workshops (Ouvroirs) 

Paying beneficiaries nominal wages and marketing products 
at prices so small as to lower wages of self supporting workers 

Contract labor 

See also 331.625 Coolies 

Apprentice labor 

See also 331.86 Apprenticeship 

Peonage Serfs 

See also 326.3 Serfs and serfdom in general 

Compulsory labor Corvee 

See also 331.64 Drafted emergency labor 

Slave labor 

See also 326 Slavery 


Blind, crippld, injured in war, mentally defectiv, etc. 


331.6 Pauper labor Cheap foren labor Emergency 

See also 339.1 Pauperism, 362.51 Pauper asilums 

.61 Aid by furnishing work 

National workshops; public works; spred of work; coloniza- 
tion systems, subsistance homesteds (see also 362.56 Free 
workmen's colonics); systems for producing by pauper labor 
at least part of goods consumed by thcmselvs. See also 
331-1377 Unemployment relief, 331.9 Right to work, 351.8 
Public works administration, 352.5 Municipal public works 

.62 Foren workers Immigrant labor 

Competition of foren labor, protection of nativ labor. Divided 
geografically like 930-999; e.g. 331.625 Manual Asiatic labor, 
coolies (see also 326.2 Coolies and contract slaves). Sec also 
331. 1 13 Alien classes of workers, 331.54 Contract labor 

.64 Emergency labor 

Voluntary labor, drafted labor (see also 331.57 Compulsory 
labor), rescue work, use of labor in times of disaster (see also 
361.5 Charitable aid in disasters) 

.65 Abuse of volunteer service, supernumerary time 
or service, plurality of offices 

See also 331.218 Plurality of wages, 331.814 Overtime 

.7 Different classes of workers Skild and unskild 

Work and workers according to the different occupations, objects 
of work and economic situation 

.71 Intellectual or mental work 

Liberal professions; artistic workers (those whose work is 
not regarded as belonging to the fine arts, i.e. 700, but which 
is artistic in its character). Clas works on a special profes- 
sion under 331.76. See also 331.794 Artisans 

.76 In special industries 

.762-.7699 may be divided like 620-699 with .761 divided 
like the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.763 
Agricultural labor, 331.76137 Teachers 

.77 Employes 

Clas here material too general to go under a more specific 

.79 Miscellaneous workers 

.794 Home workers Artisans 

See also 331.23 Sweting system, 331.71 Artistic workers 

•795 Public service employes: nation, state, city 

Employes of public service contractors. See also 331.262 

Wages for state labor 

.796 Migrant labor 
.798 Unskild workers 


331.8 Laboring classes 

Working conditions, organization, etc. 

.81 Duration of work Rest 

See also 331.33 Working hours for children, 331.41 Working 
hours for women 

.811 Length of day 

8-hour day, 10-hour day, etc. Shifts of work 

.812 Night work 

.813 Sunday work 

.814 Overtime Supplementary hours 

See also 331.65 Abuse of supernumerary time 

.816 Vacation Leav of absence 
.817 Holidays 

Weekly rest, Sundays, labor festivals, May I, festivals of 
patron saints 

.818 In special industries 

2-99 may be divided like 620-699 with 1 divided like the 
whole classification for other industries; e.g. 331.81822 
Duration of work in mining, 331.818177 in photografy 

.819 In special countries 

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 331.8198 Duration of work in 
South America 

.82 Working conditions Places of labor 

See also 331.2544 Social insurance, 613.6 Hygiene, 614.8 
Protection of life, 622.8 Mining hazards 

.821 Dangerous, uncomfortable, unhelthful 

.822 Industrial hygiene Medical supervision 
Prevention of occupational diseases 

Phisical examination, hospitals, nursing, surgical aid, 
first aid (better clast under 614.8), dental work; in special 
industries. See also 331.827 Improvement of working 
conditions in factories, stores, offices, etc. 

.823 Safety Accidents Occupational hazards 

Causes of accidents, safety committees; preventiv and 
protectiv safety mesures (better clast under 614.8): 
education, safety devices, etc. Responsibility and lpgal 
reparation for accidents (see also 331.825 Employer's 
liability, reparation). Aid by public or private charity 
or workers associations (better clast under 361-362). 
Fires (better clast under 614.84): causes, preventiv and 
protectiv mesures, etc. Safety and accidents in special 
industries. See also 331.2544 Accident insurance, 614.8 
Protection of human life from accidents 

.824 Industrial fatigue 

.825 Employer's liability Reparation 

Workmen's compensation. See also 331.253 Group 
insurance, 331.823 Responsibility for accidents 



331.827 Improvement of working conditions in facto- 

ries, stores, offices, etc. 

Sanitation, baths, lavatories, toilet rooms, lighting, heat- 
ing, ventilating; comfort, coat, rest and lunch rooms, 
cafeterias; morality, separation of sexes. See also 331.822 
Industrial hygiene 

.828 By industry 

2-99 may be divided like 620-699 with 1 divided like the 
whole classification; e.g. 331.82822 Working conditions in 
mining, 331.828177 in photografy 

.83 Material needs 

Shelter, food, clothes. Sec also 640 Home economics 

.831 Cost of living 

Workmen's budgets. Sec also 331.2154 Relation of wages 
to cost of living, 364.26 Struggle for existence and crime, 
647.1 Household accounts 

.832 Consumptiv organizations 

Consumers lcags, cooperativ stores, etc. See also 334.5 
Cooperativ consumptiv associations, stores 

.833 Dwellings Lodgings 

Housing problem in general. See also Domestic economy 
643 Shelter: house, home; City planning 711.13 Housing; 
Architecture 728.13 Workmen's tenements, 728.68 Work- 
men's cottages 

.834 Food 

See also Domestic economy 641 Food, cookery 

.835 Restaurants Cafeterias 

See also Cooperation 334.4 Cooperativ housekeeping; 
Domestic economy 647.95 Cooperativ and collectiv 

.836 Clothing 

See also Domestic economy 646 Clothing, toilet 

.84 Morals and habits 

Thrift, temperance, amusements, temptations. See also 
170 Ethics, 263.6 Sunday amusement, 790 Amusements 

.845 Use of leisure 

.85 Intellectual life Education 

Social settlements, libraries and reading rooms (see also 
027.64 Workmen's libraries, 027.9 F fee reading rooms, 263.7 
Sunday opening), lectures, dramatics, musicals, continuation 
schools, etc. for laboring classes. See also 374 Adult educa- 
tion in general 


331.86 Industrial education Training 

Industrial rehabilitation. Apprenticeship (see also 331.3 
Labor of children, 331.55 Apprentice labor); factory, vestibule 
and corporation schools; journeyman's service; cooperativ 
education; scholarships for study, for travel; study abroad; 
industrial nationalization (Americanization, etc., see also 
325.73 Americanization of immigrants; for schools for the 
foren born see 371.98); training managers and foremen. For 
general industrial training see 607 

.87 Organization of labor 

For organization from standpoint of production see 338.018 
Division and combination of labor 

.88 Trade unions and other labor societies 

For collected works on trade unions use 331.88049 divided 
like 08 in Table of form divisions following Relativ index. 
See also 338.64 Gilds 

.8808 Special questions relating to trade unions 

Union labels, labor racketeering, etc. 
9 By country 

91 International unions 

93-99 divided like 930-999 

E.g. 331.880942 Trade unions in England 

.881 By classes of workers 

2-99 may be divided like 620-699 with 1 divided like 
the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 
331.88122 Miners unions, 331.881 177 Photografers 

.882 Unions of managers 

.883 Mixt unions of managers and workers 

.886 Revolutionary unions 

Syndicalism, Fascism, Bolshevism, Industrial Workers 
of the World (IWW). See also 335 Socialism, com- 

.887 Unions of child workers 

.888 " " women " 

.889 Compulsory unions 

Open v. closed shop 

.89 Disagreements between capital and labor 

Combinations of workmen. Retaliation by employers. For 
prevention of outbreaks see 331.15. See also 364.26 Labor 
disputes and strikes and crime 

.891 Attacks on freedom of work 

Picketing, methods of intimidation. For scabs see 331.896 


331.892 Strikes 

Causes; types: the general strike; union, sympathetic, 
unorganized or outlaw, etc. (For sit down strikes see 
331.8934). Strike maintenance, financial assistance and 
other strike benefits for strikers. See also 331.13 Termi- 
nation of labor by employe 

8 In special industries 

82-899 may be divided like 620-699 with 81 divided 
like the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 
331.892822 Strikes in mining, 331.8928177 in photografy 

9 By country- 

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 33 1. 89297 1 Strikes in Canada 

.893 Other methods of workmen 

Poor work, fair and unfair lists, etc. 

1 Violent 


2 Mild 

3 Boycotting 

4 Idling Sit downs 

7 Injunctions 

8 Political action Lobbying, etc. 
.894 Methods of employers 

2 Blacklisting Laying under interdict 

3 Whitelisting 

7 Injunctions 

8 Political action Lobbying, etc. 
.895 Lockouts 

.896 Strikebreaking 

Combating directly consequences of strikes; strike- 
breakers, scabs. Reorganization of remaining person- 
nel, bringing in paid workers from outside, replacing 
strikers by volunteer workers 
.897 Strike benefits for employers 

Financial assistance, etc. 

.898 Use of troops in labor disputes 
.899 Other questions 
.9 Other labor questions 

International regulation of labor; the right to work (see also 
331.61 Aiding paupers by furnishing work); encouragements 
to work offerd by general government or general societies: 
medals, decorations, rewards (see also 331.14 Work incentivs in 
general). Intervention of public powers in general; freedom 
and regulation of work; protection of workers; credit and contri- 
butions to workers and workers associations; transport of 
workers, workmen's trains 


332 Financial economics Private finance 

For public finance see 336. For full list of form divisions see Table 2 
after Relativ index 


332.1 Banks and banking Commercial banks 

2 Savings banks 

3 Loan institutions 

4 Money Monetary systems Coinage 

5 * Nonmetallic money Nonmetallic standards 

6 Investment finance Financial markets 

7 Credit system 

8 Interest Discount 

9 Counterfiting Forgery Alteration 

,1 Banks and banking Commercial banks 

Banks of deposit, business banks. See also 334.2 Cooperativ 

, 1 1 Central banks National banks 

Bankers' banks, reserv banks, banks of issue or circulation, 
federal banks; regional banks, Federal reserv system of U. S. 
For international central banks see 332.15 

.12 State or provincial banks Joint-stock banks 

Cantonal and communal banks, country banks, locally 
charterd banks 

. 1 3 Private banks Partnership banks 

Banking partnerships 

.14 Trust companies Investment banking 

Trusteeship; investment trusts, banks or dealers, bond houses; 
custodianships, customers' securities departments, including 
individuals as trustees. See also 332.6 Investment finance 

.15 International banking Foren banking 

Institutions and departments organized to conduct banking 
operations with or in countries other than those in which 
their parent establishments ar located; including their foren 
agents, correspondents, branches and similar affiliates. Inter- 
national central banks. Foren banking corporations, e.g. 
' Edge ' corporations. See also 332. 16 Branch banking, 332.45 
foren currency exchange 

• I 53~- I 59 Geograflc subdivision according to location of 
parent institution 

Divided only geografically like 9.30-999. May be further 
subdivided after 09 like 930-999 according to country in 
which affiliate is located or with which foren business is 
conducted; e.g. American foren banking 332.1573, Ameri- 
can banks in France 332.15730944, French banks in U.S. 
332.15440973. But clas general discussions of banks or 
banking operations of foren countries in a special country 
in 332.1509 divided like 930-999; e.g. banks of foren 
countries in U.S. 332.150973 

.16 Multiple banking 

Branch banking (sec also 332.15 Foren branches); group 
banking, chain banking, banking syndicates 

. 1 7 Administration 

Organization, functions, methods, etc. Deposits, reservs. 
See also 112.2.5 Management of savings bank funds 


332.2 Savings banks 

See also 332.6 Investment finance, 334.7 Frendly societies, 

362.62 l'ensions, 368 Insurance 

.21 Official savings institutions 

National, state, municipal 

.22 Postal, express and railway savings banks 

See also 383.3 Post-office banking 

.23 School savings banks Home or personal 


Home savings banks, savings boxes 

24 According to type of organization 

Mutual or non-stock savings banks, savings associations 
(see also 332.32 Savings and loan associations); stock 
savings banks; savings departments of general or com- 
mercial banks, thrift, compound interest and Christmas 
fund departments, etc. 

.25 Management of savings bank funds • 

Use, investment. See also 332.17 Bank administration 

.27 Safe deposit companies 

Safe deposit departments, boxes, vaults 

.28 Free savings institutions 

.3 Loan institutions 

See also 332.6 Investment finance, 332.7 Credit system 

.3 1 Credit institutions 

See also 334.2 Credit unions 

.311 Agricultural banks and credit institutions 

Land banks, morgage banks and companies, cattle or 
livestock loan companies. See also 332.313 Chattel 
morgage companies, 332.71 Agricultural credit, 631.16 
Agricultural finance 

.312 Industrial credit institutions 

Manufacturers and mercantil credit institutions; 
commercial and investment credit institutions, equip- 
ment trusts, etc.; credit institutions for special indus- 
tries. For agricultural credit institutions see 332.311. 
See also 332.742 Industrial credit 

.313 Chattel loan institutions 

Chattel morgage companies, etc. See also 332.311 
Morgage companies in general, cattle loan companies 

.314 Institutions for loaning on salaries 

.315 " " " " wages 

Morris plan banks, workmen's banks 

.316 Institutions for loaning on personal qualities 

Personal loan institutions making loans based on char- 
acter, business ability, etc. See also 332.745 Personal 

.317 Stock exchange banks 

.32 Building and loan associations 

Savings and loan associations, cooperativ loan associations. 
See also 332.24 Savings associations, 334.1 Building 
societies, 334.2 Cooperativ banks 

.33 Monts de piete Government pawnshops 

.34 Private pawnshops 


332.4 Money Monetary systems Coinage 

For design and manufacture see 737 Numismatics 
.401 Theory 

6 Miscellaneous monetary theories 

Commodity, cost of production, quantity, etc. theories. 
See also 332.413 Value of money 

.41 General questions 
.41 1 Functions 

Medium of exchange; measure or standard of value; 
standard of deferd payments, loan medium; storcr of value, 
reservs; guarantor of solvency; gift medium 

.412 Characteristics Qualities 

Acceptability, stability of value, portability, durability, 
uniformity, divisibility, cognizability 

.413 Value 

Money and prices; determination of value, valuation 
(valorization), stabilization, fluctuation, appreciation, de- 
preciation, debasement, devaluation (devalorization). 
See also 332.4016 Monetary theories 

.414 Stock Supply 

Variation, elastic or flexible currency; inflation, reflation, 
expansion (see also 336.368 Inflation in public insolvency); 
deflation, contraction. Circulation, currency fluctuations, 
forst circulation 

.415 Denomination system 

Monetary unit, money of account 

.4 1 6 Legal tender Lawful money 

For legal tender qualities of specific types of money see 
those types 

.418 Coinage or monetary metals 

Bullion, ingots; production, value, supply, etc.; nationali- 
zation. GolcH electrum; silver, billon; platinum; etc. 
See also 338.2 Mining production 

.419 Coins Specie Metallic money 

Ful-bodid coins; ful-weight, ful-value, standard coins; 
short-weight coins, token money, subsidiary or fractional 
coins. Abrasion, coins reduced in weight thru circulation 
or sweting, circulation tolerance; mutilation, defaced 
coins, clipping, filing, punching, trimming, etc. 

.42 Monetary standards Metallic standards 

For nonmetallic standards sec 332.5 

.421 General questions 

Establishment, maintenance, suspension or abandonment 
of standard; monctization, demonetization 

.422 Monometalism Single standard 

Gold standard, gold coin or gold exchange standard, 
maintenance of value in gold, gold clause; silver standard; 
limping or halting standard 

.423 Bimetalism Double standard 

Gresham's law, silver question, mint ratio v. market ratio; 
parallel and alternating standards; symmetalism 


332.43 International standards International coin- 

International monetary agreements or conventions, e.g. Latin 
union, Scandinavian union 

.44 International monetary congresses 

See also 330.63 General economic conferences 

.45 Comparativ value of moneys Exchange of 
foren currencies Cambistry 

Rates of exchange, mint par of exchange, gold or specie points, 
purchasing power parities, arbitrage of currencies, premium, 
agiotage, etc. For instruments of foren exchange see 332.77. 
See also 332.15 International banking, 332.65 International 
security operations 

.46 Mints and mint practises Coinage 

Coinage restrictions; private v. government coinage. Coinage 
charges (see also 336.18 Coinage profits as public revenues), 
mint price of bullion; gratuitous coinage; brassage, seignorage, 
profit funds. Mint tolerance, mint remedy, trial of the pix, 
standard weight, mint wastage. Recoinage. For design and 
tecnic of manufacture see 737. See also 669.9 Assaying 

.47 Coinage laws 

May be divided geografically and by period like 930-999, e.g. 
332.474405 Napoleonic coinage laws, 332.47732 Coinage laws 
in colonial America 

.48 Other coinage topics 
.49 In special countries 

Divided like 930-999; e.g. 332.4937 Money and coinage in 
ancient Rome 

.5 Nonmetallic money Nonmetallic standards 
.51 General questions 

Advantages, disadvantages 

.52 Convertibility- Redeemability 

Specie payments. Tho following topics ar also applicable 
to non-standard metallic money, it seems best to collect 
such material here. Rcpresentativ money, having metallic 
rcservs equal to its ful face value. Credit or fiduciary 
money, having metallic rcservs equal to only part of its 
face value; banking and currency theories, unrestricted v. 
restricted issue. Inconvertible or fiat money, printing 
pres money, emergency currency. See also 336.32 Printing 
pres money in Public finance 

.53 Paper money Paper standard 

Government or public notes: gold and silver certificates; 
currency notes (England); assignats, mandats (France). 
Bank notes, cither public or private according to official 
status of issuing bank. Private notes intended primarily 
for general circulation as money: Chamber of commerce 
notes (France), Loan buro notes (Germany), for notes 
representing individual transactions, promissory notes, etc. 
see 332.77. Fractional paper money; e.g. shinplasters, 
scrip, stamp or postage stamp money. Sec also 329.82 
Greenback party 


332.54 Other nonmetallic moneys 

Bearing printed or stampt statements of their monetary 
value. Clay tablets, sheets or tokens of lether, wood, etc. 

.55 Mediums of exchange other than money 

Primitiv mediums of exchange, commodities as mediums 
of exchange. Skins, cattle, cowrie shels, wampum, grain, 
tobacco, etc. as mediums of exchange 

.56 Monetary standards based on value of com- 

modities and service ' Scientific money ' 

Composit or multiple standards, index number standards, 
commodity dollar, etc. Standard for prices, for dets 
or deferd payments. Stable consumption v. stable 
income standard. Tabular standard (W.S.Jevons). Com- 
pensated monetary unit; compensated or stabilized 
dollar (Irving Fisher). Managed currency (J.M.Keynes). 
Social credit money, etc. 

.6 Investment finance Financial markets 

Bourses, brokers' boards, stock and security exchanges, com- 
modity security exchanges, etc. 

.61 General questions 

Organization, administration, membership, ' seats,' officers, 
trading posts, functions, etc. Exchanges according to function 
(financial, stock, commodity, etc.) Stock exchange com- 
mission houses and branch offices, wire houses; stock exchange 
clearing houses (for bank clearing houses see 332.78). Stock 
exchange quotations, security price lists; security averages or 
indexes; quotation ticker and ticker services, tape and tape 
prices. Outside exchanges or markets, over the counter 
markets, unorganized exchanges; curb or street exchanges, 
coulisses; auction exchanges; bucket shops, illegitimate ex- 

.62 Security brokers and dealers 

Agents de change. Brokers' agents and messengers, brokers' 
clerks, remisiers, runners, touts. Jobbers, traders, operators, 
professionals. Specialists, brokers and dealers in special 
classes of securities. Coulissiers, curb or street brokers, 
bucketeers, tipsters, illegitimate brokers and dealers 

.63 Investment securities 

Negotiable or transferable securities. Stocks (or shares) and 
bonds from economic and financial viewpoint. Capitaliza- 
tion, total amount of securities issued by an organization. 
Regulations for listing; wildcat securities, 'cats and dogs', 
speculativ, fraudulent or worthless securities. Corporation 
debentures; rights; certificates, corporation warrants; etc. 
See also 332.76-.77 Credit instruments, 658.14 Business 


332.64 Security exchange operations Speculation 

Stock jobbing, agiotage. Spcculativ cycle, financial panics 
(see also 338.53-58 Business cycles, 380.124 Trade cycles). 
General trading methods: for cash; regular way, for the 
account ; for future settlement ; with option. Orders. Credit 
transactions: margins, borrowing and lending securities, etc. 
Trading positions: long interests, buls, stags; short interests, 
bears; lambs; hedging. Settlement, clearing; daily v. term 
settlements; backwardation, contango, etc. Dealing in 
privileges, calls, puts, spreds, straddles. Averaging, pyramid- 
ing. Manipulation, cliques, rings, pools, wash sales, corners, 
bucketing, etc. Chart and tape reading. 

.65 International security operations 

Arbitrage transactions, comparison of commercial parities. 
See also 332.45 Arbitrage of currencies 

.66 Public issue of transferable securities 
.67 Investment 

General investment principles and practises, investment dis- 
tinguisht from speculation, etc. See also 332.14 Investment 

.68 Lotteries 

See also 336.381 Government lotteries 

.69 Other questions 
.7 Credit system 

Theory and forms of credit, credit operations, credit instruments. 
For loan and credit institutions see 332.3, for public credit see 
336.3. See also 658.14 Business financing, 658.882 Business 
credit methods 

.71 Agricultural credit 

For promoting agricultural operations. Crop loans, live stock 
loans, etc. Federal farm credit system, etc. See also 332.31 1 
Agricultural banks and credit institutions, 631.16 Agricultural 


.72 Landed credit Real estate credit 

Morgage loans, farm morgage credit, etc. Federal farm 
loan system. For morgage banks see 332.311, for morgages 
see 332.77. See also 332.745 Loans based on property 

.73 Popular credit Loans without interest 

.74 Other types of credit 

.742 Commercial credit Industrial credit 

Productiv, capital or investment credit. Credit for 
special industries; maritim credit, etc. For agricultural 
credit see 332.71, real estate credit 332.72. See also 
332.312 Industrial credit institutions 

.743 Consumptiv credit 

Individual or personal credit; i.e. credit extended to 


332.744 According to time of maturity 

Short term, intermediate and long term credit 

.745 According to security or risk 

Personal security, loans based on character, moral risk; or 
on business ability or capacity, business risk. Collateral 
security, loans based on capital, property risk. Unsecured 
credit. See also 332.316 Personal loan institutions, 332.72 
Morgage loans 

.748 International credit 

.75 Credit collapse Credit restrictions 

Moratoriums; failure, insolvency, bankruptcy 

.76 Deposit transfer instruments 

Checks; interbank transfer accounts and clearings, French 
transfer system, German giro system; telegrafic and cable 
transfers; bank, express and postal money orders; travelers 

.77 Other credit instruments 

Credit instruments in general, commercial paper, etc. 
Promises to pay: notes, acceptances, open or book accounts; 
orders to pay: bils of exchange, drafts, letters of credit; 
collateral or documentary instruments: mortgages, etc. See 
also 332.63 Investment securities, 332.72 Morgage loans 

.78 Clearing houses 

For stock exchange clearing houses see 332.61 

.79 Other questions 
.8 Interest Discount 

See also 336.31 Public securities 

.81 General questions 
.82 Interest 
.83 Usury 

Excessiv interest 

.84 Discount 

Discounting and rediscounting 

.9 Counterfiting Forgery Alteration 

See also 343 Criminal law 

.91 General questions 

.92 Coins 

.93 Paper money Currency 

.94 Securities Credit instruments 

Check raising, etc. 

.98 Protectiv mesures Safety devices 


333 Land Natural resources Real estate 

Ownership, rights, rent, policies. For other relations see Land in 
Relativ index following Tables. See also 338. 1 Agricultural pro- 
duction, 339 National resources in general. For form divisions see 
Table 2 after Relativ index 

.1 Government ownership and control 

Public land, state domain. See also 336.1 Public lands as sources 
of revenue 

. 1 1 General questions 

. 1 2 According to government units 

.122 International 

.123 National 

.124 State Provincial Cantonal 
.125 County 
. 1 26 Municipal 

.13 Expropriation Eminent domain 

See also 336.18 Public revenue from expropriation 

.14 Nationalization Socialization 
.2 Community ownership 

Common lands. See also 321.2 Village communities, 335.4 
Communism, 335.9 Socialist communities 

.3 Private ownership 

.301 Theory 

Occupation or seizure theory; ownership as natural right; 
labor theory, etc. See also 335.01 Socialist theories of 

.31 General questions 
.32 Types of tenure 

Feudal, manorial; family; individual, personal, allodium; 

corporate, collectiv, cooperativ 

.33 Real estate transactions 

Alienation or transfer of real property rights, inalienability, 
land investments and speculation, buying and selling real 


.332 Valuation 

See also 336.292 Tax valuation 

.34 Registration systems Land titles 

Torrens system, etc. 

•35 Rights of succession 

Inheritance, primogeniture, fideicommissum, mortmain, etc. 
See also 347.6 Inheritance law 

.37 Large holdings 


.38 Small holdings 

Land division and allotment, parcelation, etc. 

.4 Absentee or alien owners 


333-5 Rent and renting Rural or agricultural rent 

Landrent, rent of land for cultivation 

.51 General questions 

Economic theories of rent, land income, etc. 

.52 Rental systems 

See also 631.113-.114 Rent and share cropping in Agricultural 

.53 Tenancy 
.54 Landlordism 

Relations of landlord and tenant 

.6 Urban rent 
.62 Ground rent 

Rent of land for building, industrial development, etc. 

.63 Building rents 

Rent of buildings, apartments, etc. 

.7 Utilization Land classification 

.71 General questions 

Policies of utilization, settlement, etc. Limits of utilization 

.72 Conservation of natural resources 

See also 339.49 Conservation of national resources in general 

.73 Waste lands 

.74 Pasture and grazing lands 

.75 Forests 

See also 719.332 Forest reservs 

.76 Cultivated lands Agricultural lands 
.77 Urban lands Industrial lands 

Lands for building, housing, industrial development, public 
utilities, transportation, etc. 

.78 Recreational lands 

See also 719.32 National parks, etc. 

.79 Other surface utilization 
.8 Subsurface utilization 

Mineral lands, mines 

.9 Other forms of utilization and rights 
.91 Water rights 

Riparian or litoral rights, shore lands; land under water; 
water utilization, for consumption, navigation, water 
power, irrigation; rights in oceans, lakes, streams, fisheries, 

.92 Air rights 


334 Cooperation 

Works on cooperation applied to other subjects ar generally better 
clast with those subjects, but may be kept together here by using 
334.0001 followd by number for other subject; e.g. Cooperation in 
agriculture 334.000163, in business 334.0001658. For ful list of form 
divisions see Table 2 after Rclativ index. See also 335 Socialism, 
338.018 Cooperation in economic organization 

.1 Building societies Cooperativ housing 

Freehold land societies; loans, organization, etc. See also 332.32 
Building and loan associations 

. 1 1 General questions 
. 1 2 For lease 

Ownership remaining with society 

. 1 3 For sale 

Ownership passing to individual members 

.2 Cooperativ banking Credit societies 

Credit unions. See also 332.1-.3 Banks and banking 

.21 General questions 
.22 Urban 

Schulze-Delitsch system, etc. 

.23 Rural 

Raiffeisen system, etc. 

.24 Banking and credit operations of general co- 
operativ societies 
.3 Cooperativ insurance 

Mutual and fraternal insurance. See also 368 Insurance 

.4 Cooperativ housekeeping 

See also 331.835 Laborers restaurants, 647.93 Cooperativ house- 
keeping methods 

.5 Consumers cooperation Cooperativ stores 

Distributiv cooperation, Rochdale system. For production 
activities of consumers societies see 334.6. See also 331.832 
Consumptiv organizations among laborers 

.51 General questions 

.52 Wholesale societies 

.53 Retail societies 

.54 Women's cooperativ gilds 

.6 Producers cooperation 

.61 General questions 

.62 Supply societies 

For securing seed, implements, fertilizer, etc. 

.63 Machinery owning societies 

For joint use of threshing machines, tractors, etc. 

.64 Production societies Cooperativ factories 

Workers cooperativs 


334.65 Marketing or sale societies 

See also 380.125 General cooperativ marketing theory, 638.83 
Business marketing methods 

.68 By industry 

.682-6899 ma y be divided like 620-699 with .681 divided like the whole classifi- 
cation for other industries; e.g. 334.683 Cooperativ agricultural 
production, 334.68177 Cooperativ production in photografy 

.7 Frendly societies Benefit societies 

Mutual aid, benevolent and provident societies. See also 333.2 
Savings banks, 368 Insurance 

.8 Burial societies 

See also 368.45 Burial insurance 

.9 Other 
335 Socialism Collectivism 

Clas here economic and theoretic discussions only. The correspond- 
ing political systems ar clast in 321. For political parties see 
329, for broad political and historical aspects see 930-999. See 
also 331.886 Revolutionary labor unions, 333.3 Private ownership, 
334 Cooperation, 338.91 State and production control, 339.25 
State and distribution control. For form divisions see Table 2 
after Relativ index 

.1 Utopian socialism Humanitarian socialism 

Philosofic, idealistic, pre-Marxian socialism; reformism. See 
also 321.07 Ideal state, Utopias 

. 1 1 General questions 

. 1 2 English Utopian socialism 

Owenism, etc. See also 335.9 Socialist communities 

.14 Fabianism 

See also 335.5 Social democracy 

.15 Gild socialism Communal socialism 

See also 335.82 Syndicalism 

.2 Early French Utopian socialism 

Clas here also works on French utopianism in general 

.21 General questions 

.22 Babouvism (Babeuf) 

.23 Icarianism (Cabet) 

.25 Saint Simonism 

See also 335.82 Syndicalism 

.3 Later French Utopian and humanitarian 

.31 General questions 

.32 Fourierism Phalansterianism 

Clas here also American utopianism, largely derived from 
Fourierism. See also 335.9 Socialist communities 

.34 Rational socialism (Colins) 

.35 Integral " 


335.4 Marxian socialism Communism 

Scientific socialism, revolutionary socialism. For Utopian com- 
munism see 335.1. See also 333.2 Community ownership of 
natural resources 

.41 General questions 

.42 Marxian socialist internationals 

.421 1st or Old international, 1864-76 

International workingmen's association, Communist mani- 
festo of Marx and Engels 

.422 2d international, 1 889-191 6 

International socialist buro 

.423 2}/2 or Vienna international, 192 1-3 

International working union of socialist parties 

.43 Post-Marxian communistic socialism 

.44 Communist internationals 

.441 Communist international association, 19 19- 

3d, Fed or Moscow international, Comintern. Fus- 
sian socialism, Bolshevism, Leninism. Communist 
manifesto of 3d international. For Fed international 
of trade unions, Profintern, 1921- see 331.886 
Bolshevist labor unionism 

2 Communist youth international 

.5 Social democracy Evolutionary socialism 

German post-Marxian socialism, revizionism, gradualism. See 
also 335.14 Fabianism 

.51 General questions 

.52 Post-Marxian moderate socialist internationals 
.522 Labor and socialist international, 1923- 

New international 

2 Young socialists' international, 1923- 

.6 Socialism of the chair State socialism 

See also 338.91 State industrial planning 

.62 Socialism of the chair Professorial socialism 
.63 State socialism 

.64 Nationalist socialism Fascism Naziism 

See also 331.886 Fascist labor unionism 

.7 Christian socialism Catholic socialism 
.8 Syndicalism Anarchism 

.82 Syndicalism Corporatism 

Syndicalist international, International workers of the world 
(I.W.W.), International association of workers (syndicalist). 
See also 331.152 Industrial democracy, 331.886 Fevolutionary 
trade unions, 335.15 Gild socialism, 335.25 Saint Simonism 

.83 Anarchism Nihilism 
.831 General questions 

.832 Individualistic and philosofic anarchism 
•833 Communist and syndicalist anarchism 

Violent anarchism 

.9 Socialist communities 

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 335.97446 Brook Farm community. 
See also 333.2 Community ownership, 335.12 Owenism, 335.32 


336 Public finance 

National and state. Cameralistic science. Government income or 
revenue, budget, source of income, etc. For financial administra- 
tion and budget making see 351.71-.72; for local finances in general 
see 352.1. See also 332 Financial economics in general, private 
finance. For form divisions see Table 2 after Relativ index 


336.1 Non-tax revenues State domain and properties 

.2 Taxation 

.21 Direct taxes General and classified property taxes 

.22 Real property tax 

.23 Personal property tax 

.24 Income tax 

.25 Other direct taxes 

.26 Customs Tarif duties 

.27 Other taxes 

.28 Local " 

.29 Other questions 

.3 Public borrowing Public dets 

.39 " expenditure 

•4~.9 Finance of special countries 

.1 Non-tax revenues State domain and properties 

Public or crown lands, etc. as sources of revenue. See also 
333.1 Public land in general 

.11 Management and income from rents and 

.12 Disposal Sale 

Sale of public land, buildings, equipment and supplies as 
sources of revenue only 

.13 Free disposal Grants 

For development, cultivation, extraction of minerals, etc. 
Land claims, preemption, homesteding 

.14 For encouragement and aid of special enterprizes 

Land grants to railroads, canal cos., etc.; in support 
of education, colleges, etc. See also 379.123 Land 
grants in Education, 385.133 Railroad subsidies 

.15 Income from public moneys Interest 

From deposits, investments, loans 

.18 Sovren and regalian revenues 

Tributes, indemnities, war reparations, etc.; recievd from 
conquerd, vassal or dependent states. Subsidies: from 
other nations in return for aid in war, etc.; from higher 
government units in aid of internal improvements or coopera- 
tiv development of public enterprizes, federal and state 
grants in aid (see also 353.9 State and federal relations). 
Coinage profits (see also 332.46 Coinage charges). Expro- 
priation, eminent domain, etc. (see also 333.13 Land expro- 
priation policy). Fines, penalties, forfitures (see also 343.2 
Criminal law). Gratuities, gifts, bequests to government, 
' conscience fund ', tresure trove 


336.19 State industries and monopolies 

Revenue farming (for tax farming see 336.292). For dis- 
cussions of revenues from special state industries 336.1982- 
.19899 may be divided like 620-699 with 336.1981 divided 
like the whole classification for other industries; e.g. 336.19879 
State tobacco monopoly, 336.198107 State monopoly of 
journalism. See also 338.82 Monopolies in general 

.2 Taxation 

.21 Direct taxes 
.211 General questions 
.212 " property tax 

.213 Classified property tax 
.22 Real property tax 

Taxes on real eetate, land, buildings 

.221 General questions 

.222 Administration 

Cadastration, tax survey; assessment 

.223 According to location 

Urban, suburban, rural 

.224 Taxes on buildings and fixt improvements 

House taxes 

.226 Single tax Land value tax 

System of Henry George. Tax confined to site and 
natural fertility values of land, unearnd increment tax. 
For single v. multiple tax system see 336.291 

.228 Taxes on special classes of realty 

Mineral lands, subsurface realty; surface realty, etc. 

.23 Personal property tax 

Tangible and intangible. For taxes on special objects 
see 336.278 

.24 Income tax 

.241 General questions 

.242 Personal income 

.243 Corporation income Business and industrial 


Clas here general discussions of corporation taxes. 
Surplus and excess profits taxes 

.244 Income from capital and investments 

Taxation of interest, of income from government 

securities, etc. 

.245 Income from rent 

.246 " " wages and salaries 

Taxation of labor and professional inoome 
.247 Income of nonresidents 

.248 Foren income 

.249 Other questions 


336.25 Other direct taxes 

For inheritance taxes see 336.276 

.251 Poll or capitation tax 

Hed taxes, taxes on persons as persons. Taxes on 
bachelors, women, minors. See also 324.1 Suffrage 

.252 Direct consumption taxes 

For taxes on special articles see 336.278. See also 
336.271 for general works on consumption taxes 

.253 Capital levy 

.26 Customs Tarif duties 

Taxes on international trade. See also 337 Protection and 
free trade 

.261 General questions 

.262 Administration Regulations 

.263 Types of duties 

Import, export, transit, national and state tolls 

.264 Methods of levy 

Ad valorem, specific, combination, tarif valuation system. 
See also 337.32 for protectiv aspects 

.265 Schedules 

.266 Rates on special commodities 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 
336.266677 Tarif schedules on textils 

.268 Smuggling Fraud Evasion 
.27 Other taxes 

For local taxes see 336.28 

.271 Excise Internal revenue 

Internal commodity taxes. Clas here general works on 
commodity and consumption taxes, also indirect taxes. 
May be divided like 336.26 except .266 (see examples 
below). For direct consumption taxes only see 336.252; 
for excises on special objects see 336.278 

3 Types of excise 

On raw materials, severance and output taxes; on 
manufacture and production, process taxes; on sales, 
general sales and turnover taxes; on necessities, 
purpose mainly fiscal; on luxuries, sumptuary taxes, 
purpose part fiscal, part regulatory 

8 Fraud Evasion Bootlegging 

,272 Stamp duties or taxes Revenue stamps 
.273 Fees 

Charges for performance of certain governmental acts 
conferring special benefits on particular individuals; 
legalization of various acts, documents, instruments, etc.; 
organization, registration, court, inspection, etc. fees 


336.274 Licenses 

Business and occupation taxes, corporation organization 
and entrance taxes; taxes on operation of various indus- 
tries, exercize of various professions, etc. For other 
relations see License in Rclativ index following Tables 

.276 Deth and transfer taxes 

Estate; inheritance, legacy or succession; gift taxes 

.278 Special taxes 

Special tax bases, taxes on special objects or articles. May 
be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 336.27875 
Taxes on paintings 

.279 Taxes for special purposes 

Cleric support, highway taxes, etc. May be divided like 
the whole classification, e.g. 336.27937 Taxes for education 

.28 Local taxes 

General discussions and works on special taxes mainly or 
cxclusivly local. Sec also 352.1 Local taxation, 379.13 School 

.282 Octroi 

Entrance taxes, import octrois; exit taxes, export octrois; 
transit taxes, local tolls. See also 381 Domestic commerce 

.283 Special assessments Betterment taxes 

Levies against property to defray costs of public 

.29 Other questions 

.291 General principles of taxation 

Canons of taxation: equality, certainty, productivity, 
etc. Single v. multiple tax system (for ' Single tax ' 
see 336.226). Taxable capacity 

.292 Tax administration 

Organization; tax surveys; assessment, valuation (see also 
333 -33 2 Real estate valuation in general), estimates, tax 
lists, equalization; apportionment among government 
units: national, state or provincial, local. Collection: 
tax farming (see also 336.19 Revenue farming in state 
industries), retention at source, composition, etc; payment 
in cash, produce, labor; evidences of payment, tax reciets; 
delinquencies, tax sales. Restitution, drawbacks 

.293 Mesure of tax Tax rates 

Ad valorem; specific; fixt, lump sum; proportional: 
tenths or tithes, per centages, mils, etc.; graduated: 
progressiv, degressiv, regressiv 

.294 Distribution of tax burden 

Justice in taxation; incidence, shifting; double taxation; 
alien and nonresident taxation. Exemptions: minimum, 
continuing, vanishing, social, etc. exemptions; deductions. 
Exemptions as subsidies, used to attract certain classes 
of commercial and industrial enterprises. Tax evasion, 
avoidance, fraud 

.295 Effects of taxation 

Economic: on production, on distribution of welth, on 
stediness of employment. Social: taxation and social 
reform, repressiv aspects of taxation. Political 


336.3 Public borrowing Public dets 

Loans to governments, claims against governments. See also 
332.7 Credit system in general 

.31 Public securities Funding system 

Interest bearing government securities, public funds, rentes, 
funded or bonded det. Government bonds, etc. Interest 
rates (see also 332.8 Interest). Long term and perpetual 
securities, consols, etc. Intermediate securities. Callable 
and serial bonds. Credit bonds 

.32 Short term securities Floating det 

Maturing within a year. Unfunded or current det. 
Fiat or printing pres money. See also 332.52 Printing 
pres money in general finance 

.33 Sinking fund Amortization 

Sinking fund ' raids ', etc. 

.34 Public credit 

.341 General questions 

.342 Character and bases of public credit 

.343 Forms of public det 

According to borrowing unit: national, state, local. 
According to source of loan: internal, domestic; external, 
foren; private loans. According to productivity: pro- 
ductiv; unproductiv, dedweight, war dets, etc. 

.344 Det flotation 

« Forst or compulsory, and voluntary loans; bids, sub- 
scriptions, allotment; marketability: at par, premium, 

.345 Burden and economic effects of public 

.346 Control and limitation of public credit 

Increase of public indettedness, ' pay-as-you-go ' policy 

.35 Annuities 

Contingent, deferd or reversionary, life, tontine, etc. 

.36 Repayment Repudiation 

Liquidation; retirement, redemption, payment in ful, either 
immediate or gradual; moratorium; cancelation, by mutual 
agreement, without payment: partial, reduction, scaling 
down, complete 

.368 Public insolvency Bankruptcy 

Default, token payments; repudiation: partial, by infla- 
tion, etc. (see also 332.414 Monetary inflation), complete 

.37 Refunding Consolidation Conversion 

.38 Other questions 

.381 Lottery loans Premium loans 

See also 332.68 Private lotteries 

.39 Public expenditure 

Character, principles, classification and objects, justification, 
economic aspects of public expenditure. For administrativ 
aspects and budget making see 351.71-.72 

•4-.9 Finance of special countries 

Divided like 940-999, e.g. 336.51 Chinese public finance. For 
ancient countries 336.093 may be used, e.g. 336.0937 Public 
finance in ancient Rome 


337 Tarif policy Protection and free trade 

For customs as source of revenue, tarif administration, schedules of 
duties see 336.26. See also 382 Foren trade. For form divisions, 

see Table 2 after Relativ index 

.1 Absolute free trade No tarif 
.2 Free trade Nonprotectiv tarif 

Tarif for revenue only, fiscal tarifs 

.3 Protection 

Protectiv and prohibitiv tarifs 

.31 General questions 

.32 Ad valorem v. specific duties 

Protectiv aspects. See also 336.264 Methods of levying 


.33 Export duties and restrictions 

Export licenses and embargoes; rationing of exports, export 
quotas; temporary or permanent prohibition of exportation 

.34 Import duties and restrictions 

Licenses, embargoes, quotas, marks of origin, prohibition of 

.35 Transit duties and restrictions 

Licenses, embargoes, prohibition, etc. 

.36 Tarif systems 

Clas here general discussions of autonomous tarifs. Single 
schedule, general or unilinear; multiple schedule or multi- 
linear tarifs. Maximum and minimum, bilinear or double 
schedule ; general and conventional ; intermediate ; preferential 
or differential tarifs. See also 337.38 Customs reprisals, 
337.91 Tarif treaties, 337.92 Colonial preferential policies 

.38 Customs reprisals Tarif wars 

Discriminatory and retaliatory duties, protection against 
unfair foren competition; countervailing and antidumping 
duties. See also 337.36 Tarif systems, 337.91 Reciprocity 

.4 Subsidies Drawbacks 

Bounties, premiums, subventions; rebates 

.5 Protection applied to special articles 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 337.563 Protec- 
tion of agricultural products. But clas protection of intellectual 
products (books, art objects) under 337.7 

.6 Protection applied to raw materials 

General discussions only. For special articles or groups of 

articles see 337.5 

.7 Protection applied to intellectual products 

Books, works of art, etc. 

.71 General questions 

.72 Books Literary works 

• 73 Works of art 

May be divided like 700, e.g. 337.735 Protection applied to 


337.8 Free importation of dutiable article* 

.8 1 General questions 

.82 Exemption from customs duties 

Personal; institutional: colleges, libraries, museumi, etc. 
See also 021.861 Libraries (free importation) 

.83 Customs permit Acquit a caution 

.84 Temporary admission Admission temporaire 

Improvement trade 

.87 Entrepot rights Free ports and zones 

Bonded areas and warehouses 

.9 Other questions 

.91 Tarif treaties 

Customs unions, zollverein, conventional tarif s; reciprocity 
(see also 337.38 Customs reprisals); most favord nation 
clause (see also 337.36 Preferential tarifs); bargaining tarifs, 
concession and penalty systems 

.92 Colonial tarif policies 

Customs relations between mother country and colonies, 
imperial protectionism; tarif assimilation, preferential policy 
(see also 337.36 Differential and preferential tarifs), ' open 
door ' policy 

338 Production Economic organization and 

Industrial economics, economic cycles. For ful list of form divisions 
see Table 2 after Relativ index 



Agricultural products 


Mining products 




Manufactured products Machinery in industry 

Intellectual production 


Prices Cost Business cycles 


Systems of productiv activity 


Organization and concentration of production 

Entrepren eurship 


Integration of production Mergers 


Industrial legislation 

•oi Theory Philosofy of production 

.01 1 General conception and field of production 

Definition, nature and character, forms 

.012 Classification 

Of elements of production: land, labor, capital, entre- 
preneurship ; relativ importance, interrelations. General 
discussions only ; material on special element clas with that 
element: e.g. 333 Land, 331 Labor, 339 Capital, 33».7 


338.016 Miscellaneous principles and theories 

Economic laws of production : laws of diminishing returns, 
marginal utility, increasing and decreasing costs, com- 
parativ advantage, etc. Principle of combination of agents 
of production. Expanding v. mature economy 

.018 Scientific and tecnical methods 

Specialization, diversification, division and combination of 
labor, distribution of labor (for organization of labor in 
general see 331.87). Change from one economic state to 
another, industrialization, agronomization. Shift within 
fields; e.g. change of a country from production of one- 
commodity or group of commodities to another because of 
action of law of comparativ advantage. Cooperation, 
competition, free exchange (see also 334 Cooperation). 
Control and distribution of production, supply and demand 
(for general theory of supply and demand see 380.11) 

.019 History of production theory 

By school and by country. 3-9 may be divided like 
93° _ 999, e -g- 33 8 - OI 943 Theory of production in Germany 

•06 Organizations 

.062 Employers associations 

.1 Agricultural products 

See also 333 Land: ownership, rights, rents; 630 Agriculture 

.II General questions 

Relativ contributions of various agents of production 

. 1 2 Organization 

Form: one-man, corporate, etc. Size and type: large and 
small farms (see also 631. 116 Scale of farm); agricultural 
colonies (see also 331.763 Agricultural labor, 362.56 Free 
colonics); workmen's gardens, lot cultivation, etc. (see also 
362.57 Land privilege for paupers). Competition, coopera- 
tion, unions (see also 630.62 Agricultural organizations), 
cooperativ farming (see also 334.683 Agricultural cooperativ 
productiv associations). See also 631.1 15 Systems of working 
a farm 

.13 Financial questions 

Costs, opportunity cost, etc. Prices, supply and demand, 
profits. See also 631.16 Agricultural finances 

.14 Marketing and trade 

See also 631.18 Farm economics, marketing 

.15 Agricultural crises 

Maladjustment of production and consumption, overpro- 
duction, surpluses, underproduction, crop failures, famins, 

.17 Special products 

Divided like 630, e.g. 338.1731 Economics of grain production; 
but for fish see 338.372 Water products 

.18 Relation to other subjects 

Divided like the whole classification, e.g. 338.1867 Relation 
of agricultural production to manufactures 


338.2 Mining products 

Divided like 338.1, e.g. 338.24 Marketing mining products. See 
also 332.418 Coinage metals, 553 Economic geology, 622 Mining 

.27 Special products 

Divided like 553, e.g. 338.273 Economics of iron production; 
but clas mineral waters under 338.374 

.3 Water products 

Divided like 338.1, e.g. 338.34 Marketing water products 

•37 Special products 

For aquatic vegetable products see 338.1 Agricultural pro- 

.372 Fish and other aquatic animal products 

Divided like 590, e.g. 338.37234 Economics of sponge 
industry. See also 639 Fishing 

•373 Ice 

See also 621.58 Ice manufacture 

.374 Potable water 

Common drinking water (see also 628.1 Water supply of 
towns, 628.7 Rural water supply); mineral waters, car- 
bonated waters, etc. (see also 553.7 Economic geology, 
663.6 Manufacture of artificial mineral waters) 

•377 Water power 

.4 Manufactured products Machinery in industry 
Intellectual production 

Divided like 338.1, e.g. 338.44 Marketing manufactured pro- 
ducts. But manufacturing crises ar clast under 338.53-.58. 
See also 660 Chemic tecnology, 670 Manufactures, 680 Mecanic 

.45 Machinery in industry 

Mas production, machinery in special industries; .4562-45699 
may be divided like 620-699 with .4561 divided like the whole 
classification for other industries; e.g. 338.45622 Machinery 
in mining, 338.456177 in photografy 

.46 Intellectual production 

See also 331.71 Intellectual workers 

.47 Special products 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 338.47677 
Economics of textil production 

.5 Prices Costs Business cycles 

See also 330.162 Theories of value 

.52 Prices and values 

Supply and demand in relation to prices (see also 380.II 
Commercial theory of supply and demand). Calculation of 
price: cost of production and marketing, profits, losses. Price 
under various conditions: monopoly and competitiv price. 
Real prices, price indexes 

.526 Price fixing Government regulation 


338.527 Prices for various articles 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 338.5277 

Prices in the fine arts 

.528 Prices in relation to other subjects 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 338.52832 
Prices in relation to political science 

.53 Business cycles Crises Panics 

Secular trends v. business cycles. See also 332.64 Financial 
crises, 380.124 Trade cycles, commercial fluctuations 

.54 Business cycles 

Maladjustment of production and consumption, over- 
production, underproduction, underconsumption as phases 
of business cycles 

.548 Relation to various subjects 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 
338.54815 Business cycles in relation to psicology 

.55 Crises 

.558 In relation to various subjects 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 
338.558331 Crises in relation to labor 

,559 General crises 

1 International 
3-9 By country 

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 338.5598 South American 
industrial crises 
Each of following, 338.56-.58, may be divided like 
338.55, e.g. 338.5691 International industrial panics 

.56 Panics 

Prefer 332.64 for banking and financial panics 

.57 Depressions Recessions 

.58 Booms 

.6 Systems of productiv activity 

For Cooperativ systems see 334., Socialist systems see 335 

.61 General questions 
.62 Primitiv production 

Clas system 

.63 Family system 

Production by family for family consumption, self-sufficing 
or isolated production. By members of family only: single 
family; family groups, village and manorial systems. Slave 
system; help or hire system 


338.64 Handicraft system Custom system 

Trade or commercial production; small industry. Unorgan- 
ized; organized, gild system. In special trades, trade gilds 
(see also 331.88 Trade unions). 338. 6462-. 64699 may be 
divided like 620-699 with 338.6461 divided like the whole 
classification for other trades; e.g. 338.64677 Handicraft* in 
textil trades, 338.64617 Art handicrafts 

.65 Capitalistic or industrial production 

Domestic system, house industry; sweting system; factory 
system, large industry 

.7 Organization and concentration of production 

Enterprizc. See also 658 Management 

.71 General questions 

.72 Individual entrepreneur or proprietor 

.73 Partnership Companies 

Trading companies 

.74 Industrial corporations 
.76 By industry 

.762-.J69 may be divided like 620-699, using .761 divided 
like the whole classification for other industries, e.g. 338.767 
Entrepreneurship in manufactures, 338.76177 in photografy 

.78 Corporations in relation to various subjects 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 338.7832 
Corporations in relation to political science 

.8 Integration of production Mergers 

See also 338.91 State and production control 

.81 General questions 

Horizontal and vertical combination 

.82 Monopolies 

Ethics; methods of obtaining monopoly, agreements, etc.; 
state and monopoly, regulation, prevention (see also 336.19 
State monopolies). 

.826 Monopolies in special industries 

2-99 may be divided like 620-699 with 1 divided like the 
whole classification for other industries, e.g. 338.82622 
Monopolies in mining, 338.826177 in photografy 


Industrial pools 

For restricting and alloting output. Output and money pools; 
selling buros or agencies, cartels 

Rings Cliques 
Industrial trusts 

Methods of formation and operation, financial questions; 
relations to industrial progress, public welfare, special indus- 
tries and various questions; .8562-99 may be divided like 
620-699 with .8561 divided like the whole classification for 
other industries; e.g. 338.85622 Mining trusts, 338.8561332 
Financial trusts 

Holding concerns 
International combinations 

.882-886 may be used like 338.82-.86 for special types of 
international combinations, e.g. 338.885 International trusts 

Industrial legislation 

For labor legislation see 331 

General questions 

Intervention of state in production, state and production 
control (see also 335 Socialism, 338.8 Monopolies, 347.7 com- 
mercial law). Official representation of production interests, 
industrial parliamentarism (see also 324.227 Functional repre- 
sentation in suffrage, 331.155 Industrial arbitration, 380.126 
Commercial arbitration). Authorization, control, regulation, 
inspection. Methods of encouragement of commerce and 
industry: grants, subsidies, guarantees of interest, premiums, 
etc. Industrial planning, production plans, pland economy: 
international and world planning; national, state, local and 
municipal planning; planning in special industries (see also 
335.6 State and nationalist socialism, 339.25 Organized v. 
unorganized distribution of welth, 339.49 Conservation of 
national resources) 

By subject 

May be divided like 338, e.g. 338.921 Legislation applied to 
agricultural production. 

99 By country 

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 338.937 Industrial legislation in 
ancient Rome 


339 Capital Distribution and consumption of 

National resources in general. For natural resources see 333. See 
also Capital, Pauper, Pauperism, Welth, in Relativ index following 
Tables. For form divisions see Table 2 after Relativ index 

. i Comfort and poverty 

Pauperism, life and condition of poor. Causes of poverty. 
Absolute and relativ poverty; destitution, penury. Prevention 
of poverty. See also 331.6 Pauper labor, 339.42 Wants, 364.26 
Economic status and crime 

.14 Mendicancy Vagrancy 

Beggars, hobos, tramps, vagabonds 

.16 Poor relief 

Indoor v. outdoor relief, almshouses, poorhouses. Private, 
individual or institutional v. public relief; poor laws. 
Economic aspects only; for general discussions, methods, etc. 
see 362.5 

,18 Comfort 

For luxury see 339.45 

.2 Division and distribution of welth 

Modes and principles of distribution 

.21 General questions 

.22 Inequalities in distribution 

.23 Distributiv shares 

Respectiv incomes or rewards of agents of production, proceeds 
of production falling to each. Gross v. net proceeds (produit 
net). Share of labor: wages, salaries (for general discussions, 
of wages see 331.2); share of land: rent (for general discussions 
of rent see 333.5); share of capital: interest (for general dis- 
cussions of interest see 332.8); share of entrepreneurship- 
profits, surplus (for general discussions of entrepreneurship 
see 338.7, for profits in relation to price 338.52) 

.24 Accumulation of welth Riches 

Individual shares, individual welth 

.25 Organized v. unorganized distribution 

See also 335 Socialism, 338.91 Pland economy, 658.8 Selling 


Appraisal of welth Capital and income 

Estimated value of national welth. Principles of mesurement; 
income valuation, benefit and money income; capital valuation, 
capitalization of income. May be divided like 930-999, e.g. 
339.373 Appraisal of American welth 

Consumption Use of welth 

Satisfaction of human wants. See also 364.26 Economic status 

and crime 

General questions 

Productiv consumption, utilization of capital; unproductiv or 

final consumption 

Standards of living Wants 

See also 339.1 Comfort and poverty 

Economic or beneficial consumption 

Economy, thrift, saving, frugality, liberality 

Uneconomic or harmful consumption 

Parsimony, stinginess; prodigality, waste, idleness, dissi- 
pation, extravagance 

See also 339.18 Comfort 

Avarice Miserliness Hoarding 
Control of consumption 

Freedom of consumption. Personal and social control. 
Public or government control: restrictiv, sumptuary laws; 

protectiv, consumer protection 

Special items of consumption 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 339.4863 
Agricultural consumption 

Conservation of national resources 

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 339.4973 Conservation of American 
national resources. See also 333.72 Conservation of natural 
resources, 338.91 Pland economy 


340 Law 

General WOrkS Most periodicals belong in Private law, 347. OS 

.1 Philosofy Theories Law of nature 

.3 Antiquities: torture, trial by ordeal, duel, etc. 

.4 Trial by jury 

.5 Comparativ legislation 

.6 Medical jurisprudence See also 614 23 Expert testimony 

.7 Education Law school Offis training 

.8 Polygrafy Collections 

.9 Legal anecdotes and miscellany 

Public law 

341 International law 

.01 Philosofy; 02 Compends, etc. like 300 

.1 International congresses and associations 

Of diplomatic agents for settling international relations; Hague tribunal, Leag 
of Nations. Congresses on special topics go with their subjects; e. g. 332.44 on 

.2 Treaties: texts and history 

Clas with most important country, dividing like 930-009, 

.3 Law of war Captivs Neutrals 

.4 International criminal law 

.5 International private law May be divided like 347 

.6 Arbitration 

.7 Diplomacy 

.8 Consular systems 

342 Constitutional law and history 

Divided by countries like 930-999. Under each, works may be divided: 01 Texts of 
constitution; 02 Conventions; 03 Systems, commentaries; 04 Essays; 08 Polygrafy; 
09 History, bjt it is recommended that American libraries make an exception for 
U. S. by omitting 0, using, for example, for commentary on U.S. constitution 
342 733 

For Administrativ law, see 350 

343 Criminal law 

.09 History and local treatment 

Divided like 930-999. Under each country, works may be divided: 01 Penal 
codes; 02 Reports; 03 Criminal procedure: 04 Text books and manuals. For 
exception recommended for American libraries sec note under 342' 

.1 Criminal trials 
.2 Punishments 

Corporal. Deth penalty. Hard labor. Confinement 

344 Martial law 

See also 35s Military law 

Private law 

345 United States statutes and cases 

Divide each of the sections .1-.5, using 1 U. S.; 2 Individual states arranged atfa- 
beticly; e. g. Statutes at large of U. S. 34s.11; Acts and resolvs of Mass. 345-12 

.1 Session laws 


Codes Revised statutes 
Law digests (of statutes) 

Use .4 U. S. supreme court; .41 U. S. circuit and district courts; .415 Periodical 
collections of various states; e. g. Eastern Reporter, etc; .42 Reports of individual 


Digests of cases 

British statutes and cases 

Divided like 345. Includes all reports in English language except U. S. reports 

General works Treatises 

.01 Philosofy .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays .05 Periodicals 
.06 Societies, bar associations .08 Polygrafy .09 History 

Put law of special topics with subject; e. g. Insurance law, 368. Divisions 
.1-8 may be disregarded and all English law textbooks arranged in one alfabot by 


.1 Persons Legal capacity 
.2 Realty 

.3 Chattels Movables 
.4 Contracts 
.5 Torts 

.6 Family law and inheritance 
.7 Commercial and maritime 
.8 Equity 

.9 Civil trials Procedure Courts Judiciary 

.91 Civil trials 

.92 Pleading 
.93 Forms 

.94 Evidence Testimony in general not limited to civil trials 

.95 Remedies 

.96 Justises of the peace Notaries Sheriff 

.97 Organization of courts 

.98 Jurisdictions 

.99 History of special courts 

348 Church law 

349 Law other than American and British 

Divided like 930-909, and under each modern state divided after a o like 34s with 
071—079 used for Treatises like 347; e. g. 349.44075 is French law of torts, 
349.4402 is French code; or, if preferd, 347 may be used to include treatises on 
law in any country and 071-079 be disregarded after country subdivisions of 349- 
Roman law is divided: 

.37 Roman law 

.01 Philosofy .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays .05 Periodicals 
.06 Societies .07 Education .08 Polygrafy .09 History 

.371 Sources: Ante- Justinian 

.372 " Justinian 

.373 History and criticism of sources 

.374 Institutes: ancient Roman law 

.375 Pandects: modern " " 

•377 Treatises on special topics Divided like 347 





35° Administration 

Including Military science. .1 Theory; .2 Compends; .3 Dictionaries; .4 Essays; .5 Peri- 
odicals; .6 Societies; .7 Education; .8 Polygrafy; .9 History 

A large number of the questions properly placed under Administration ar clast with 
related topics elsewhere. Some of these ar repeated here, both to show the scope of 
the subject ' Administration ' and to provide for cross references by those specially 
interested. See also 342 Constitutional law and history 

351 Administration of central government 

.1 Organization of civil servis 

Ofisers Method of selection: election or appointment Official functions and 
powers Mutual relations 

.2 Civil lists 
.3 Examination 

•4 Tenure Of OffiS DiSCipUn See 3SI.92 Power of removal 

.5 Pensions 

.6 Reform Spoils system vs offisholding clas 
.7 Subjects of administrate action 

See also 353 United States; 354 Countries other than United States 

.71 Financial administration 

See 336 Public finance, public prop Tty, taxation 

.72 Budget Public accounts 

.73 Internal affairs See also 323 Domestic relations 

.74 Police mesures 

•75 Public safety and ordsr See also 3S2.2 Police; 36s Prisons, etc. 

.751 Press 

.752 Reunion and associati on 

•753 Wepons 

.76 Vice and good manners 

.761 Liquor regulation See 178 Temperance 

.762 Public gaming See 174 6 Ethics 

.763 Public begging See 339. 1 Pauperism 

.764 Prostitution See 176.S Ethics 

.77 Sanitary police 

See 3S2.4 Boards of helth; 614 Public helth, etc 

.78 Accidents See 614.8 Public helth 

.781 Bildings See 614.85 

.782 Fires See 614.84 

•79 Other 

•79 1 Policing waterways 

.792 U. S. Coast guard 

.8 Promotion of public welfare 

.81 Means of communication 

See 380 Commerce, communication 
.8ll Highways See 388; 352.7 Local government 

.812 Railways See 385 

.813 Waterways See 386; 387 

.814 Ferries 

.815 Bridges See 352-7 Local government 

.816 Postoffis See 383 

.817 Telegrafs See 384.1 


J51.82 Trade and industry 

.82 1 Weights and mesures See 389 Commerce 

.822 Coinage and money See 332 Banks, money 

.823 Landed industry 

Agriculture See 630 Useful arts; 338.1 Production 

Forests See 634.9 Forestry; 333-7 Land 

Mines See 622 Mining; 338.2 Production; 333-75 Land 

.824 Commercial and manufacturing industry 

See 380 Commerce; 338 Production 

.825 Institutions of credit See 332 Banks, credit 

Savings banks See 332.2 
Mutual benefit societies See 334 Cooperation 
Insurance See 368; 334-3 Cooperativ insurance 
Monts de pi6t6 See 332.33 

.83 Labor See 331 Capital, Labor, Wages 

.84 Public charity 

See 339.1 Pauperism; 360 Associations and Institution! 

.85 Education and worship 

.851 Public education See 379 Education 

.852 Public libraries See 027. 4 Library economy 

.853 Art museums See 708 Art 

.857 Worship See 322 Church and state 

Military and naval See 35S-3S9 Army and Navy 
Justis See 340 Law 

Foren affairs See 341 International law; 327 Political aclanc* 

.9 Control over the administration 

.91 Administrativ Control By superior offisera 

.92 Disciplinary power 

Power of removal. See also 351.4 Tenure of offia 

.93 Supervision 

Power to annul or amend specific acts 

.94 Judicial control 

.941 Ordinary courts See 347.5 Law of torts 

•945 Criminal COUrtS See 343 Criminal law 

.95 Administrativ courts 

.96 Parliamentary control 
.97 Petitions and addresses 

.98 Investigations 
.99 Impeachment 

352 Local government: county, town, city 

See also 379 Public schools; 020 Libraries 

General questions of municipal administration 
.001 Growth and importance of cities 

.002 Cities and state control 

.003 City as a juristic person, a corporation 

See also 347 1 Law of corporations 
.004 City organization, municipal elections 

.005 Municipal civil servis 

.008 Forms of administration 

Commission, manager etc. 


Local administration of special countries and citits 

.03-.09 divided by countries like 930-990 

352 042 Local government in England 

Arrange matter relating to special citiei alfabeticly by name of city and juV 
divide the remaining works as follows: 

01 County 

02 Municipal boro 

03 Parish 

04 Union See 339 .1 Pauperism 

05 Sanitary districts See 614 Public helth 

06 School districts See 379 Education 

07 Highway areas See 352.7 

.043 Local government in Germany Special cities like 352.04* 

01 Province: landtag, provincial committee, director 

03 Circle Circle diet Circle committee Landrat 

04 Commune 

05 Towns 

06 Township 

.044 Local government in France Special cities like 353 04a 

01 Department 

02 General council 

03 Departmental commission 

04 Prefect 

05 Arrondissement 

06 Commune 

07 Mayor 

08 Municipal council 

.1 Finances: city property and local taxation 

See also 336 Public finance 

.2 Police 

.3 Fire department See also 621.68 Fire engins; 614.84 Fires 

.4 Public helth: board of helth See also 6i 4 Medidn 

.5 Public bildings and works 

.6 Water and Sewerage WOrks See also 628 Sanitary engineering 

.7 Streets Highways Bridges Parks 

See also these topics in Relativ index for other relations 

.8 Licenses : hack, huckster, entertainment, etc. 

.9 Other topics 

353 United States and state government 

Operation of executiv branch of government. For U. S. congress and state legislatures 
see 328.73-. 798, where also ar department reports in sets of congressional and state 
documents. Clas separates of such reports with their subjects or with their respectiv 
departments in 353. 1-. 97988 when they hav no definit place elsewhere in the clasification; 
but report of office of education 379.73, of agriculture dep't 630.6 

See also 342.73 Constitutional law and history, 347.9 Judiciary branch 

.01 Administrativ centralization 

.02 Separation of powers 

.03 President 

.04 Departments 

.05 Cabinet 

.1 State department 
.2 Tresury department 

Laws and rules governing tresury; but clas reports 33°-73 U. S. flnanc* 

.3 Interior department 

.4 PostoffiS department See postal servis 383.4973 


353 5 Justice department For judiciary branch see 347-9 

.6 War department 

See also 3S5 Army: military scienc* 

.7 Navy department 

See also 359 Navy; naval science 

.8 Other departments 

.9 State government Divided like 974-979 

Apply same decimals for state governments. For departments not here speci- 
fied use .8 and .9 and any of above numbers left blank; e. g. for a state having 
no navy, .7 is free for some local use. Judiciary dep't of D. C. 353-97535- 
J53-9 includes history of regiments, unless covering a particular period of national 

history; e. g. the " history of the N. Y. 7*h regiment in the civil war is attracted 
to 973-74, but a general history of the same regiment is 353-97476. Prefer 355-359; 
see note under 355 

354 Organization of central government Countries 
other than United States 

See also 342 Constitutional law and history 

Divided geograficly by countries like 930-999- Under each country (except where 
existing country divisions conflict; e. g. 943 Germany, 943.6 Austria) the U. S. divi- 
sions, I State, 2 Tresury, etc. may be used; e. g. State department of Great Britain, 
354.42 1 ; or, for sake of uniformity and because of possible future division of countries 
(and this is advized for libraries which hav not alredy added the department numbers 
directly to the country number) these numbers may be added to 06 affixt to country 
number (see Germany below); e. g. 061 State department, etc. But do not use these 
divisions where a single number is at present used for 2 or more countries (e. g. 989 
Paraguay, Uruguay) and for which more specific provision wil eventually be made. 
Ad also the following divisions: 

.42 Administration of England Central government 

01 Administrate centralization 

02 Separation of powers 

03 Monarch 

04 Privy council 
os Cabinet 

.43 Administration of Germany Central government 

01 A Jministrativ centralization 
oa Separation of powers 

03 Empire 

032 Bundesrat 

033 Emperor 

034 Ministry 

04 Republic 

06 Departments 

Divided like 353; e. g. 354.43062 Tresury department of Germany 

07 States Monarchs 

072 Landtag Ministers Council of state 

08 Free cities 

.44 Administration of France Central government 

01 Administrate centralization 

02 Separation of powers 

03 President 

04 Ministers 

os Council of state 


355 Military science 

Military in broad sense of land and sea forces; but limited to mili- 
tary science, tactics, strategy, etc. For War department of U. S. 
see 353.6, of other countries use 066 following appropriate geografic 
subdivisions of 354, e.g. 354.42066 War dcpt of England. Clas 
general histories of military units covering several wars and inter- 
mediate periods under appropriate subdivisions of 355-359; e.g. 
History of 2d U. S. Cavalry 357.0973, general history of a N. Y. 
infantry regiment 356.09747 (see note under 353.9). See also 
subdivision 4 under special wars in 973? e.g. Mexican war being 
973.62, regimental history of that war is 973.624. See also 172.4 
Ethics of war, 341. 3 War in International law, 344 Martial law, 
399 War customs, 623 Military engineering. For form divisions 
see Table 2 after Relativ index 


355.1 General questions Military life 

.2 Military resources Recruitment and requisitions 

.3 Organization of military forces Classification 

.4 Tactics Strategy History of campains 

.5 Training maneuvers and services 

.6 Military administration and maintenance 

.7 " establishments 

.8 " equipment and supplies Materiel 

.9 Other topics 

356 Infantry Foot troops 357 Cavalry Mounted services 

358 Other arms and services: artillery, engineers, special technical 
services, air services 

359 Naval science Sea forces Marines, Coast guards, etc. 

.1 General questions Military life 

. 1 1 Servis periods and retirement 

.111 Length of activ service Training periods 

Recall, allotment of various army classes, etc. 

.112 Promotion 

By seniority, by merit. See also 355.134 Military rewards 

.113 Inactiv periods 

Leavs, furlos; in reserv status, availability; non-activ 
periods, periods on half -pay; sick leavs (undergoing 
treatment in hospitals, sanitariums, etc.) ; during captivity, 
internment, etc., as prisoners of war (see also 365.45 
Penal institutions) ; during imprisonment, etc. 

.114 Termination of servis Resulting status 

Retirement, resignation; discharge (honorable or dis- 
honorable), reinstatement proceedings; desertion, deth, 
suicide, etc. Cancelation of commission, etc. 


355.115 Veterans Former combattants 

Old and disabld soldiers. Provision for ex-soldiers, 
civil employment, colonization, rehabilitation, etc. See 
also 351.1-.6 Civil service and pensions, 362.65 Aid in 
cases of infirmity 

.12 Military life in peace and war 

Living conditions, etc. under various military situations: 
in garrison or camp, in the field, on the march, during 
maneuvers, in battle, etc. See also 613.67 Military hygiene, 
641.573 Military cookery 

.13 Military honor Disciplin Remuneration 

Military ethics and etiquet 

.131 General questions 

Ceremonies; breaches of honor; courts of honor and 
inquiry, judgments, penalties, disgrace, etc. 

.132 Military duels 

Defense and satisfaction of honor. See also 179.7 Ethics 
of dueling, 394.8 Dueling customs 

. 1 33 Military disciplin Offenses 

Military authority and obedience. Military crimes, 
mutiny, looting, malingering, etc. Disciplinary organiza- 
tion: military police, gendarmes, provost marshals; 
administration of military justice. Military punishments: 
corporal punishment, flogging, etc. 

.134 Military rewards, privileges and advantages 

Special privileges; salutes; honorary insignia, brevets, 
decorations, medals, badges, orders, etc. (For insignia 
designating function and identity see 355.81) Rolls of 
honor (Rolls of honor of a particular war ar clast with 
history of that war). Gifts, booty, etc. See also 355.112 
Promotion, 929.7 Military orders and nobility 

.135 Remuneration 

Military pay, salary. For methods and records see 355.64, 
pensions 351.5 

. 1 4 Uniforms 

As costume. System, distinguishing rank; stile, color, esthetic 
considerations. Etiquet of uniforms, regulations as to what 
to wear under various circumstances. For administrativ 
aspects see 355.66, description and use 355.81 

.15 Colors and standards 

Flags, color guards. Limited strictly to military regulations. 
For functional aspects see 355.81. See also 929.9 Flags in 

.16 Military celebrations 

Commemorations, anniversaries, jubilees. Celebrations relat- 
ing to a particular war ar clast with history of that war 

.17 Military ceremonials 


355.2 Military resources Recruitment and requisitions 

Discussions of value and availability of peace time national 
resources if needed for defense and in time of war. Legislation 
providing for militarization of national resources in case of need 
for war or defense. For administration after being taken over 
by the military see 355.6 

.21 General questions 

Preparedness, rediness of resources for mobilization; conscrip- 
tion of welth and property; economic preparedness; military 
tax; sabotage of military resources, etc. 

.22 Men Recruitment 

Obligations of citizens with respect to national defense; 
militia system, national guard. (For relations of govern- 
ment to maintenance of public order see 351.74 Government 
police mesurcs) Voluntary and compulsory enlistment, con- 
scription, drafting, universal service; recruits from military 
schools, commissioning of officers. Foren enlistments. 
Exemptions, bounties, evasion of service, conscientious 
objectors, etc. Administration of recruiting, quota system, 
etc. Medical, phisical and mental examination of recruits. 
See also 151. 2 Psicologic mesurements, 616.075 Medical 

.23 Civilian mobilization 

Maintenance of war morale, information service and propa- 
ganda, censorship. Protection of civilians, feeding, remunera- 
tion for damages, etc. Duties of civilian employes, provision 
for civil officials. Internment of civilians and enemy aliens, 
civil concentration camps. For military prisons see 355.71; 
see also 365.45 Penal institutions 

.24 Raw materials 

Unprocest materials, availability, etc. for military use. 
Agricultural, mineral, etc.; food stufs, fuel, etc. Economic 
resources in general 

.26 Industrial resources and mobilization 

Procest materials, manufactures, provisions, etc. Availability 
and conscription of private enterprise, commercial and 
financial mobilization 

.27 Transportation facilities 

Roads (see also 623.62 Military roads), railways (see also 
623.63 Military railways), vehicles, canals, ships, merchant 
marine (see also 359.27 Availability of merchant marine 
for naval use, 387.8 Merchant marine in general transporta- 
tion). Routes of travel, distances, strategic importance, etc. 
Limited to peace time systems of transportation and their 
availability in time of military need. See also 355.43 Stretegic 
lines and bases 


355.28 EfYectiv mobilization Military requisitions 

Declaration of imminence of war, application of emergency 
powers, calls to arms, order of call. Commandeering of 
animals, vehicles, forage, real property, etc. Establishment 
of military zones, closing frontier, etc. 

.3 Organization of military forces 

Classification of personnel 

.31 Army units and organization 

Constituent divisions for administrate purposes. Armies, 
corps, divisions, regiments, army posts, companies, platoons, 
squads, etc. Special and incidental units and formations, 
guards, foren legion, detachments, parade and inspection 
units, etc. For classification according to military obliga- 
tion and field of service see 355.35. For special arms see 
numbers for those arms, e.g. 356 Infantry, 357 Cavalry, 358 
Tecnical services, artillery, etc. 

.33 Officers Military hierarchy 

Ranks and grades of personnel, military commissions. Com- 
mander-in-chief, hedquarters staf, inspectors, commanders, 
generals, captains, aides-de-camp, adjutants, etc. 

.331 General questions General command 

General principles of command, whether of large or 
smaller units. Leadership and command of troops; 
preparation of orders, field correspondence, passes, etc. 

.338 Enlisted men Privates 

For functional classification see numbers for various 
arms and services, e.g. 356 Infantry 

.34 Special services 

Outside and independent of the regular arm or grade. Officers 
or men detaild outside their regular grade as instructors, 
paymasters, quartermasters, commisary officers, color bearers, 
etc. Various functions common to all arms including work 
not strictly military. Signal and intelligence services, dis- 
patch carriers, postal service, scouts, orderlies, drummers, 
buglers, etc.; spies, attaches. Accountants, carpenters, 
machinists, chauffeurs, tailors, cooks, librarians, etc. 

.35 Armies General stafs 

Clast according to military obligation and field of service. 
For military units see 355.31 

.351 Continental or home armies 

1st or front line; 2d line, reservs; 3d line, territorials, 
frontier troops or guards, etc. 

.352 Colonial armies 

Expeditionary forces, nativ troops, auxiliaries, etc. 

.356 Allied forces 

United forces of coalitions or alliances 

.357 International armies 

.358 Secret or conceald arms and armaments 


355.4 Tactics Strategy History of campains 

Plans for attack and defense. Tactics and strategy of a special 
arm should be clast with that arm. See also under 355.5 Practis 

.41 Logistics and field service 

General details of movement and supply of armies in activ 

.41 1 March tactics 

Tactics of troops on the move 

.412 Encampment tactics 

Tactics during halts, guard duty, outposts, etc. 

.413 Scouting Reconnaissance Patrols 

.415 General tactical services 

Establishing and maintaining lines of communication, 
routes of travel, rates of progress, etc. (see also 623.6 
Military roads and bridges in Military engineering). 
Maintenance of supply service, magazines, arsenals, etc. 
Tactics of camp organization and safety; of medical 
service, evacuation of wounded, etc. Establishment of 
telegrafic and similar connections (see also 623.7 Tecnical 
aspects of military signaling). Handling prisoners of war, 

.42 General tactics 

Offensiv and defensiv tactics in time of battle. Tactics of 
combined arms, land and sea forces, when working together. 
See each arm for its peculiar tactics 

.421 General questions 

Command and troop liaison, tactical rides, general staf 
journeys, etc. 

.422 General battle tactics 

Offensiv and defensiv. Debarkation and landing ma- 
neuvers; skirmishing, night attacks, counter attacks, 
retreats; destruction of works, factories, supply depots, etc. 

.423 Influence of terrain on operations 

Tactics in wooded areas, inhabited regions, in the moun- 
tains, along water courses, etc. Stream crossing, etc. 

.424 Use of various auxiliary means 

Temporary fortifications, trenches, bridges, special means 
of communication, balloons, dogs, pigeons, etc. 

.425 Guerrilla warfare 

Indian fighting, etc. 

.426 Riot duty Street fighting 

Civil warfare 

.427 Colonial tactics 


General military planning. Plan of concentration, arrange- 
ment and deployment of troops. Strategic lines and bases 
(see also 355.27 General transportation facilities). Strategy 
of offensiv and defensiv operations, means of diverting attack 
of enemy, smoke screens, camouflage, etc. Evaluation of 
forces, study of terrain, influence of morale, determining 
proper moment to strike, calculating duration of war, etc. 

Siege warfare 

Attack and defense of towns, fortified places, etc. Invest- 
ment, blockade, bombardment, assault, mine warfare, etc. 
For engineering aspects see 623.2-3 

National defense 

Fortified defensiv positions and zones, barrier forts, etc. 
Military division of territory; distribution, location and 
placement of troops, garrisons. Defense of industrial areas, 
fronters, coasts; provision of zones of inundation, flooding, etc. 

Military geografy 

Geografic works written from military point of view and 
works on strategic conditions in particular theaters of opera- 
tion. Preservation of military charts, etc. Divided like 
930-999, e.g. 3554773 Military geografy of U. S. 

Military history 

Tecnical accounts and analises of special wars, campains, 
battles and military events; including similar discussions of 
imaginary wars and battles. In general preferably clast 
with wars to which they belong in 930-999 

Training maneuvers and services 

Instruction of troops and subaltern grades, military practis and 


General questions 

General garrison and field service, mobilization maneuvers, 
demobilization, etc. 

Grand maneuvers Instruction camps 

War games with 2 ' armies ', maneuvers of combined arms. 
Maneuver and dril grounds, field exercises. Concentration 
tests, fortress maneuvers, etc. 

Special formations and maneuvers common to 
various units 

Tactical exercizes in the field or over irregular terrain. General 
formations: march, assembly, combat, parade, bivouac, etc. 
formations. Embarkation, marching, halting, etc. maneu- 
vers. Safety and reconnaissance practis. Offensiv and 
defensiv maneuvers: pursuit, retreat, renewal of supplies, 


355.54 Elementary training of units Tactical exer- 
cizes for recruits 

See also numbers for separate arms in 356-359 

.541 Foot maneuvers 

With or without arms, executing the manual of arms, 
target practis, small arms practis, rifle ranges. See also 
623.44 Small arms in Military engineering, 796 Athletic 
sports and games 

.542 Mounted and motorized maneuvers 

With or without arms, manual of arms for mounted 
troops, practis with saber, lance, etc. 

.543 Artillery maneuvers 

Artillery ranges and practis firing. See also 623.4~.5 
Artillery and Gunnery in Military engineering 

.544 Camp and fortification operations 

Field engineering, castremetation, camp making (see also 
623.613 Military establishments in Military engineering). 
Temporary fortifications, accessory defenses, batteries, 
obstacles, demolition and repair. Field kitchens, etc. 

.55 Officers' maneuvers and exercizes 

Staf field exercizes. Theoretic problems, map and chart 
maneuvers; military operations workt out with miniature 
apparatus, counters, colord disks, etc. 

.58 Maneuvers involving the civil population 

Safety activities, warning and intelligence service, blackout, 
rescue maneuvers, demonstrations, etc. 

.6 Military administration and maintenance 

Clas here only the workings and direction of central administrativ 
services. For personnel and organization of these services for 
special arms see appropriate subdivisions under each arm in 

.61 General questions 

Interior administration, adjutant's dept, civil employes, etc. 
Record keeping, filing systems, paper work in general. Gen- 
eral correspondence, issuance of orders, authorization of 
expenditures, adjustments, etc. 

.62 Execution of administrativ mesures 

Contracts, accounting (financial, materials) 

.63 Control and supervizion 

General administrativ inspection service and organization. 
Intendance and commissariat in general 


355.64 Paymaster's department 

Administration of pay, allowances, pensions, etc. For 
pension systems see 351.5, pay systems 355.135 

.65 Subsistance department 

Administration of food supply service, marketing, rationing, 
distribution, etc. 

.66 Clothing and equipment department 

For uniforms as costume see 355.14, description and use 355.81 

.67 Lodging administration 

Provision of quarters, maintenance and upkeep, heating, 
lighting, ventilation, etc. 

.68 Animals 

General administration 

.69 Other administrativ services 

Transportation maintenance, etc. 

.7 Military establishments 

Organization and service of permanent and quasi-permanent 
building groups as military units; including private establish- 
ments performing military functions and contracts. See also 
358.36 Military construction services, 359.7 Naval establish- 
ments, 623.6 Military establishments in Engineering, 725.18 
Architecture of military buildings 

.71 Cantonments Lodgings for troops 

Barracks, military hedquarters, posts, school groups, camps, 
billeting arrangements, military prisons, lodging equipment, 
etc. For civil concentration and internment camps see 
355.23. See also 365.45 Penal institutions 

.72 Sanitary and medical establishments 

Hospitals, infirmaries, sanitariums, etc. 

.73 Artillery establishments 

Arsenals, military foundries and workshops, munitions 
factories, materiel depots, powder factories and magazines, 
target ranges and proving grounds, artillery schools, etc. 
See also 623.47 Arsenals in Military engineering 

.74 Engineering establishments 

General shops and factories, depots and testing grounds for 
engineering materials 

.75 Administrativ establishments 

Subsistance and general equipment establishments; bakeries, 
kitchens, provision and fodder storehouses, supply farms, 
water supply, clothing manufacture and repair establishments, 


355.8 Military equipment and supplies Materiel 

Military stores, description, issue and use; quartermaster's 
dept, etc. For equipment of a particular arm see number 
for that arm in 356-359 

.81 Clothing Camp equipment 

Uniforms and other wearing apparel, hed coverings, buttons, 
shoes, leggings, underwear, functional insignia, etc. (for 
decorativ and honorary insignia see 355.134; see also 355.14 
Uniforms as costume, etiquet of uniforms, 355.66 Administra- 
tiv aspects). Accouterments, canteen, knapsacks, baggage, 
etc. Camp equipage, everything necessary for camping, 
tentage, field kits, bedding, rations, stoves, cooking and mes 
utensils (see also 641.573 Military cookery); camp flags, 
colors and insignia identifying various units, etc. (see also 
355- 1 5 Flag regulations) 

.82 Arms and ammunition 

Administrate questions; working and reserv supply, storage, 
issue, etc. For mecanism and relativ efficiency of different 
kinds see 623.4 

.83 Transport equipment 

Wagons and other vehicles, harness and other accessories. 
Packing and shipment of goods. Transport trains, sled and 
pack trains, etc. Railroads, troop ships, transport planes, 
etc. Mecanical transportation, motor transportation, tract- 
ors, etc. Artillery vehicles, including the guns themselvs. 
Pontoons, boats, ambulances, etc. Skates, skis, snowshoes, 
etc. Transport animals, horses, mules, camels, elefants, 
dogs, etc. 

.84 Pioneering tools 

Digging and intrenching tools. Tools for preparing road- 
ways, cutting thru forests, etc. 

.85 Nonpioneering tools and instruments 

Communications equipment, etc. 

.8^ Recreational equipment 

Athletic equipment, musical instruments, etc. 

.87 Archival and documentary materials 

Materials for record keeping, printed forms, etc. 

.9 Other topics 


Infantry Foot troops 

General questions 

Personnel and organization 

Main infantry units 

Infantry of the line; light, mounted, cyclist, etc. infantry; 

foot chasseurs; shock, etc. units; mccanized infantry 

Colonial infantry 

Organizations eventually subject to mobiliza- 

Firemen, customs officials, foresters and other government 
services specially liable to infantry service. Reservs, 
national guard infantry, etc. 

Volunteer corps 
Irregular troops 

1 Corps francs ' existing only during war; self-organized 
infantry; guerillas, brigand troops, etc. 

Infantry units performing special functions 

Fusiliers, grenadiers, sharpshooters, machine gunners, 
scouts, etc. Alpin, parachute, ski, etc. units 

Tactics and maneuvers Equipment 

Dril regulations, infantry manual of arms. Marching, 
stream crossing; firing, musketry, small arms practis and 
inspection, etc. Infantry equipment, clothing, arms, 
bayonets, swords, pistols, etc. (see also 355.8 .Military 
equipment and supplies in general) 

Staf and special services 

Personnel and organization. Staf officers, adjutants, assist- 
ants, aides, etc. Staf clerks, secretaries, etc. Intelligence 
services, espionage, information, records, etc. Special tecnical 
and scientific services, cifcrs, etc. Staf activities during 
maneuvers, field service, etc. Chancery and protocol services, 
etc. See also special tecnical services in 358.3 

Administrativ staf and auxiliary services 

Personnel and organization. Intendancc, sanitary service, 
recruiting, etc. See also 355.6 General military administration 

Cavalry Mounted services 

Special mounted troops outside the other regular arms and gen- 
eral questions concerning animals in army service ar included 

General questions 

Personnel and organization 

Main cavalry units 

Cavalry of the line; hevy, reserv, light, etc. cavalry. 
For mccanized cavalry see 357.5 


Colonial cavalry- 
Volunteer cavalry 
Irregular " 

Guerilla, brigand, etc. cavalry 

Cavalry units performing special functions 

Cuirassiers, carbineers, lancers, hussars, mounted chas- 
seurs, dragoons, cavalry pioneers, etc. 

Cavalry and draft animals 

Horses, mules, oxen, camels, elefants, etc. For adminis- 
trate functions see 355.68, remount service and training 

Tactics and maneuvers Equipment 

Cavalry manual of arms. Stream crossing; cavalry out- 
posts, reconnaissance; cavalry field service; firing instruc- 
tions, cavalry sword exercizes, etc. Cavalry equipment, 
uniforms, arms, etc. (see also 355.8 Military equipment 
and supplies in general) 

Remount and training services Breeding 

Personnel and organization. Securing and training cavalry 
mounts; training camps, equitation; remount depots, breed- 
ing, care, etc. 

Army equipment train 

Personnel, organization, establishments; provision and muni- 
tion columns, etc. 

Mecanized cavalry 

Cyclist, motorcicle, automobile, etc. cavalry. Tecnical corps ; 
fuel and other supplies. See also 358. 1 Tanks, armord cars, 

Cavalry staf and special services 
Administrativ staf and auxiliary services 
Other arms and services 

Artillery, engineers, tecnical services, etc. Personnel, organiza- 
tion, equipment, tactics, etc. 


Types of artillery units: field, mountain, coast, antiaircraft, 
etc. Combat vehicles: tanks, armord cars, etc. (see also 
357-5 Mecanized cavalry). Artillery tenders and auxiliary 
services. Artillery animals, motorized artillery, etc. For 
ordnance, gunnery, etc. see 623.4-.5 Military engineering 


Pioneers, sappers, miners, bridge and road engineers, railroad 
units, torpedo units, etc. Communications services: tele- 
grafists, signalers, radio operators, searchlight engineers, 
etc. Electricians, etc. See also 623 Military engineering 


358.3 Special tecnical services 

Military artisans; services connected with manufacture of 
war materiel, munitions, powder, etc.; with construction of 
military buildings, camouflage service, etc. 358.3 1-.37 may 
be divided like 623 for services not otherwize specially pro- 
vided for, e.g. 358.36 Military construction services, 358.377 
Camouflage services. In general prefer 623 Military engi- 
neering. See also 355.7 Military establishments 

.4 Air service 

As separate service, or connected with army or navy. Person- 
nel, organization, equipment, tactics, etc. Aeronautic 
establishments, airfields, etc. See also 623.74 Military 
aeronautics, 629.13 Aeronautic engineering 

359 Naval science Sea forces 

For Navy dept of U. S. see 353.7, of other countries use 067 fol- 
lowing appropriate geografic subdivisions of 354, e.g. 354.42067 
Navy dept of England. See also subdivision 5 under special 
wars in 973; e.g. naval units in Mexican war 973.625. For 
naval affairs considerd in conjunction with general military 
science see various subdivisions under 355; see also note under 
355. See also 527 Navigation, 613.68 Naval hygiene, 623.8 
Naval architecture. For form divisions see Table 2 after 
Relativ index 

.1-.8 may be divided so far as applicable Uke 355.1-.8; e.g. 
359-3 Organization of naval forces 

.31 Naval units: Fleets, squadrons, flotillas, etc. Crews, 

divisions, gun crews, etc. 
.32 Special types of ships 

•33 Naval hierarchy, officers: Fleet commander, admirals, rear 
admirals, captains, lieutenants, ensigns, midshipmen, war- 
rant officers, boatswains, petty officers, etc. 

.338 Enlisted sailors 

.35 Navies: Clast according to military obligation and service. 

Main fleets; reserv, auxiliary and colonial fleets; coast 

defense, landing forces, etc. 
.5 Naval training maneuvers 
.54 Training ships 

.9 Other topics Special services 
.96 Marines Naval infantry 

.97 Coast guards 

In time of war. For Coast guards in general see 351.792 

.98 Special tecnical services 

.981 Naval artillery 

.982 " engineers 


o Welfare and social associations and 

This covers what is best known as " Charities and corrections," and ,i 
works on this topic go in 360. Under each section .9 is used as in 363.9, foi 
grouping by location; e. g. Clubs of London ar 367.9421 

Clas under 360 all which concerns welfare work, insurance, and associations having a 
social caracter and not devoted to some special field. Those devoted to some special 
field (religious, commercial, scientific, art, sporting, literary etc.) ar clast under their 
own subject divisions. See also 060 General societies; 334 Cooperativ societies 

)i Charitable 

See also 377.7 Charity schools. For humane societies see 179.3 

.01 Principles of welfare work 

Responsibility, charity, philanthropy, mutual aid 

.1 Medical aid in general 

Medicin for poor; free medicin; medical and pharamceutic aid 
See also 362.1 Hospitals for sick and wounded 

.2 Aid according to place where given 

In country or city, at home or in institutions 

.3 Aid according to person resieving 

See also 362 

.4 Aid according to kind 

Funeral expenses 

.5 Certain exceptional cases 

Calamities, disasters, plagues 

. 5 1 Earthquakes 
.52 Floods 
• 53 War 
. 54 Epidemics 
.55 Famine 
.56 Fire 

.6 Official or public aid in general 

.7 Private aid in general 

.7,5 Contributions Charity entertainments 

.8 Charity organization 

United work; cooperation and association of charitable works: charity 
information bureaus 

>2 Hospitals, asylums, and allied societies 

.01 Discussions of purpose, nature and caracter 

.1 Sick and wounded 

See also 361. 1 Medical aid in general 

.11 General hospitals Contagious wards, pesthouses 


Treatment at hospitals 

. 1 2 Dispensaries 

.13 Sanitariums and bath establishments 

Special sanitariums: for incurables, cancer patients, lepers, epileptics, con- 
sumptivs, inebriates. Sanitariums at high altitudes. Baths and watarcurea. 
Establishments for sea baths 


362.14 Medical cases treated at home 

.145 Distribution of medians 

. 1 5 Maternity hospitals 

Institutions for women in confinement and (or infants 
See also 362.72 Institutions for foundlings 

.16 Convalescents 

.18 Wounded and disabled City ambulances 

See also 614.88 Life saving 

.19 Other 

.196-.108 divided like 616-618 

E.g. 362.1973 Orthopedic hospitals 

.2 Insane 

For other relations see Insane, Insanity in Relativ index following Table* 

.3 Idiotic Imbeciles Feebleminded 

For other relations see Idiocy. Idiots, in Relativ index 

.4 Blind Def Dum 

See also 371.91 Education 

.5 Paupers Poor 

For other relations see Pauperism, Paupers, in Relativ index > 

51 Beggary Vagrancy Poorhouses 

.52 Lodgings for poor 

Dormitories, warm halls. Work in return for lodgingi 

. 53 Money aid 

Charity bureaus. Right of poor to be helpt. Savings funds 

.535 Taxation of poor 

.536 Loans Loan funds for the needy 

. 54 Aid thru necessaries and conveniences 

Distribution of food, clothing and fuel. Cooperativ kitchent, ovem, stove* 

See also 331.83s Popular restaurants 

.55 Marriage Dowry Legitimation 

. 56 Free colonies : pauper or workmen's 

.57 Land privilege 

Lots for cultivation 

.6 Aged Infirm Bereft 

.61 Homes for the aged 

.62 Retiring pensions 

Funds for retirement and aid. Mutual aid fund* 

.625 For widows and orfans 

.65 Infirm Aid in case of infirmity 

.67 Deth: aid to survivors; widows, dependents 

See also 362.62s Pensions for windows and orfans, 362.7 Aid to children 

.7 Childhood and youth : aid, protection, support 

Child welfare See also ethics, 179.2 Cruelty 

See also 331.3 Child labor; 331.86 Apprentisship; 372.2 Kindergartens 

. 7 1 Nurslings 

Giving over nurslings to 3d party. CrAches. Protection of infants 
See also 362.15 Maternity hospitals 

.72 Natural children Foundlings 

.73 Orfans Orfan asylums Adoption and help 

.74 Children neglected, ill treated, perverted 

See also 179 2 Cruelty to children 

• 75 Various classes of children 

Children of soldiers, sailors, public offisers 


362.76 School enterprizes 

.761 Distribution of food at school 

Cooperativ children's kitchens; pupijs' lunch rooms; soup for pupili 

.764 Distribution of books and school supplies 

.766 School patronage 

. 7 7 Distribution of clothing 

.78 Sick and crippld children 

Special hospitals and sanitariums for children 

.8 Other 

.9 Special countries • 

Divided like 930-999; e. g. 362.94a Hospitals of England 

363 Political 

Tammany, Primrose leag, Ku Klux, etc. 

364 Reformatory organizations and activities 

See also 312.7 Moral condition of population, 343 Criminal law, 
criminal trials and procedure; 347.9 General and civil courts; 351.74 
Police mesures; 352.2 Local police. For form divisions see Table 2 
after Relativ index 


.1 General questions 

.2 Crime: nature, character, causes 

.3 Criminal classes Offenders Delinquents 

.4 Crime prevention 

.5 Reformatory and correctional courts 

.6 " mesures Parole Probation 

.7 " institutions 

.8 Discharged convicts 

.9 In special countries 

.1 General questions 
.2 Crime 

Nature, character, causes, definitions of crime. Popular and 
general discussions of the problem of crime. See also 364.34 
Criminal responsibility 

.21 General questions 

Increase of crime, crime waves, lawlessness, etc. 

.22 Phisical environment and crime 

Ecology of crime. Crime and topografy, climate, seasons, 
time of day, light and darkness, etc. 

.23 Heredity and crime 

Atavism and hereditary degeneration, family degeneration and 
crime. See also 364.253 Degenerate homes and crime, 575 
Evolution, 613.9 Hygiene and heredity 


364.24 Individual factors and crime 
.241 General questions 

.242 Phisical factors and crime 

Stigmata of crime. Influence of anatomic, phisiologic and 
hygienic factors (see also 364.333 Criminal phisiognomy and 
anatomy). Crime and age, sex, disease and deformity, etc. 

.243 Abnormal mental factors and crime 

Mental superiority, genius and crime; mental inferiority, 
insanity, feeblemindedness and crime. Crime and hypno- 
tism, somnambulism, passion, etc. See also 132 Abnormal 
psicology, mental derangements; 134 Hypnotism; 135.5 
Somnambulism; 157.4 Passions - 364.34 Criminal psicology 

.25 Social factors and crime 

.251 General questions 

.252 Social progress and crime 

Civilization and crime, influence of simple v. complex 
cultures. Legislation and crime, attitude of public, defectiv 
administration of criminal justice, special types of laws and 
crime (see also 364.44 Law enforcement). Science and 

.253 Social environment and crime 

Density of population. Conditions in home and family: 
housing, overcrowded homes, size of family; degenerate 
homes (see also 364.23 Degeneration and crime); marital 
status and relation of parents, broken homes; employd 
mothers, dependent children, lack of parental control, 
illegitimacy, etc. Conditions in neighborhood, community 
influence. Influence of correctional institutions (see also 
364.7648 Effects of reformatories, 365.648 Effects of prisons 
and jails) 

.254 Cultural factors and crime 

Religion and crime. Education and crime: literacy, 
illiteracy; school retardation; lack of character training in 
home and school (see also 379.21 Education). The pres 
and crime (see also 070.11 Journalism). Theater and 
crime: motion pictures, etc. (see also 792 Theater). Art 
and literature and crime (see also 365.88 Prisons in literature) 

.255 Leisure and recreation and crime 

Influence of playgrounds, sports, amusement and public 
parks; public dance halls, cabarets, etc.; pool-rooms, school 
stores, automobiles; absence of places of recreation, public 
and commercial. For theater and crime see 364.254 

.256 Social conflicts and crime 

Individual social maladjustments; immigration and crime 
(see also 325.1 Immigration); clas hatreds (see also 323.3 
Social groups), vendettas, feuds; racial conflicts (see also 
323.1 Racial groups, 364.335 Race and crime) 


364.257 Influence of war and militarism 

Post-war effects 

.258 Politics and crime 

Theories of government and crime. See also 365.1 Politics 
and penal institutions 

.259 Other social factors 

.26 Economic factors and crime 

Influence of mode of production: capitalistic, socialistic, etc.; 
of occupation: special industries, child labor and crime (see 
also 331.3 Labor of children); of business cycles and economic 
crises; of labor disputes and strikes (see also 331.89 Disagree- 
ments between capital and labor); of unemployment (see 
also 331.137 Unemployment); of economic status: poverty, 
pauperism, welth (see also 339.1 Poverty, 339.4 Use of welth); 
of standards and cost of living, wages, struggle for existence 
(see also 331.2 Remuneration for work, 331.831 Cost of living); 

.28 Cost of crime 

See also 365.63 Cost of institutional treatment 

.3 Criminal classes Offenders Delinquents 

Studies of inmates of correctional institutions. For criminals clast 
by cause see 364.2, kinds of penal institutions see 365.3 
.301 Theory 

4 Language Nomenclature 

Including language of criminal classes, criminal argot, slang, 

8 Scientific methods of studying offenders 

Psicologic methods, mental testing (see also 15 1.2 Psicologic 
mesurements, 364.34 Criminal psicology), psichiatric and 
psicoanalitic methods. Phisiologic diagnosis (see also 616.075 
Pathology). Social case or autobiografic method, individual 
case study. Anthropologic, biologic or eugenic, ecologic 
(environmental studies), statistical, etc. methods 

.31 General questions 

.32 " types of criminals 

Recidivists, repeaters, habitual and professional criminals. 
Occasional criminals, single offenders (1 crime). Criminals 
by accident. Evolutiv criminals, persons conscientiously at 
variance with prevailing opinion or custom 

•33 Criminal anthropology 

See also 572 Anthropology, 573 Somatology 

.331 General questions 

.332 The criminal type 

•333 Criminal phisiognomy and anatomy 

See also 364.242 Anatomic factors of crime 

•334 Criminal anthropometry 

See also 573.6 Anthropometry in general 

.335 Criminal ethnografy Race Nationality 

See also 364.256 Racial conflicts and crime 


364.34 Criminal psicology 

Psicology of a specific type of criminal is best clast with that 
type. Criminal responsibility, social accountability, freedom 
and determinism in crime (see also 364.2 Crime: nature, 
character, causes). Growth of idea of committing crime. 
Psicologic effect of treatment, effect of punishment, reformatory 
mesures, etc. Criminal personality, traits: intellectual, moral, 
esthetic (tattooing, etc.), social, etc. See also 130 and 150 
Psicology; 364.243 Abnormal mental factors and crime; 364.3018 
Psicologic methods of studying offenders 

.35 Predelinquents Predelinquency 

Potential, near and quasidelinquents 

.36 Juvenil delinquents and delinquency 

Jails and juvenil offenders, studies of juvenil inmates of cor- 
rectional institutions. See also 136.763 Childstudy, 364.52 
Juvenil courts, 364.624 Parole for juvenil offenders, 364.634 
Probation for juvenil offenders, 364.722 Reformatory institu- 
tions for juvenils, 365.42 Prisons for juvenil offenders 

.361 General questions 

.362 Truants Truancy 

Prefer 371.52 Truancy, from point of view of education. 
See also 364.722 Truant schools 

.363 Boys Gangs 

Studies of boy inmates of correctional institutions. See also 
136.77 Childstudy 

.364 Girls Gangs 

Studies of girl inmates of correctional institutions. See also 
I36-775 Childstudy 

.37 Adult offenders 
.371 General questions 

See also 364.723 Reformatory institutions for adults 

.372 Men offenders 

Studies of men inmates of correctional and penal institutions 

•373 Women offenders 

Studies of women inmates of correctional and penal institu- 
tions. See also 365.43 Prisons for women offenders 

.374 Groups of offenders 

Organized, criminal gangs (for boy gangs see 364.363, girl 
gangs 364.364); unorganized, crowds, mobs 

.38 Offenders by type of crime committed 

See also 343 Criminal law, crimes 

.39 Other topics 


364.4 Crime prevention 

.41 General questions 
.42 Control of population 

Control of number of people: size of family, birth control 
(for birth control see 173. 3 Ethics, 612.63 Phisiology, 
613.94 Eugenics); control of immigration and emigration 
(see also 325 Immigration and emigration). Control of 
quality of people: thru negativ or positiv eugenics (see 
also 613.94 Eugenics); thru sterilization, etc. (see also in 
Phisiology 612.6161 and 612.621 1); thru segregation. See 
also 312 Demografy 

.43 Control of economic conditions 

Thru amelioration of unemployment, provision against absolute 
need, vocational guidance for children, etc. 

.44 Socialization of fundamental institutions 

Home and family; school and education, provision for normal 
children and those handicapt phisically, mentally, socially, 
etc.; church and religion; community and neighborhood; play- 
ground and amusements; the pres; government and law, law 
enforcement (see also 364.252 Influence of special types of laws 
on crime), control of drugs and alcohol, scientific legislation 

.45 Social adjustment of children Child guidance 

Thru work of clinics, visiting teachers, family case work, etc. 

.46 Preventiv police work 

.47 Rational treatment of offenders 

.48 Cooperation of public 

Enlightend public opinion; crime prevention by employers 

.49 Other 

.5 Reformatory and correctional courts 

Activities, procedures, etc. For criminal court activities see 343. 
See also numbers for specific types of offenders, juvenil, adult 

.51 General questions 

.52 Juvenil or children's courts 

See also 364.36 Juvenil delinquents, 364.634 Probation of 
juvenil offenders 

.521 General questions 

.522 Functions Powers Jurisdiction 

.523 Administration 

Organization, personnel: judges, referees, social workers, 
clinicians (phisicians, psichiatrists, etc.) ; supervizion, stand- 
ards. For probation officers see 364.632 

.524 Laws and legislation 

.525 Practis and procedure 

Process before hearing, treatment by police; detention of 
juvenil offenders (see also 364.36 Jails and juvenil offenders, 
365.34 Detention houses); clinic treatment of offenders; 
hearing and disposition of case 

.526 Records 

Systems, forms, record writing 

.527 Results Defects Reforms 

.528 Relations with other agencies 

With the home, foster homes, children's homes; school, 
church, community, social agencies, police, other courts, 

.529 Other topics 

.53 Domestic relations courts Family courts 


Reformatory mesures Clemency 

See also numbers for specific types of offenders, juvenil, adult 

General questions 

Boards, commissions, departments, etc. Agents, officers, 



Legal basis, rules and regulations, terms; standards and 
standardization; preliminary work; selection and assign- 
ment of beneficiaries, diagnosis of offenders, grading systems; 
supervizion of beneficiaries, state and local; records and 
reports; violation, revocation, etc. of privileges; etc. 

For special classes 

Juvenils: boys, girls; adults: men, women; 1st offenders 


Studies of, etc. 

Cooperation with public and private social 
Other topics 
Parole Indeterminate sentence 

Ticket of leav 

General questions 
629 divided like 364.612-.619 

E.g. 364.623 Administration of parole system 

Probation Suspended sentence Repriev 

See also 364.52 Juvenil courts 

General questions 
639 divided like 634.612-.619 

Clas parental control in 364.634 Probation for juvenils 

Pardon Amnesty 
Commutation of sentence 
Reformatory and correctional institutions 

See also 365 Penal institutions 

General questions 

Institutions for juvenils 

Houses of refuge; reform, industrial or training scnools. 
Truant schools, parental schools (see also 364.362 Truants, 
truancy; 371.52 Truancy in Education). Junior republics, 
colonies (see also 371.595 School city, school republic). 
See also 364.36 Juvenil offenders, 371.93 Education of 
juvenil delinquents 

Institutions for adults 

Magdalen houses, training schools, etc. See also 364.37 
Adult offenders 

Houses of correction 


364.75 Reformatory plant: grounds, buildings, equip- 

Divided like 365.5, e.g. 364.753 Types of reformatory buildings. 
For Reformatory architecture see 725.63-.64 

.76 Reformatory administration 

Divided like 365.6, e.g. 364.765 Employment of inmates. See 
also 331.52 Reformatory labor in Labor economics, 364.253 
Influence of correctional institutions on crime 

.77 Reformatory reform 

.78 Relations to other subjects 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 364.788 
Reformatories in literature 

.8 Discharged convicts and delinquents 

Aftercare, postprison treatment. For release from prison see 

.9 In special countries 

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 364.932 Criminology in ancient Egypt 

365 Penal institutions Prisoners 

See also 343.2 Punishments for crime, pardons, 364.7 Reformatory 
and correctional institutions. For form divisions see Table 2 after 
Relativ index 


.1 General questions 

.2 Prison systems 

.3 Kinds of penal institutions 

.4 Prisons for special classes 

.5 Prison plant 

.6 " administration 

.7 " reform 

.8 Relations to other subjects 

.9 In special countries 

.1 General questions 

Politics and penal institutions. See also 364.258 Politics and crime 

.2 Prison systems 

For reformatory prisons see 364.7. See also 365.53 Types of 

.21 General questions 

.22 Penal servitude Galleys 

See also 365.65 Punitiv labor 

.23 Congregate system 

.24 Solitary or separate confinement (Pennsylvania) 

Dungeon, cellular, etc. systems 

.25 Silent or Auburn system 

Congregate for work, cellular for lodging 

.26 Progressiv or intermediate stage system 

Irish or Crofton system 


Kinds of penal institutions 

See also 364.3 Studies of inmates of penal institutions 

Prisons Penitentiaries 

For commitment of major offenders 


For commitment of minor offenders and confinement pending 

Detention and station houses 

Police stations or lock-ups. See also 364.525 Detention of 
juvenil offenders 


See also 362.51 Poorhouses 

Penal or prison farms Penal colonies 
Road camps 
Prisons for special classes of offenders 

Including separate quarters. See also 365.642 Classification and 
assignment of prisoners 

Juvenil offenders 

Including special provision for 1st offenders. See also 364.36 
Juvenil offenders in general 

Women offenders 

See also 364.373 Women offenders in general 

Insane and mentally defectiv criminals 
Prisoners of war 

Combatants; noncombatants, civilians; internment camps. 
See also 355.113 Life in military prisons, 355.23 Civil concen- 
tration camps, 355.71 Military prisons 

Political prisoners 

Prison plant: grounds, buildings, equipment 

For prison architecture see 725.6 

General questions 
Location Site 

Urban, suburban, rural 

Types of buildings 

Congregate or Auburn type; solitary confinement plan; circular 
eel block; army barracks, dormitory and cottage types; etc. 
See also 365.2 Prison systems 


365.54 Special rooms and separate buildings 

Administrativ units: Offices, receiving rooms, classification 
rooms, etc. Housing quarters for slaf and for prisoners. 
Dining rooms, mes halls. Welfare units: school, chapel, 
hospital, recreation rooms, social service offices, etc. Factories, 
industrial buildings. Farm buildings. Utility rooms, etc. 

.55 Heating and ventilation Air conditioning 

See also 697 Heating and ventilation in general 

.56 Lighting 

See also 628.9 Lighting in general 

.57 Prison hygiene Sanitation 

See also 613.57 General hygiene, 628 Sanitary engineering 

.58 Equipment: furnishings, fixtures, etc. 

.59 Other topics 

.6 Prison administration 

Control and supervizion of correctional institutions 

.61 General questions 

.62 " supervizory and control agencies 

.63 Prison organization 

Personnel (training, selection, salary, etc.): superintendent, 
stewards, guards, etc.; phisicians, etc.; office force, clerks, 
messengers, etc.; kitchen and dining room employes; janitorial 
force, etc. Management, economic aspects, cost of institutional 
treatment (see also 364.28 Cost of crime). Record keeping, 
accounting (see also 657 Accounting) 

.64 Prisoners 

.641 General questions 

Institutional treatment in general, individualization of 

.642 Transportation and reception of prisoners 


Registration, photografing, fingerprinting, etc.; assignment 
of prisoners. See also 365.4 Prisons for special classes of 

.643 Disciplin 

Rules and regulations, laws, prison routine. Rights of 
convicts; hours for rizing, meals, work, etc.; permissible 
articles, restrictions, etc.; privileges; merit systems, etc. 


365.644 Punishments of refractory prisoners 

Deprivations, los of privileges; confinement; corporal 
punishments, tredmil, etc. See also 365.65 Punitiv labor 

.645 Spy system ' Stool pigeon ' 

.646 Inmate self-government 

.647 Release and discharge from prison 

For aftercare see 364.8 Discharged convicts 

.648 Effects of prisons 

See also 364.253 Influence of correctional institutions on 


.649 Other topics 

.65 Employment of inmates Convict labor 
Prison labor 

Organization, foremen. Unproductiv or punitiv labor (see 
also 365.22 Galleys, 365.644 Tredmil). Productiv labor: 
special industries, economic aspects, convict v. free labor, 
interstate commerce in prison products. Systems -of prison 
labor: lease system, chain gangs; contract, etc.; use on 
public works and ways. Remuneration, arguments for (sup- 
port of families, etc.), against. Convict-labor laws and legisla- 
tion. See also 331.51 Prison labor in Labor economics 

.66 Welfare work Socializing activities 
.661 General questions 

Prison welfare or social workers in general 

.662 Prison educational work Prison schools 

Teaching personnel; university extension work (see also 
374.4 Correspondence teaching), etc. Academic, voca- 
tional or phisical training. Prison libraries (see also 027.665 
Libraries for prisons). See also 37 1 .93 Education of criminals 

.663 Religious and character training in prison 

Chaplains; religious services; citizenship training (see also 
323.6 Citizenship). See also 377.2 Ethical education 

.664 Helth and care of inmates 

Diet; clothing, uniforms; personal hygiene of inmates, etc. 
Prison clinics and laboratories; medical and hospital service. 
Care of special patients: drug addicts, tuberculous, mental 
defectivs, etc. See also 613 Hygiene 

.665 Recreation 

Recreation directors; sports: baseball, tennis, etc.; enter- 
tainments: theatricals, drama, motion pictures, music, 
prison bands, etc. 

.7 Prison reform 

.8 Relations to other subjects 

May be divided like the whole classification, e.g. 365.88 Prisons in 
literature. See also 364.254 Literature and crime 

.9 In special countries 

Divided like 930-999, e.g. 365.42 Prisons in England 


Secret societies 

.1 Masons .3 Knights of Pythias .3 Odd Fellows .4 Rosicruciana 
See also 371.8s College secret societies 

Social clubs 

See also 334.3 Cooperativ insurance 

01 Theory Scientific basis of insurance 

Probabilities. Statistics. Tables: value, use 

i Fire 

See also 614.84 Protection against fire 

.2 Marine Transportation 

3 Life 

3 1 Rates 

3 7 Annuities 

See also 336.35 Public annuities; 519.? Prob»bilitie9 

4 Social insurance Workmen's insurance 

See also 331.254 Insurance for laboring classes 

41 Accident Liability 

42 Sickness 

424 Maternity insurance 

.43 Old age Invalidity 

44 Involuntary unemployment 

45 Burial 

46 Child insurance 

.47 Marriage endowment 

.5 Casualty 



368.6 Against breakage or damage 


.7 Boiler 

.8 Other risks 

.81 Financial losses 

Depreciation of values or rights; mortgages; land titles; transferable securities; 

credit; insolvency; civil responsibility; etc. 

.82 Burglary Theft 

.86 Reinsurance Counterinsurance 

.91 Government control Commissioners 

.93 _ .99 divided geograficly like 930-999; e. g. Insurance in New York 

(including state reports, etc.) is 368.9747 

369 Other associations and institutions 

.1 Hereditary and patriotic societies (American) 

.11 General associations 

.111 Regular army and navy union 

.112 Society of veterans of the regular army and navy 

.113 Military and naval order of the United States 

.114 Medal of honor legion 

.115 Military order of foren wars of the United States 

.116 Order of the old gard 

Incorporated 31 Jan. 1896; organized 15 Oct. 1896 

.117 Naval order of the United States 

.118 Society of American wars 

.12 Colonial societies 

.121 Society of colonial wars 

.122 Society of colonial dames of America 

A New York society with chapters in other states; known also merely 

as Colonial dames of America 

.123 National society of colonial dames of America 

A federation of separately incorporated societies in about 40 different 


.124 Society of the Mayflower descendants 

.125 Order of the founders and patriots of America 

.126 Colonial order of the acorn 

.127 " society of Pennsylvania 

.128 " daughters of the 17th century 


.13 Revolutionary societies 

.131 Society of the Cincinnati 

.132 Society of the daughters of the Cincinnati 

.133 Sons of the American revolution 

.134 Sons of the revolution 

.135 Daughters of the American revolution 

.136 Daughters of the revolution 

.137 Children of the American revolution 


.141 Society of the wa> of 181 2 

.142 United States d* ighters of 1776-1812 

.143 Military societv of the war of 181 2 

.144 Society of the second war with Great Britain in the state of 

New York 


369.145 Aztec club of 1847 

.146 National association of veterans of the Mexican war 


.15 Civil war societies, Union 

.151 G. A. R. (Grand army of the republic) 

.152 Military order of the Loyal leg.on 

.153 Society of loyal volunteers 

.154 Union veterans union 

.155 Union prisoners of war association 

.156 Society of the army and navy of the Gulf 

.157 National association of naval veterans 

.158 Society of the army of the Cumberland 



.161 Woman's relief corps 

.162 Woman's veteran relief union 



.165 Sons of union veterans of the civil war 

Formerly called Sons of veterans of the United States of America 


.17 Civil war associations, Confederate 

.171 Confederate survivors association 

.172 Confederate veterans association 

.173 United sons of confederate veterans 

.174 " confederate veterans 

.175 Daughters of the confederacy 

.181 Spanish war veterans 

.182 Society of the army of Santiago de Cuba 

.183 Naval and military order of the Spanish American war 



.186 Societies arising from World war of 1914-19 

1 American legion 
.2 Hereditary and patriotic societies other than American 

,2i International 

.23-.29 By country 

Divided like 930-999 


369.4 Young peoples societies 

For religious societies see 267.6 

.41 Mizt: boys and girls 

.42 Boys 

See also 136.77 The 'gang' 

.43 Boy scouts 

.46 Girls 
.47 Campfire girls 



Disciplin in broad sense 


371 Teachers Methods Disciplin 

.1 Teaching and administrate personnel 

.2 School organization, administration and superviaion School records 

.3 Methods of instruction and study 

.4 Sistems of education 

.5 Government Disciplin Authority 

.6 School premises and equipment 

.7 " hygiene Physical welfare of students 

.8 Student life and customs 

.9 Education of special classes 

372 Elementary education 

373 Secondary Preparatory 

374 Adult education 

375 Curriculum Course of study 

376 Education of women 

377 Religious, ethical and secular education 

378 Colleges and universities 

379 Public schools Relation of state to education 

.X Theory of education Meaning Aim Value 

Including philosofy of education, science of education and general discussions of 
the means by which education is advanst. Not limited to any curriculum, school 
or clas of schools. For specific methods, pedagogics, see 371 

.109 History of educational theory 

Divided like 930-999 

.15 Psychology applied to education 

Imitation, suggestion, play etc. Divided like 150 

e.g. function of memory in education 370.154 

.16 Miscellaneous theories 

.19 Special aspects .193 Educational sociology 

-2 Compends 

.3 Dictionaries Cyclopedias 

.4 Essays Addresses 

.5 Periodicals 

General. For periodicals limited to a special topic see that topic; e.g. 
kindergarten magazines 372.20s. See also 371.80s, 378.0s" 
.58 Annuals Directories Catalogs 

General; including discussions as to form and content of such publications. 
When devoted to a special topic clas with that topic, e. g. an annual devoted 
to kindergartens 372.2058. A catalog of a specific school is clast under number 
for that school 

..59 Educational almanacs and kalendars for teachers 

.6 Organizations Conventions 


.6a Associations Clubs 

Permanent societies, their meetings and reports. Divided like 930—999 
See also 371.103 Parent- teacher associations; 372.206 Kindergarten associations 

.62 1 International 

.63 Congresses Conventions 

Occasional congresses and conferences: international or interstate 


370.7 Study of education Institutions and organizations for training 

teachers, supervizors, superintendents etc 

Means and methods, including teachers colleges, normal schools, institutes 

etc. For need of training, kind and amount, see 371.12 

.7 1 Teachers meetings 

Clas meetings of teachers of a single institution (faculty meetings) with the 
institution; see table for school and college publications under 378. 4-.© 

.711 Plan and organization 

Frequency, time, place, control, coit etc 

.712 Courses of study Programs 

-7*3-9 I n special places 

Divided geograficly like 930-999 

.72 Teachers institutes 

Divided like 370.71 above 

.73 Teachers colleges Normal schools 

Institutions primarily for training teachers; e. g. state normal schools. Teachers 
college of Columbia university; often with attacht ' model ', practis or demon- 
stration schools, in which students teach under supervizion of their instructors. 
For training classes or courses attacht to schools not conducted primarily for 
training teachers etc see 370.7s 

.731 Plan and organization Aims and functions Scope 

Length and time of terms. Support: public, private, 
.732 Courses Programs Credentials 

2 Courses and programs 

4 Credentials 

Diplomas, degrees etc 
6 Training for special grades of schools 

Uze as general number. Each of following grades may be divided by 
2 and 4 like .7322-4 above 

62 Elementary schools 

See also 372.207 Training for kindergartners 

63 Secondary schools 

64 Colleges and universities 

65 Professional and teknical schools 

•733 Adjuncts: practis, model or demonstration schools 

•734~9 Special countries and schools 

Divided geograficly like 940-999 
.74 Education museums 

Including exhibits at international expositions, state and county fairs, etc 
.75 Training classes 

Clas here teachers classes or courses attacht to schools conducted primarily 
for another purpose than training teachers. For institutions conducted 
primarily for training teachers see 370.73 

.753 In secondary schools 

.754 " colleges and universities 

.755 " professional and teknical schools 

Mainly courses in teaching special professional and teknical subjects 

.76 Schools of education (also courses) for training supervizors, super- 

intendents, administrativ offisers, etc 

Harvard graduate school of education 

.766 Training for special grades of schools 

Divided like 370.7326 

.77 Special pedagogic methods 

Professionalization of subject matter 

.78 Reserch in education 

Educational reserch organizations. Reserch on special subject is clast with 



370.8 •■ Polygrafy 

.81 Collected writings of a single author 

If not limited to a definit topic; e.g. Horace Mann, Henry Barnard, etc 

.82 Collected writings of several authors 

.9 History Description 

General works covering both ancient and modern history, and including history 
of institutions, practis, and description of conditions. See also 136.701 

The child among uncivilized and semicivilized 


.901 Ancient 
.902 Medieval 
.903 Modern 

.904 30th century 

.92 Educational biografy 

Preferably clast in 923.7 

•93 _ -99 History of education in special countries 

Divided like 930-999 
.9401 Medieval Europe 

.9402 Modern Europe 

371 Teachers Methods Disciplin 

Practical methods. See 370.1 for theories of education. The following divisions 
concern instruction of all grades 

.1 Teaching and administrativ personnel 

Teachers, professors, masters, instructors; administrativ and supervizory offisers 
(principals, superintendents, supervizors etc) other than governmental. See also 
370.7 Training of teachers, 371.2 School administration, 379.15 Governmental 
school supervizion. For discussions relating specificly to men vs women see 371.18 

.101 Duties and responsibilities Mission 

Team work. Students rights 

.102 Personal influence 

.103 Relations to parents 

Mutual duties of parents and teachers. Parent-teacher associations 

.104 Relations to community Public status 

.105 Social status 

. 1 1 Qualifications Personality 

See also 371.18 

.12 Need of training; kind and amount 

General discussions of special preparation of teachers and professors for their 
vocation, including experience and growth or improvement while in servis. 
For training of teachers etc, defined in degrees, courses etc see 370.733 

.13 Examination Certification Rating 

.132 Examination 

.133 Certification Registration 

Certificates, licenses, permits 

.134 Rating Rating scales Standards 


371.14 Appointment Organization of teaching force 

.142 Appointment Contracts Tenure Transfer 


2 Appointment Election 

3 Contracts 

4 Tenure 

5 Transfer Exchange 

See also 378.12 Exchange of professors 

6 Ending servis 

62 . Discharge Dismissal 

63 Resignation 

64 Retirement 
.143 Appointing body 

Board, committee, principal 

.145 Agencies 

Bureaus and associations for supplying teachers 

.147 Organization of teaching force 

2 Supervizors Principals Superintendents 

For principals and superintendents as appointing offisers see 371 .143 
for supervizors as governmental offisers, state and comfy super- 
intendents, etc see 379.15 

3 Clas teachers Instructors Professors Masters 

For private instruction, tutors, governesses etc see 373.1; for college 
and university faculty, professors etc see 378.1 

.15 Professional status 

Permanent profession vs steppingstone theory 

.16 Salary and promotion Compensation Amount 

of servis 

For pensions and insurance see 371.17 

.161 Salary 

2 Increases 

4 Bonuses 
.162 Fees 

.163 Allowance for expenses 

.164 Residence Living expenses 

.165 Promotion Advance in rank 

For salary promotion see 371.161 

.166 Hours Daily or weekly servis 

.167 Vacation Yearly servis 

.168 Sabbatic year 

. 1 7 Pensions and insurance for teachers 

Carnegie pension tund 


371.18 Men vs women as teachers 
.182 Men as teachers 

Need and place of men on teaching force 

1 General considerations 

2 Personal relations Qualifications Personality- 

Subdivisions 1-5 may be added, corresponding to 371.101-.105 

3 By grades and types of schools 

31 In primary schools and kindergartens 

32 " grammar or intermediate schools 

33 " secondary or high schools 

34 " colleges and universities 

35 " professional and teknical schools 

36 " girls schools 

37 " boys " 

38 " evening schools 
.183 Women as teachers 

Feminization of teaching force. Divided like 371.182 

.19 Other topics 

.2 School organization, administration and super- 
vizion School records 

Statistics. Publicity. Diary. 'Logbook.' Progress book. For general dis- 
cussions; records of an individual school ar clast with that school. For 
administrativ and supervizory personnel other than governmental see 371.1472 . 
For government of students, disciplin, see 371.5. For government supervizior" 
see 379.15 

.21 Admission Enrolment Matriculation 

For college entrance requirements see 371.214. Standards of an 
individual school ar clast with that school 

.211 Primary school and kindergarten standards 

Divided like 930—999 

.212 Grammar or intermediate school admission standards 

Including standards of German burgerschulen. Divided like 930-999 

.213 Highschool standards 

Including standards of German gymnasia, French colleges and lyc6es. 
Divided like 930-999 

.214 College standards 

Undergraduate and nonprofessional graduate courses in colleges and 
universities. Divided like 930—999 

.215 Professional and teknical school standards 

Divided like 930-999 

.22 Tuition fees Free tuition Scholarships 

See also 371.162 Professors fees; 379-13 Tuition fees of nonresident 
pupils in public schools; 378.34 College scholarships 

.221 Free tuition 

.222 Scholarship funds Student endowments 

Student scholarships 

See also 378.32 Endowment of reserch, 378.34 College scholarships 

.223 Traveling scholarships 

See also ^578.34 Traveling scholarships in colleges and universitiw 

.226 Student income and expenses 

For income and expenses of college students see 378.36 


371.23 Terms Semesters Quarters Vacations 
Holidays Breaking up 

See also Hygiene of vacations and holidays 613.76, 613.77; Closing for 
diseases 371.713 

.232 Summer or vacation schools 

See also 374.8 Adult summer schools, 378.142 College and university 
summer schools 

.234 Terms in 2 or more places 

For floating schools see 371.39a 

.24 Sessions Hours Recess 

For exercize see 371.73 Care of body 

.25 Classes Grades 

For general discussions of size of clas, ungraded classes, provision for indi- 
vidual differences by special classes or groups. For individual instruction see 
371.394. For psychology of individual differences see 136.7 

Childstudy. For grading of schools, see 379.17 

.253 Length of school courses ; e. g. 6 year course 

See also 378.341 Length of college course 

.26 Marking sistems Educational mesufements 

and tests 

Credit sistem: meaning and value of unit, semester, hour etc. For intelli- 
gence tests see 151.2 

.27 Examinations: oral, written Cramming 

See also 428.9 Language 

For competitiv examinations see 371-535 

.28 Promotions Demotions Retardation 
.29 Other topics 

.391 Ending student connection 

See also 371. 56 

2 Graduation Commencements Diplomas 

May be subdivided like 371. 21. See also 378.3 College degrees 

3 Student mortality Dropping out 

.3 Methods of instruction and study 

Under the heds below clas discussion of pedagogic value of these methods. 
For methods of teaching specific subjects see those subjects; for their educa- 
tional value see 375 Curriculum, e. g. teaching of mathematics 510.7, place of 
mathematics in curriculum 375.51 

.3 1 Rote or concert teaching 
.32 Textbooks Recitations 

Collateral reading. Assignments. Home work. Discussion of use of text- 
books and desirable qualities of textbooks in general. Textbooks themselvs 

and discussions of textbooks on special subjects ar clast with those subjects. 
Recitation as method in which pupil lerns and recites an assigna lesson; for 
broad sense as including all types of clasroom activity see 371.3 


371.33 Lectures Oral and visual instruction 

.332 Assemblies Opening exercizes Dramatization 

As methods of instruction 

2 Assemblies Opening exercizes 

Home room activities as methods of instruction. See also 371.892 
Student assemblies 

5 Dramatization 

Dramatic method in education. See also 37 1 .895 School plays 

•333 Mecanical oral instruction 

Radio, broadcasting; phonograf, etc. 

8 Applications and relations 

Divided like the whole clasification 

•335 Visual instruction Lantern slides Moving pic- 

1 General questions 

2 Pictures 

22 Stereopticon lantern and slides 

23 Motion pictures 

3 Charts 

4 Maps 

5 Blackboard 
8 Television 

.34 Developing or inductiv method 

.35 Art of questioning Catechetic method Socratic 

.36 Project method Topical method 

.363 Correlation 

.365 Special days Special weeks 

Celebrations. Programs. Historical days: Discovery day. Flag day. 
Memorial day, Constitution day. Independence day. Birthday*: 
authors and other noted persons; Washington's birthday. Nature: 
Arbor day. Bird day. Other: Thanksgiving, Christmas, Easter etc 

.37 Seminary method Seminar Discussion 

.38 Laboratory method 

.39 Other 

.391 International schools Exchange of pupils 

See also 371.1425 Exchange of teachers, 378.12 Exchange of professors 

.392 Floating schools or colleges 

Combining travel and shipboard instruction 

.393 Trips Excursions Visits 

.394 Individual instruction 

By regular teacher or tutor, at home or at school. Baf.avia sistem. 
Dalton plan, Winnetka plan, Pueblo plan etc. See also 373.1 Private 

.395 Small classes 

See also 371 .47 Quinsy sistem 




•4 2 5 












Sistems of education 

For Frobel's sistem see 372.2 Kindergarten 

Monitorial sistem Mutual sistem 

Bell. Lancaster 

Educational guidance Vocational guidance and 

General questions 

Student personnel work 

Vocational guidance 

Clas here also works on choice of vocation, even tho not made under 

school direction 

Industrial education Manual training 

For equipment and cost of manual training schools or departments 
see 371.633 Machine shops, 371.676 Apparatus etc. For subjects 
of study see 375.01-9. For individual schools see 607 or 378.99 

Educational value 

In elementary schools 

" secondary schools 

" special schools 

" colleges 
Special subjects 

Material on the various vocational subjects taught may be kept 
together here, .82-. 89 being divided like 620-690, and, for material 
not thus provided for, .81 being uzed, subdivided like main clasifi- 
cation; but in general practis such material is better clast under 
other numbers, i. e. place of these subjects in the curriculum 
375-OI-.9, elementary manual training 372.5, skild work under 
number for special subject 

History and development 

Divided like 930-999 

Military organization Military instruction 

Clas here all Pestaloizi's educational writings 


Quincy sistem 
Government Disciplin Authority 


Attendance Truancy Tardiness Absences 

Clas data relating to special school with number for that school. See also 
379.23 Compulsory education 

Rewards Inducements 

Prizes, favors, immunities, approbation, interest 

Interschool contests 

Competitiv examinations. Literary contests. For interschool and 
intercollegiate debates se» 374.245. For interschool athletics se« 371.7s 


371.54 Punishment Disciplinary penalties 

Limits of school jurisdiction. Disciplin of consequences 

.55 Corporal punishment 

.56 Other punishments 

Confinement; tasks; expulsion; suspension; discharge; probation 

.57 Personnel responsible for disciplin Monitors 

.58 Moral government Alcott sistem 

.59 Student self government College sistems 

.592 Self government 

.593 Participation in school management 

•595 School city Ray sistem 

.6 School premises and equipment 

.61 Grounds Site 

School playgrounds; athletic fields, stadiums 

.62 Bildings 

Requirements peculiar to schools. See also 727 Architecture of educa- 
tional institutions. The following subdivisions apply to both special 
rooms and separate bildings 

.621 Study, lecture and assembly rooms 

.622 Library Museums 

Art, science etc. See also 022 Library bildings; 371.64 Function of 
school libraries; 021.3 Relation of libraries and schools; 027.7 and 027.82 
Reports of college and school libraries 

.623 Laboratories Observatory Machine shop 

See also 542.1 Chemic laboratories; 522.1 Observatories; 
371.66 Scientific apparatus and supplies 

.624 Gymnasium Swimming pool 

See also 725.85 

.625 Other special rooms or bildings 

Dormitories, clubs, infirmaries, YMCA and Y W C A 

.626 Sanitation Lavatories 

.627 Lighting 

8 Fireproofing 

.628 Heating Ventilation 

.629 Accessories 

Elevators, lifts, telefones etc 


371.63 Furnishing and decoration 
.631 Furniture 

Blackboards, desks, chairs, benches. For globe* and maoi 


.632 Musical instruments 

.633 Floors : bare, coverd 

See also 731.6 Architectural construction 
033.96 Library bildings 
645.1 House decoration 

.634 Walls : tints, covering 

.635 Decoration 

See also 729 Architectural decoration 

.636 Pictures Frescos Glas 

.637 Sculpture 

.638 Plants 

.639 Other decoration 

.64 Libraries 

Caracter and functions. For relation to public library see 021.3; for relation 
to other school rooms and bildings see 371.622. See also 027.7 College libraries, 
027.82 School libraries 

.641 Relations of library to faculty and students 

.642 School traveling libraries 

.643 School reading lists 

See also 028.5 Reading of young 


.645 Elementary school libraries 

.646 Secondary school libraries 

.647 College and university libraries 

Departmental and seminar libraries 

.648 Professional and teknical school libraries 

In 37 1. 645-. 648 may be clast matter pertaining to desirability and 
scope of such libraries, tho it is better in 027.7 and 027.82, with reports 
and other matter pertaining to their management 

.65 Museums : caracter and functions 

Divided if wisht like 010-999: e.g. 371.655 Science museums; 371.657 
Art museums. Limited to caracter and functions of museums attach! 

to teaching institutions; see also under museum economy 069. 015- .016. See 
also 708 Art museums, and form division 074 under special subjects 

.66 Scientific apparatus Laboratory equipment 
and supplies 

Divided like 500; e.g. 371.662 Astronomic observatory 

.67 Other apparatus, equipment and supplies 

Divided if wisht like 010-999; e - 8- 371-6791 Globes, maps etc 


371.7 School hygiene Physical welfare of students 

.71 Helth and safety of students Overstudy 

.711 Sanitary conditions and inspection Helth crusades 

Board of helth. For sanitary engineer's side see 371.636 

.712 Medical inspection Clinics School nurse 

For personal conditions affecting helth and intellectual progress; 
e.g. clenliness, contagious diseases, nervous disorders, defectiv 
eyes, ears or teeth. Closing schools on account of epidemic or 
contagious diseases 

.713 Posture 

See also 371.631 Furniture (illdesignd desks and seats) 

.714 Fire preventiv and protectiv mesures Fire drils 

For fireproof schoolrooms and bildings see 371.6278; for fire protection 
apparatus see 371.629. See also 614.84 Fires: prevention, extinction, 
apparatus etc 

.716 School meals 

Discussion. Administrativ problems: space, cost, whether wholly or 
partly free, etc. For management of lunch room, suitable food, etc 
see 642. 58 

.718 Open air schools 

.72 Care of eyes Effect of study 

.73 Care of body Gymnastics Calisthenics 

For sistems of gymnastics or physical training, and books of exercizes see 613.71 

.731 Educational influence of physical training 

.73: Gymnastics Calisthenics 

2 In elementary schools 

3 " secondary schools 

4 " colleges 

5 " special schools 

6 " girls schools 

7 " boys " 

8 " evening schools 
.733 Military dril 

For military organization of school see 371.43 

.734 Fencing Boxing Wrestling 

•735 Swimming Bathing 

.736 Riding 

•737 Walking School promenades 

.74 Recreations Games etc Athletics Di- 

See also 371.61 School playgrounds; 613.74 Hygiene of play; 796 
Outdoor sports 

.75 Championship games Boat races Inter- 
school athletics 

For other relations see Games in Relativ index following Tables 


371.8 Student life and customs 

Various aspects of student life and student activities outside regular 

courses of study 

See also 784.62 Student songs; 378.29 College costumes 
.805 Student periodicals 

Discussion here. Periodicals themselvs preferably with their schools 

.81 Student ethics Student honor Honor 


Ethical topics relating distinctly to school life; e. g. cribbing, cheating, 
copying, prompting, use of keys and ponies. Ethics of general application 

ar clast in 170 

.82 Fagging and hazing Bullying German 

student duels 
.83 Student organizations 

Clas under 371 .83-. 84 books covering both secret and nonsecret societies, also 

nonsecret societies only 

.836 Ancient student societies 

.837 Medieval 

.838 Modern 

.839 By country 

Divided like 930-999 

.84 By subject 

Divided like main clasification, e.g. 371.845 Scientific, 371.848 Literary. See 
note under 371.83 

.85 Secret societies 

Clas all college chapters here, thus bringing the fraternity together, 
with reference from the college. See also 366 Secret societies 

.851 General 
.852 Honorary 

Phi Beta Kappa etc 

.854 By subject 

Divided like main clasification. Clas here (in preference to 371.8s5-.856) 

men's or women's secret societies, limited by special subject 

.855 Men's societies Fraternities 

.856 Women's " Sororities 

.857 Kighschool 

.86 Society premises Society houses Halls 

Temples etc 

.87 Student houses Lodgings Dormitories 
.88 Commons Student restaurants Eating 

.89 Other topics 

Celebrations, customs, triumfs, burnings, anniversaries, ceremonious recep- 
tions, student banquets, etc 

.892 Student assemblies 

See also 371.332 School assemblies as method of instruction 

.895 School plays Pageants 

Divided by language like 400; e.g. 1 English, 3 German 

.896 Clas days 

Of special institution, with institution 

.898 Colors Cheers 

Of special institution with institution 


371.9 Education of special classes 

General questions; kind and methods of education for these classes. 
For institutions see 363, 364. For study of abnormal children see 136.76 
Combinations of mentally defectiv with either physically or morally dofectiv 
ar clast in 371.92 

.91 Physically defectiv 

See also 362.4 Asylums for blind and def 

.911 Blind 

See also 655.38 Printing for the blind 

.912 Def 

Finger alfabet 

.913 Blind-def 
.916 Crippld 
.917 Feeblebodied 

See also 371.718 Open air schools 

.92 Mentally and morally abnormal 
.922 Mentally defectiv 

See also 362.3 Idiot asylums. 920.8 Lives of idiots, cranks etc 

.927 Speech defectivs 

See also 808. 5 Elocution; 784.93 Vocal culture 

.93 Morally defectiv Delinquents 

See also 364 Reformatories, Criminal classes 

.94 Border line cases 

.95 Supernormal 

.955 Exceptional Gifted children Precocity 

.96 Social classes 

See also 375.007 Courses for different social classes 

.961 Princes 

.962 Nobles 

.963 Aristocracy Welthy clas Gentry 

.964 Middle clas 

.965 Working clas 

.966 Dependents 

See alsoj362 Hospitals, asylums and allied societies 

5 Paupers 

See also 377.7 Charity schools, 379.22 Illiteracy and pauperism 

.97 Special types 

See also 136.77 Boys, the 'gang' 

.974 Freedmen Negroes 

See also 378. 75-. 76 for degree conferring colleges 

.975 Indians 
.976 Orientals 

.98 Special nationalities 

Special schools for foreners; e.g. French, Hungarians, Russians, Japanese 
in United States. Divided like 930-999, e.g. 371.9844 Special schools 
for French 

.99 Coeducation of races 


372 Elementary education 

Methods. Curriculum. Primary schools. Dame schools. Infant schools (under 
7 years). Preschool education. For Day nurseries, crfiches see 362.71; for Minding 

schools see 362 75 

.01 Pedagogics and didactics of elementary schools 

.1 Childstudy 

May be uzed like 136.7 by those who insist on 

having childstudy with education 

.2 Types of elementary schools Kindergarten 

Preschool education, infant schools. Individual schools may be clast with their 
respectiv types, dividing after 09 like 930—999, or groupt together under 372.9. 
See also 371.44 Pestalozzian, for theory and erly history. Put Frobel's work and 

development of his sistem here 

.201 Theory Principles 



.204 Essays 

.205 Periodicals 

.206 Societies 

.207 Training of kindergartners 

.209 History 

Divided if wisht like 93»-999 

.21 Methods 

.211 Gifts Occupations 

.212 Gifts 

.213 Occupations 

.214 Stories 

.215 Songs Games 

2 Songs 

3 Games 

.22 Influence of kindergarten 

.23 Relation to other schools 

.24 Other types of elementary schools 

.241 Primary schools 

Dame schools, ABC schools, petty schools 

2 Nursery schools 

.242 Grammar or intermediate schools 

Common school education, higher elementary schools 

.3 Sensory training Observing powers 

Object teaching; science 

.31 Methods 


.35 Nature study 

Divided like 500-599; e.g. Birds 373.3598a 

.36 Gardening 


Reading Alfabet Fonics and word methods 

See also 438.6 Elementary readers 

Simultaneous teaching of reading, writing and 

Elementary writing and manual work 

See also 741 Freehand drawing 


First efforts, imitating printed roman letters 

Drawing Design 

See also 741 Drawing 

Clay modeling 
Sewing etc 

Elementary basketry, weaving and braiding 
Elementary grammar Language lessons 

See also 400 Philology, subdivision 8 under each language 

Mother tung National language 
Second language 
Elementary arithmetic 

Including mental arithmetic. See also 511. For Abacus see gzx.f 

Other studies 

Divided if wisht like 010-999; e.g. 373.83 Religion 

i Elementary geografy 

See also 910.7. Elementary textbooks may be put with their subjects, 
but a primer of geografy is more useful to a student of elementary schools 
and methods than to one interested in Geografy, Description and 
Travel. Text books, except primary, go with their subjects 

Special countries and schools: history, reports, 
catalogs etc 

Divided like 930-999; e.g. 373.943 English elementary schools. Put here 
elementary schools whether public, endowd or private 

Secondary Preparatory 

Academic; highschools; junior highschools. Clas here discussions of general 
theories, methods, curriculums etc pertaining specificly to secondary educa- 
tion, regardless of source of support. Clas here also all private or endowd 
secondary schools for boys or both sexes; all public (taxsupported) secondary 
schools for boys or both sexes may be clast here or in 379. 4-. 9; all elementary 
schools (regardless of support) in 37£.9, all schools and colleges solely for women in 
376, and all colleges for men or coeducation in 378. Clas methods and questions 
peculiar to monastic, diocesan and parochial schools in 377, but clas the schools 
themselvs in 372, 373, 378 etc, according to their grades. For specific topics 
see 371 

Private instruction: tutor, governess, coach 

Relativ advantages of instruction at home and 
in school 

See also 371.394 Individual instruction 


373.2 Types of secondary schools 

Individual schools may be clast with their respectiv types, dividing after 09 like 
930-909. or in 37J.4-0 or 379.4~.9 

.22 Day schools Boarding schools 

.222 Day schools 

.223 Boarding schools 

.23 As to organization 

.232 4 -year highschools 

.234 6- " " 

.236 Junior " 

.238 Senior " 

.24 As to curriculum 

.241 Academic 

.242 Classical 

Latin etc highschools 

.243-.240, Other types by subject 

May be divided like 300-900, e.g. 

373-24355 Military; see also 371.43 

.245 Scientific, or scientific and teknical combined 
.246 Industrial, vocational; see also 371.42 
5 Commercial 

.3-. 9 Special countries and schools: history, reports, 
catalogs etc 

Divided like 930-999; e. g. 373 42 Higher English schools, Eton, Harrow etc 

374 Adult education 

Home education. Self education and culture. Cultural, personal aspect of 


Subdivided by o with form numbers if wisht; e.g. 374.05 magazines pertaining 
to this work, 374.06 Conferences, conventions, institutes, general meetings 
The term Adult education covers the broad field of self education thru 
private reading, study clubs and reading circles, summer, vacation, evening 
and correspondence schools, lecture courses and other forms of extension 
teaching and other agencies for extending more widely opportunities and 
facilities for education outside the usual teaching institutions 
For relations of this work to libraries, the natural centers for such activities, 
see oai.a. See also 378.13 University extension 

With or without personal guidance 
.1 Solitary study Private reading Conversation 

Advantages to be derived from reading. Study alone with or without aid 

of reading lists, syllabuses etc. Development of effectiv reading 

Reading lists themselvs, syllabuses and other aids to study belong with 

other bibliografies (016) or with compends under their subjects. They may, 

however, if preferd, be kept together under 374.19, divided like the clasi- 

fication; e.g. syllabus on English history 374.19945; on library economy 

374.19 03 

See 038, for preparation of guides, policy, methods etc 
For vocational guidance see 371.425 


374.2 Associated study Clubs 

.21 Study clubs 

Clas here 'travel clubs' which study about places without traveling to 
see them. See also 374-25 

.22 Reading circles Book and periodical clubs 

.23 Lyceums Literary clubs 

.24 Debating societies Oratorio clubs 

.245 Interschool and intercollegiate debates 

For interschool literary contests see 371 .533 

.25 Traveling clubs Educational value of travel 

Clubs which travel for education. See also 371.392, 371.393, 374 21 

.28 Community centers 

Whole community as a club of varied interests. Put here discussion of use 
of school bildings for various community purposes 


With personal guidance 

Either alone or in groups, clubs or classes 

.4 Correspondence teaching Manuscript aids 

Clas here works on value, history and methods of correspondence teaching; 
also printed general correspondence courses. Courses on special subjects ar 
better clast with their subjects 

.43 Societies for encouraging home study 
.44-. 49 Correspondence schools 

General schools divided like 940-999. Special schools ar better clast 
with their subject, with only a reference here: e.g. correspondence schools 
of agriculture 630.714 

.5 Lectures 

Discussion of lectures as a method of education, either as single lectures, or as a 
series of lectures on different subjects; lists of lectures; courses on the same 
subject unsupported by any other of the 7 factors of a complete extension course: 

1 Lectures 3 Clas 5 Guided reading 7 Examination 

a Syllabus 4 Papers 6 Club 
Lectures themselvs, whether issued separately or in collections, ar clast with 
subject treated 

.6 Extension courses Lecture study 

.62 Lecture study 

3 or more lectures on the same subject, with a or more of the 7 factors 

.64 Extension courses 

S or more lectures on the same subject with 4 or more of the 7 factors. 
For extension courses taken for credit under college or university auspices 
see 378.13 

.8 Continuation schools 

Summer, winter, vacation, night (adult) etc. German auxiliary schools. 
Divided like 930-999. For public (taxsupported) evening or night schools 
see also 379.19 

.9 Central, organizations State departments 

For encouragement of self education, e.g. N Y state library extension division, 
Brooklyn institute. Cooper institute, Chautauqua etc. May be divided lik» 


Curriculum Course of study 

Clas here general discussions of principles and methodo of curriculum 
construction. Curriculums for special kinds of schools or on special 
subjects ar better clast with those schools or subjects; e.g. 373 High- 
school curriculum; 375.9 History course 

.001 Order of studies 

.002 Single course Mandatory studies Required courses 

.003 Parallel courses 

.004 Optional courses Electiv sistem 

.005 Balanst courses Group sistem 

Special topics 

.006 Overcrowding curriculum Coordination of studies 

Economy in curriculum. Minimum essentials 

007 Courses for different classes of society 

Liberal education. Relativ value of studies 

i For bredwinning vs culture 

a Failure of course to develop efficiency 

008 Courses for schools of special kinds 

Clas here general discussions only. Clas material relating to special 
schools or special kinds of schools under their respectiv clas numbers 

.009 Courses for institutions in special countries 

Divided like 930-999. See also 379.4-. 9 

01-.9 Subjects of study 

Divided like the clasification 010-999; e.g. 375.5 Place of science in the 
curriculum, 375 .84 French literature in the curriculum, 375.88 Classics 
in the curriculum 

Methods of teaching individual subjects, also textbooks, may be kept witn 
educational literature by adding letters to 375 as follows: A general, B edu- 
cational value of specific subjects, C place in curriculum, D method* of 
teaching specific subjects, E textbooks; 
e.g. 375.32 B Educational value of political science 

3 75 32 C Place of political science in the curriculum 

Education of women 

See also 396.4 

.1 Physical capacity of women 
.2 Mental capacity of women 

See also 136.1 Mental caracteristics as influenst 

by sex 

.3 Home or domestic instruction 

By tutor or governess. See also 374 

.4 Fashionable education 1 Finishing ' schools 

Discussion. For prospectuses, catalogs etc see 376.9 

.5 Convent education 

Discussion. For prospectuses, catalogs etc see 376 9 

.6 Higher education of women 

Secondary and college 

.63 Secondary: preparatory schools for girls 

All between elementary and college. Discussion. Girls taxsupported high- 
schools may be clast in 376.9 or 379-4-.91 for private preparatory schools see 376.9 

.64 Influence of college education on women 

Duties of college women as such 

.66 Associations of college women 

Association of collegiate alumnae. Alumnae of a single college with that 


376.7 Coeducation Segregation Separation 

Discussion of collegiate education of women in separate institutions or those 
for both sexes, whether in the same or separate classes. See 378 for coedu- 
cational institutions, 376.8 for separately organized women's colleges, cither 
affiliated like Barnard and Radcliffe or independent like Vassar, Smith etc 
Clas here by attraction general discussion of coeducation of sexes in college 
and secondary school 

.8 Colleges for women 

Divided like 930-999. Degreeconferring colleges go here. Arrange material 
of each college by ' Table for school and college publications ' following 378.99. 
All other schools for women go in 376.9 or 379. 4-. 9 

.9 Special countries and schools: history, reports, 
catalogs etc 

Divided like 930-999; e.g. 376.943 Education of women in Germany 

377 Religious, ethical and secular education 

Interrelations of these types of education. Miscellaneous educational activities of 
religious and charitable organizations, regardless of place, time or subject, except 
religious instruction. For inculcation as wel as actual teaching of definit ethical or 
religious doctrins see 37s; e.g. instruction in duties of citizenship, patriotism 375-1721 
course in Christian evidences 375-239- Clas catalogs, history etc of a denominational 
school regardless of religious affiliation, in 372, 373, 376, 378, according to grade or 
type of school, but clas here books dealing in general with schools of a certain denomi- 
nation or order; e.g. educational sistem of the Jesuits 377.35. For training for religious 
work as a profession see 207; for parish educational work under direction of pastor 
see 257; for religious instruction by Y M C A see 267.352 Religious department, 
267-3572 Religious work in Boys department; for religious instruction by Y W C A 
see 267.552 Religious department, 267.5572 Religious work in Girls department; for 
Sunday and week day schools for religious instruction see 268 

.1 Religious instruction Bible in public schools 

Discussion of sectarian instruction or influence in public schools or in non-sectarian 
private schools, public school teachers in religious garb, conscience clause of English 
elementary school code, weekday religious education. See also note under 377 

.2 Ethical education 

Ethical training, without religious teaching, as advocated by ethical societies 
See also 170.7 Study of ethics; 375.17 Place of ethics in curriculum 

.3 Monastic or abbey schools 

Ecoles congreganistes. Divided like 271. See also 271 Religious orders; 
376.5 Convent education of girls 

.4 Diocesan schools Cathedral schools 

Domschulen, stiftschulen 

.5 Parochial schools 

See also 257 Parish educational work 

.6 Missionary schools 

Establishment and conduct of schools as part of mission work. See alto »66 

.7 Charity schools 

Mainly for elementary education. See also charitable institutions 363.76 


377.8 Christian church and education 

Divided like 280; e.g. 37782 Relation of Roman catholic church to 
education. Discussion of denominational schools or educational associations, 

e.g. 37782 Association of Catholic colleges of United States 
See also 261.5 Church and intellectual development 

.9 Nonchristian religions and education 

Divided like 290; e.g. 377-97 Relation of Mohammedanism to education 

378 Colleges and universities 

With power to confer degrees; also junior colleges. For men only or for both sexes. 

For women's colleges see 376.8 

Methods and curriculum. For full table of form divisions see Table 2 after 
Rclativ index 

.01 Definition of college and university Aim 

Advantages and influence of college training; e.g. on business capacity 
.014 College terminology 'Slang' 

Including also student slang. See also 427, 437 etc 
.05 Academic periodicals 

Periodicals devoted to college and university interests. Those issued 

by colleges, schools etc ar scatterd either by subject or under college 


,06 General college associations 

Association of New England colleges. See also 370.6 
.068 Associated alumni University clubs 

For alumni associations of any one college, see T under college 


.069 Duties of college men as such 

Obligations imposed by their greater knowledge 

.1 Organization Government Location Scope, 

Classes, colleges, graduate departments, etc 

.11 Administrativ offisers 

President, deans etc 

.113 Disciplinary offisers Judicial corps University court 

.12 Teaching staf Faculty 

Exchange of professors. For qualifications see 3 71. 11 

.121 Freedom of teaching 

See also political science, 323.444 

.13 University extension 

Conducted by universities. See also 374 

.14 College year Summer or vacation instruction 

All the year session 
.142 Summer or vacation instruction 

.15 Size Location Grade 
.152 Large vs small 

.153 City vs country colleges 

.154 Advanst or senior colleges Junior colleges 

2 Advanst or senior colleges 

3 Junior colleges 
.155 Departments 

2 Undergraduate 

3 Graduate 


378.2 Academic degrees and costume College colors 

See also 614.21 Medical degrees 


.21 Degree conferring body and powers 

College, university or state. See also 614.21 State regulation of medical 

.22 Graded degrees 

Pas, honor, cum laude, magna cum laude, etc 

.23 Degrees in course 

Advanst degrees conferd at specified periods on graduates in good 
standing, without evidence of advanst attainments 

.24 Degrees for completion of courses 

With or without examination 

.241 Time and residence required Length of college 


.242 Subjects allowable for liberal degree 

Whether teknical courses should be credited toward liberal degrees; 

.243 Differentiation of degrees : B A, B S, B L, etc 

.244 Degrees on examination 

With or without residence 

.25 Honorary degrees 

.26 Degrees by purchase or forgery 

Bogus degrees 


.27 Seal Coat of arms Motto 
.28 Colors: institution and clas College flags 
.29 Academic gowns and hoods 
.3 Endowment of reserch Fellowships Scholar- 
ships Student aid 
.3 1 Higher educational foundations and endowments 

See also 371.222 Student endowments in general 

.32 Endowment of reserch 

Carnegie institution. Rockefeller institute. Incentivs to reserch. Prizes. 
Opportunities for reserch. Nobel prizes. Competitions 

.33 Fellowships 
.3 4 Scholarships 

Rhodes scholarships. Traveling scholarships 


.36 Student income and expenses 

.362 Loan funds Student aid societies 

.364 College employment bureaus Faculty committees 

Other organizations for securing work for students 

.365 Student ernings 

Working way thru college. Ways of erning 

.368 Student expenses: extravagance, economy 


378. 4-. 98 Special countries and colleges: history, reports, 

catalogs etc. 

For women's colleges see 376.8 

Divided like 940-998; e.g. 378.42 English universities. 378.741 Maine colleges 
The various colleges of any section may be given each a number or be 

arranged alfabeticly. Under each college arrange publications by the fol- 
lowing table, placing these letters after the letter (or letter and figures) uzed 
to designate the college; e.g. a history of Harvard college would be markt 378.744 
HE, and a second history would be numberd 378.744 HEi. The practical con- 
venience of this plan outweighs the objection that it introduces clasification 
into the book numbers 

If preferd, colleg es and universities may be arranged alfabeticly under continent 
number, insted of be ing clast first by country or state; e.g. European universities 
under 378.4 in alfabetic order regardless of country. United States colleges and 
universities all in one alfabet under 378.73 

.99 Professional, teknical and other special schools 
Professional education 

Best kept with subject, but may be compactly groupt here. Divided 
like the clasification: e.g. 378.992 Theologic schools, 378.9934 Law school*, 

378.9961 Medical schools t 


A Charter and statutes 

B Trustees Regents Resolutions, reports etc 

C Administration President, chancellor Reports etc 

D Finances Tresurer's reports 

E History Foundation, growth etc 

F Biografy Necrology 

G General catalogs Triennials etc 

II Annual catalogs Attendance, registers etc 

I Handbooks Circulars of information 

J Bulletins Official periodicals 

K Commencements, inaugurals etc 1 Baccalaureate and other 


L Programs Tickets Memorabilia 

M Faculty (as a body) Publications Regulations Certificates 

for admission 

N Lectures Clas manuals Examination questions 

O Student theses Orations, essays etc 

P Student catalogs Society annuals, etc 

Q Student periodicals 

R Student societies, including periodicals 

S Student miscellany Songs Clas day, etc 

T Alumni Societies, committees etc 

U Classes Histories, records etc 

V Pictures Clas albums 

W Bildings and grounds Descriptions, maps etc 

Z Schools: divinity, law, medical etc 

Better clast with subject; e.g. Divinity schools 207 


379 Public schools Relation of state to education 
.1 Public school sistem 

. 1 1 School funds School finance Cost to public 
.12 National and state aid to education 

.121 Public aid to schools 

Exemption vs taxation 

2 Public 

3 Private 

4 Sectarian 

5 Nonsectarian 
.123 Land grants 

See also 336.14 Public finance 

.124 Subsidies 

.13 Local support 

Taxation. Bonds. Endowment. Nonresident tuition. See also 336.28 

.14 School laws and regulations Divided like 930-900 

School age. Working permits 

.15 School supervizion and control: national, state 
and local Centralization 

Standardization of schools. For school administrativ offisers see 371.1472 

.151 National 

.152 State: department, inspectors etc 

.153 Local: superintendent, school committee, board 

Supplies, free textbooks, etc. For school meals see 371.716. For school 
superintendents, principals, supervizors etc, as administrativ offisers 
employd by local authorities, see 371.1472 

2 • County 

County school superintendent, etc 

3 Township 

4 City District Ward 

Local school board, etc 

.154 Individual: parents and others 

.156 State textbooks 


379.16 Public colleges and universities: national, state 

and local 

Only discussion here; for individual colleges see 3 78. 4-. 9 

.17 Secondary and elementary schools 


.171 Highschools Academies 

6-year highschools, junior highschools, etc. Clas individual schools in 
379.4-.9i or, if preferd, in 373 Secondary schools for boys or both sexes, 
376.9 Girls secondary schools 

.172 Grammar or elementary schools 

Clas individual schools in 372; see note under 372.2 

.173 Rural schools 

Village schools. Clas individual schools according to grade or type in 
372. 373. 376.9 or 379-4-9 

.175 Central plan Consolidated schools Conveying 


2 Conveying pupils 

.18 Primary schools Kindergartens 

Questions of public maintenance. Clas individual schools in 372; see note 

under 372.2 

. 1 9 Part time schools Evening schools 

See also 374.8 

.2 Illiteracy Instruction of illiterates 

.21 Illiteracy and crime Education and crime 

Criminal illiterates 
.22 Illiteracy and pauperism Indigent illiterates 

See also 339. 1 Pauperism; 362.51 Poorhouses 

.23 Compulsory education 

See also 371.52 Truancy 


.3 Public vs private and endowd schools 
4-.g Special countries, sections, cities etc 

Divided like 940-900: e.g. 379.73 Reports of U S commissioner of education: 
379.744 Education in Massachusetts; 379.7471 in New York city. Keep 
state departments separate from city and other local sistems by numbering 
state reports, A1-A8, uzing A9 followd by author's initial (lower case) for 
history of schools of any state; e.g. Fitch's New York public schools 379-747 A9f 


380 Commerce Communication 

Public utilities. Tcknical side of these questions goes mostly in 650 Useful arts. 
Here belong discussions of social and political relations 

.1 Theory 

Subdivisions of 380.1 may be uzed after 01 under 381-389 and any of their 
. 1 1 Supply and demand 

.12 Trade channels Commercial expansion Markets 

.122 Market surveys and analisis 

See also 658.83 Business methods 

.123 Commercial forecasts 

.124 Trade cycles Commercial fluctuations 

2 Commercial crises Panics Depressions 

See also 332 Financial crises, 338.55 Production crises 

.125 Cooperativ marketing 

See also 334.6 Cooperativ productiv associations, 658.83 Business methods 

.126 Commercial arbitration 

.13 Value of commerce and means of communication 

.14 Terminology Nomenclature 

.16 Ownership and control of business and public utilities 

For control of a specific utility see its own number, e.g. 383 Postal servis, 

385 Railroads 
162 By government 

2 National 3 State or provincial 4 Municipal 
.163 By private enterprize 

.164 Joint ownership and control 

.165 Of business 

2 By government 

22 National 23 State or provincial 24 Municipal 

3 By private enterprize 

4 Joint ownership and control 
.166 Of public utilities 

2 By government 

22 National 23 State or provincial 24 Municipal 

3 By private enterprize 

4 Joint ownership and control 
.167 Ownership 

Divided like 380.162-.166 

,168 Control 

1 General questions 

Divided like 380.162-.166 

2 Regulation 

Divided like 380.162-.166 
22 By government 

221 General questions 

2 Inspection 3 Franchizes 4 Licenses 

3 Operation 

Dividedlike 380.162-.166 
.18 Commercial methods 

See also 658 Business methods 


381 Domestic trade 

382 Foren trade 

Including trade between mother country and colony 

.2 Official representativs Consulates Consuls 

Consular reports 

383 Postal servis 

See also 353.4 U S administration 

.1 Transport by mail 

Letters, parcel post, etc 

.2 Postage stamps Postage permits 

Precanceld stamps 

. 2 1 International stamps 

.22 Philately Stamp collections 

.3 Banking by mail 

Money orders; postal orders. See also 332.22 Posta 1 savings banks 

.4 Organization of postal servis 

Government post, private post, postal union 

. 40 In special countries 

Divided like 930-999 

384 Telegraf Cable Telefone 

See also 621.38 and 654 

.1 Telegraf 
.4 Cable 

.5 Radio Wireless 

Telegraf and telefone 

.6 Telefone 

385 Railroads 

Government ownership or control. Interstate commerce commission. See also 
388.4 Street railways, 625 Railway engineering, 656 Railroading 

.1 General questions 

. 1 2 Relations to other means of transport 

.122 Railways vs highways 

.123 " " street railways 

.124 " " interurban lines 

.126 " " waterways 

2 Inland 

3 River 5 Lake 

4 Canal 6 Ferry 
7 Ocean 

.127 Railways vs air transport 



385.13 Financial questions 

.132 Rate skedules Tarifs 

1 General questions 

Principles of rate makim;, differential rates, zone rates, etc. may be 
divided like 38S1323 

2 Passenger and baggage rates Fares 

22 According to number and frequency of trips 

Commutation or suburban rates, etc 

23 According to distance and destination 

232 General and international rates 

233 Local rates 

234 Transit " 

235 Thru " 

236 Round trip rates 

2 Going and returning by same route 

3 " * * " different routes Circular trips 

24 According to time 

242 Day rates 

243 Night rates 

244 Holiday rates Vacation rates 

Excursion rates, etc 

245 Seasonal rates 

2 Spring 3 Summer 4 Autum 5 Winter 

25 According to speed and form of transport 

252 According to speed 

253 Rates on slow trains 

254 " 8 fast " 

Rates on extra fare trains 

255 According to classes or form of transport 

1st, 2d, 3d etc; dc luxe, tourist etc 

256 Sleeping and parlor car rates 

Pullman fares, etc 

26 For special classes of persons 

Reduced fares, passes, free transport 

261 Officials 

Government, railway etc. See also 328.347 Legislativ railway 


262 Military 

263 Laborers and railway employes 

See also 331.991 Transport of workers 

264 Students, clergy, teachers etc 

265 Children, families 

266 Emigrants, colonists, homeseekers 

267 Special races 

Colord persons, etc 

268 Persons under commitment to public institutions 

Prisoners, convicts, insane etc 

269 Other 

Divided like main clasification 

27 For groups of persons 

Convention rates, etc 

28 Baggage rates 

Excess baggage rates 

29 Accessory fees Special charges 


Express rates 

According to number and frequency of shipments 
distance and destination 

Divided like 385.13223 

General and international rates 
2 Export rates 3 Import rates 
According to time 

Divided like 385.13224 
According to speed and form of transport 
According to speed 
Rates for slow transport 

Rates on delayd shipments 
Rates for rapid transport 

Rates on expedited shipments 

Rates for special forms of transport 

Rates for limited responsibility, rates for limitations on tonnage 
conditions, group rates, etc 

For special classes of shippers or consignees 

Reduced rates, rate exemptions. Divided like 385.13226 

For special classes of goods 

Express clasification . 
Clas rates 
Commodity rates 
Rates on special types of goods 

Dangerous, perishable etc 

Rates on special articles 

Divided like main clasification 
Accessory fees Special charges 
Terminal charges 

Charges for loading and unloading, collection and delivery, switch- 
ing, carting, trucking, lightering, storage etc 

Insurance and registration fees, etc 
Rental and charges for private equipment 

Private stations, branch lines, cars etc 

Charges for special connections 

Charges for special land and water connections; for connectio»s with 
industrial railways, tap lines, etc 

Freight rates 

Divided like 385.1323 


See also 336.14 Land grants 



385.2 Servises 

For railway mail servis see 383 

.22 Passenger 

Clas here works covering passenger and express servis combined 

.23 Express 
.24 Freight 
.242 Regular line servis 

Freight lines run on regular routes and skedules 

.243 Tramp or charterd servis 

Without regular routes or skedules 

.244 Privately operated industrial carriers 

Operated by industrial or mercantil concerns primarily to carry their own 
freight, only occasionally carrying freight for other parties 

.25 Combination servises 

For combined passenger and express servis see 385.22 

.252 Passenger and freight 

.253 Freight and express 

.3 Stations and terminals 

For station bildings see 625.18 Road accessories, 725.3 Architecture; for teknical 
and business aspects see 656 Transport 

.32 Small, country stations 

.33 Large, city " 

.34 Union and junction stations 

.35 Thru terminals 

.36 Loop " 

.37 Stub 

.4 Standard and hevy railways 

See also 625 Railway engineering 

.5 Light and industrial railways 

See also 625 Railway engineering 

.6 Specially constructed railways 

See also 625. 3-. 5 Railway engineering 

.62 Inclined and mountain railways 

.622 Funicular railways 

.623 Rack railways 

.624 Friction railways 

.63 Elevated railways 

.64 Subways 

.65 Monorailways 

.66 Cable roads 



Sec also 626 Canal engineering, 627 River and harbor engineering, 656 Transport, 

under useful arts 

.09 In special countries 

Divided like 93°-999 

.1 General questions 

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.125 for waterways vs railways 

.2 Inland navigation 

.209 In special countries 

Divided like 930-999 

.21 General questions 

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.2125 for inland navigation vs railways 

. 2 2 Ships 

Divided like 623.82. For general works on ships see 387.2, see also 623.8 Shipbilding 

.24 Ser vises 

Divided like 385.2 

.3 River navigation 

.309 In special countries 

Divided like 930-999 4 

.31 General questions 

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.3125 for river navigation vs railways 

.34 Canalized rivers 

.4 Canals 

.41 General questions 

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.4125 for canals vs railways, canals vs transport 

of ships by rail 

.42 Interoceanic canals 

Clas here only canals connecting 1 ocean with another; canals connecting 
various parts of a given ocean ar clast as noninteroceanic canals 386.46-.49 
(sec notes under 386.46 and 386.4609) 

.43 Suez canal 

.44 American interoceanic canals Isthmian canals 

.441 General questions .446 Honduras 

.442 Atrato .447 Tehuantepcc 

.443 Darien .448 Other South American routes 

.444 Panama .449 " North " * 

.445 Nicaragua 

.46 Inland or noninteroceanic canals 

Includes canals connecting various parts of a given ocean 

.4609 In special countries 

Divided like 930—999; individual canals may be clast here or by type 
under 386.4709 and 386.4809 

.47 Ship canals 

See notes under 386.46 and 386.4609; for interoceanic canals see 

.48 Barge and small boat canals 

Canals for avoiding rapids, cataracts etc. Sec notes under 386.46 and 

.49 Other groupings 


386.5 Lake navigation 

.509 In special countries 

Divided like 930-999 

.51 General questions 

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.5125 for lake navigation vs railways 

.6 Ferries 

.609 In special countries 

Divided like 930-999 

.61 General questions 

Divided like 385.1, uzing 386.6125 for ferries vs railways 

.62 Ferries for foot passengers and small vehicles 

.63 Freight ferries 

.64 Train " 

.8 Inland ports and harbors 

For works on ocean ports and those covering both ocean and inland ports see 
387.1. Divided like 387.1 

.809 In special countries 

Divided like 930-999 

387 Ocean and air transport 

History of shipping. See also 656 Transport 

.1 Ocean ports 

Clas here works covering both ocean and inland ports. See also 386.8 Inland 
ports, 627 Harbor engineering 

. 1 1 General questions 

Divided like 385.1 

. 1 2 Ports according to location or type of harbor 

.122 Natural bay ports 

.123 River mouth, estuary, tidal river ports 

.124 Combination river and natural bay ports 

.125 Roadsted, breakwater ports 

.13 Entrepot vs transit ports 

.132 Entrepot ports Reexport ports 

.133 Free ports Free zones Foren trade zones 

.134 Transit ports 

.14 Overside vs quay ports 

.142 Overside ports 

.143 Quay ports 

.2 Ships 

See also 623.8 Shipbilding. Divided like 623.82 



387.5 Maritim transport 

Merchant marine, maritim lines; organization and servises. For teknical and 

business aspects see 656 Transport 

.51 General questions 

Divided like 38s. I, uzing 387.5125 for ocean transport vs railways 

.52 Trade routes 

Internationa! trade routes 

.522 Main trunk lines 

1 North Atlantic route 

Connects Canada and northeast United States with English Channel 
and north and west Europe 

2 Mediterranean and Suez route 

Connects North America and west and south Europe with north and 
east Africa, Orient and Australasia. See also 386.43 Suez canal 

3 South African route 

Connects North America and Europe with west, south and southeast 
Africa, Orient and Australasia 

4 South American circuit 

Connects east and west shores of north Atlantic with eastern South 
America and Pacific coast of North and South America, also with Orient 
and Australasia 

5 Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea route 

Southern extension of North Atlantic trunk route, connecting with 
southeast United States, West Indies, Mexico and northeastern South 

6 Panama route 

Mainly extension of Caribbean route, connecting Atlantic and Pacific 
coast countries. See also 386.444 Panama canal 

7 North Pacific route 

Connects North America with Asia 

8 North American and Australasian route 

Connects western North America with New Zealand and Australia 

9 Other trunk lines 

.523 Triangular and auxiliary routes 

Irregular and tramp routes, branches and connections between main trunk 

.524 Coastwize trade Cabotage 

Trade between ports of a given nation 

.54 Servises 

For ocean mail servis sec 383. Divided like 385.2 

.7 Air transport 

See also 629.13 Aeronautics 


Local transit: city and interurban 

See also engineering 625 

Highways Roads Bridges 

Land transportation Vehicles 

Carriages, coaches, carts etc. Stages (horse or motor) 

Street railways Quick transport in large towns 

For teknical questions see 625.6 

Weights and mesures Metrology 

Metric sistem 


39° Customs Costumes Folklore 

These heds ar for discussions by topic. Customs, etc. of any special country go in 
013-919. Books on a special topic in a special country go here, as the grouping by topics 
Is the more Important; e.g. Marriage in Japan is 392.5, but Japanese customs. 015.2. 
For customs of primitiv man, see 571 

391 Costume and care of person 

Sec also 646 Clothing; 613.4 Hygiene 

.1 Costumes of men 

.2 " " women 

.3 " " children 

.4 Extremities Accessories 

Hats, gloves, stockings, shoes, sandals; mufs, fan», canes, parasols; «tc. 

.5 Hairdressing Barbers See also 646.7 Toilet 

.6 Care of person Bathing Toilet 

.7 Ornaments and jewelry 

392 Birth, home, and sex customs 

.1 Birth customs: christening, circumcision 

.2 Sacrifice and exposure See also ethics, 173.4 r> 

.3 Family and home relations 

.4 Betrothal 

.5 Marriage Weddings 

.6 Sex relations Concubinage 

393 Treatment of the ded Se« alto 614.6 Public hclth 

.1 Earth burial See also 718 Cemeteries 

.2 Cremation 

.3 Embalming, mummies 

.4 Exposure 

.9 Special funeral customs: wake, suttee 

394 Public and social customs 

.1 Eating, banquets 

.2 Shows and diversions 

.25 Carnivals 
.26 Holidays 

Including days which, tho not legal holidays, ar similarly observd. While 
separate days may be clast under 394.262, .264 and .269. it is recommended 
that these numbers be used only for general works and that separate days be 
kept in a single group under 394.268. See also under folklore 398.33 Ft tss; 
education 371.365 Special days 

.262 By season 

2 Spring 3 Summer 4 Autumn 5 Winter 
.264 By kind 

2 Religious 5 Scientific 8 Literary 

3 Economic Social 7 Art 9 Patriotic 

.268 Special days Alfabeted by name of day 

.269 By Country Divided like 930-999 


394-3 Games Dances, etc. 

.4 Official ceremonies Ceremonious observances 

.43 Enthronement of soverens 

Consecration, coronation, taking oath 

.44 Joyful entries Receptions 

Durbars, levees, etc. 

.45 Triumts 

.5 Processions Pageants 

.6 Fairs Kermess 

.7 Chivalry Tournaments Justs 

.8 Dueling Suicide 

For other relations see Dueling in Relativ index following Tables 

395 Etiquet 

Codes of social procedure and behavior. For social ethics see 177 

396 Woman's position and treatment 

For costumes, see 391.2; biografy, 920.7 

If a special library about women is wisht, 396 is the best place for it. Suffrage, 
education, and employment can then be put here, with references from 324.3, 
376, 331-4. etc. but it would be unwise to bring everything about women here, 
e. g. to remove 618, Diseases of women, from the rest of medicin. Books on 
woman in general go in 396 

.1 Emancipation 

.2 Legal status, property, rights, etc. 

.3 Political status 

See 324-3, Suffrage; 329.83, Woman suffrage party 

.4 Education 

See also 376, Education of women 

.5 Employment 

See 331.4 Labor of women; 371.18 Teachers; 023.56 Librarians; 069.^.(18 
Museum employees 

Divided like the general classification; e. g. woman as scientist, 396.55; worrun s 
exchange, 396.56; woman as painter, 396.575; woman as author, 396.58, etc. 

.6 Woman in home 

.7 Delineation of woman in art 

.8 Delineation of woman in literature 

.9 Woman in history, politics, war Amazons 

397 Gipsies Nomads 

People without nationalities who do not coalesce with the ruling people 
among whom they live. This includes Gipsy language, which til recently had 
no place in the linguistic groups of 400, as the Gipsy people hav no place 
in the geografic divisions of history 


398 Folklore Proverbs, etc. 

See also 291-3 Mythology 

This section is for material needed in studying Folklore. Mere stories foi 
children, unless having a value to students of folklore, go in 813, 813, etc. 01 
in J, if there is a Juvenil collection 

.1 Primitiv traditions 

.2 Legends, tales, traditions 

. 2 1 Tales 

. 2 2 Legends Sagas 

Legends of Arthur. Charlemagne. Roland, Faust. Reynard the fox, etc. But 
poems, dramas, etc. based on these legends clas in literature 

.3 Folklore, traditional beliefs and customs, popular super- 


. 3 1 Fire 

.32 Haunted localities 

Cemeteries, burnd citie6, ancient ruins, haunted houses, caves, watsr sources, 
forests etc. 

.33 F6tes 

See also 394.26 Holidays 

.331 The year Calendar dates 

.33a Principal fetes 

1 Spring 

1 1 April 1 All fools day 

12 Easter Easter eggs 

2 Summer 

3 Autumn 

4 Winter 

41 Christmas 

42 New Year 

43 Lent 

.34 Local customs 

House, outbildings, furniture etc 

.4 Fairies, elvs, ogers, monsters 

Bogies, gnomes, dragons, vampires, werewolvs, ttc. 

.5 Chapbooks 

.6 Riddles 

.7 Dream books 

.8 Song books Nursery rimes Popular cries 

Including only popular collections, hardly ranking with Poetry or Music, 
but useful in the study of Folklore, etc. 

.9 Proverbs 

399 Customs of war 

Wepons War dances Treatment of captivs Scalping Mutilation Burn* 
ing Cannibalism See also 623.4 Firearms 



400 Philology in general 

In philology the general works put under 400-419 deal almost entirely with Indo- 
European languages. They ar put here because they cover most of the divisions 
of this clas. and in practis ar most convenient here. Under 439, 479 and 489 ar 
placed books limited to Teutonic, Romance or Hellenic groups, and under 491 ar 
placed only such general works as ar specificly limited to Indo-European group 

401 Philosofy Origin of language 

402 Compends, outlines 

403 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

404 Essays, lectures, addresses 

405 Periodicals 

406 Societies, transactions, etc. 

407 Teaching and study of languages in general, 
also of philology 

Works on teaching and study of an individual language ar clast with that language 

408 Polygrafy Collections Different kinds of 

.7 Dialects and patois of languages in general Dialectology 

Dialects of a special language ar clast under number for that language 

.9 Universal language International Artificial 

.91 Volapuk 
.92 Esperanto 

409 History of language Distribution 

Divided like 930-999 

410 Comparativ 

410-419 includes comparativ works in general and also comparativ works on Indo- 
European group in general, but general and comparativ works on Teutonic group ar 
439; on Romance group 479; on Hellenic group 489. Everything about an individual 
language is put with that language. 410-416, 418 may be divided like 420-426, 428 

411 Orthografy Orthoepy Alfabets 

412 Etymology, derivation 

413 Lexicografy Lexicology Polyglot 

414 Phonology Visible speech Natural laws 

of language 

See also 612.78 Physiology of speech 

415 Grammar, morfology, syntax 


416 Prosody 

417 Inscriptions Paleografy 

See also 421. 7, 471.7. 481.7. etc. Rare early mss ar put in 091 

418 Texts 

419 Language communicated otherwise than by 
words or letters of an alfabet 

.1 Sign language 

For def mute alfabets, see 371.91a 

.2 Picture language 

.25 Hieroglyfics 

See also 493.1 

420 English philology 

.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .4 Essays .5 Periodicals .0 Societies -.7 Study and 

teaching .8 Collectiv works .9 History of the language 

421 Orthografy 

See also this hed treated in general grammars placed under 425 

.1 Alfabet 

For def mute alfabets, see 371.912 

.2 Vowels Difthongs Aspirates 

.3 Consonants 

.4 Phonetic spelling Simpler spelling 

Spelling reform 

.5 Orthoepy 

.6 Accent 

.7 Paleografy Inscriptions 

.8 Abbreviations 

For stenografic and other uncommon contractions and abbreviations, 6ee 

653 Shorthand 

.9 Punctuation 

422 Etymology Derivation 

422 is limited to derivation. For inflection, also called etymology, 3ee - 

.1 Origin and laws of English language 

.2 Prefixes Suffixes 

.3 Reduplication 

.4 Foren elements 

.5 Noun forms: case, number, diminutivs 

.6 Adjectival forms Degrees of comparison 

.7 Pronominal forms: personal, possessiv, relativ, etc. 

.8 Verbal forms: moods, tense, voice, etc. 

.9 Particles: adverbs, prepositions, etc. 


423 Lexicology Dictionaries Idioms 

.1 Idioms .2 English .3 German, etc. Put a dictionary of two 
languages with the leas known language. Under 423 put only Englith- 
English dictionaries. Put an English-French dictionary with French, 
443.2; a French-Latin dictionary with Latin, 473.4. If in several 
languages, put with 413, or with least known. Put F,ench-French 
dictionaries 443, not 443.4, so that the standard home dictionaries shall 
come first in each language. This plan brings together under each of 
the less known, all the dictionaries for translating either into or from 
that language. Some prefer to put each dictionary under the first 
language; i. e. that by which it is alfabeted. This gives under each 
language, regardless of its familiarity, all dictionaries for translating 
from it, but none for translating into it. These must be sought under 
the language from which the translation is to be made. For a cosmo- 
politan library this plan is simplest and best; but in an English library, 
the first plan, with only English dictionaries in 423, and both in and 
out dictionaries together under little known tungs is more convenient. 
References in either case show what may be found in the other place 

424 Synonyms Homonyms 

425 Grammai 

425 includes general works, covering also orthografy and prosody 

.1 Morfology Inflection 

Divided like 42s. 2 Syntax; e. g. .15 Nouns, etc See 422 

.2 Syntax 

.3 Arrangement of words and clauses 

.4 Particular sentences : conditional, hypothetic, etc. 

.5 Nouns 

.6 Adjectivs Articles 

.7 Pronouns 

.8 Verbs 

.9 Particles 

426 Prosody 

See also the hed Prosody, in general grammars 42s 

.1 Quantity and accent 

.2 Versification 

.3 Feet 

.4 Figures of prosody 

.5 Meters 

.6 Rimes 

.7 Strophe and antistrophe 

.8 Textbooks for writing verse 

427 Dialects Patois Language at different 
periods Slang 

.I-.8 divided like 942. 1-. 8. The Yorkshire dialect is 427.74; Gloucestershire 
dialect 427.41. The dialects of other languages take the geografic subdivisions 
of their countries. Dialects not provided for in these heds ar placed with the 
last; e. g. American and Scotch with 427.9. The division by time is made with 
a 5th figure after o; the earliest form of the language is markt .01 ; .09 is used 
for modern slang, e. g. 427.01 Old English 


428 School books Texts for learning the 

Including only books for Itarning the language, with grammatic or philo- 
logic notes, etc. For other works see literature of the language, 820 

.1 Spelling books 

.2 First lessons Elementary composition For Rhetoric see 808. 

Including in other languages books like Fasquelle, Ollendorff, Chardenal, 
Latin prose, etc. See also 373.6, Elementary grammars 

.24 For foreners 

Divided like 430-499 (for other than English, like 420-499). Clas here books 
intended for use of foreners in leajning the language. Subdivide by language 
of those for whom intended; e. g. English lessons for Italians 428.345, for 
Russians 428.24917 

.25 Special modifications of English 

Basic English, etc. 

.3 Errors of speech Vulgarisms Use of words 

.6 Elementary readers See also 373 4 Education ~<-^do.4, a 

For primers and primary readers see 372.4. Clas here 3d and 4th 'readers, and 
put higher readers with literature collections; 808.8 if general, 820.8 if English 
or English and American, etc. 

.7 Selections 

.8 Texts of individual authors 

With grammatic notes and questions. Preferably clast in 800 with cron 

references here 

.9 Examination papers 

429 Anglo-Saxon 

Subdivisions .I-.8 correspond to 421-428 


43° German 


C 437 01 Old High German, to noo A.D.; 437.02 Middle High German, 1100-1500 

439 Other Teutonic languages 

Including general works on Teutonic group 

.1 Western Germanic languages in general 

.2 Frisian Old Saxon 

■o .3 Netherlandish 

2 .31 Dutch 

£ . .32 Flemish 

•2 ,36 Afrikaans 


91 .4 Low German Plattdeutsch 

.5 Scandinavian 

.6 Old Norse Icelandic Faroese 

& .7 Swedish 

' .8 Danish Norwegian 

J .81 Danish 

S, .82 Norwegian 

.9 Gothic 


440 French 

Old French, as the earliest form of the language, is 447.01 

447.9 Canadian and Creole French, etc. 

449 Provencal 

.9 Catalan 

450 Italian 

459 Rumanian 

Moldavian, Wallachian, Dacorumanian, Istrorumanian, Transylvanian, 
Bukowinian, Macedorumanian 

.9 Romansh 

Ladin, Friulan, Rheto-Romanic 

460 Spanish 

469 Portuguese 

.9 Galician 

470 Latin 

Works on Latin and Greek together, unless very clearly most useful in 

Latin, go with Greek, which here as well as elsewhere Is made to Include 
general works on the ancient classics 

479 Other Italic Medieval and modern 

Including general work3 on Romance group 

. i Romance languages in general 

Divided like 420 


Divide 487, Greek dialects, like 930; e. g. 487.3 Alexandrian Greek; 487.3 

New Testament Greek; 487. 81 Macedonian; 487.923 Ionic, etc. 

489 Other Hellenic Modern Greek 

Including general works on Hellenic group 

. i Classic languages in general 

Divided like 420 



490 Other languages 

Each language subdivided if wisht like 420 English 

491 Indo-European languages in general 

Besides Teutonic, 420-439; Italic, 440-479; and Hellenic, 480-489 
This hed, 491, includes general works on the Indo-European tungs, but 
general works on the Teutonic languages go in 439, on the Romance :--->up in 
479, on the Hellenic group in 489, while most of the material pLicc I undei 
400-419 is really Indo-European; but see also notes under .|oo and 410 

.1 Indie 

.2 Old Indie Sanskrit 

.27 Sanskrit dialects Primary Prakrits 

.3 Middle Indie or Prakrit par excellence 

Popular Hindu idiom. Secondary Prakrits 
.3701 Pali 

Language of canonical books of Southern Buddhists 

.4 Modern East Indian languages 

Tertiary Prakrits 
, Excluding Dravidian, which is 494.8 

.41 Sindi 

.43 Panjabi 

.43 Hindustani Hindi 

Bradch, Blascha, Mariv^ri, Dakhni, Gorkha 

.44 Bengali 

.45 Uriya Orissa 

.46 Marathi 

.47 Gujerati 

.48 Singhalese Elu 

.5 Iranic 

.51 Old Persian West Iranic 

Official language of Persian kings. Language of cuneiform inscriptions 

.52 East Iranic Zend (Avestan) Old Bactrian 

Language of the Avesta or sacred book of Zoroastrianism and the Parsees 

.53 Pehlevi (Huzwarcsh) Parsee 

.531 Huzwaresh Pehlevi 

.532 Parsee 

.54 Armenian 

.,55 Modern Persian Neopersian 

.56 Ossetic 

.57 Kurdish 

.58 Afghani Pushtu 

.59 Other Iranic languages 

.591 Baluchi 

.592 Pamir languages 

.6 Keltic 

.61 Gadhelic group 

.62 Irish 

.63 Gaelic or Scotch Ers*: 

.64 Manx 

Language of Isle of Man 

.65 Cymric group 

.66 Welsh or Cymric 

.67 Cornish 

.68 Armorican or Bas Breton 

.69 Basque 


491.7 Russian 

.79 Ruthenian 

Little Russian, Russniak 

.8 Other Slavic or Slavonic languages 

\V indie. Not including Russian, clast under 401.7. nor Ruthenian, clast 

under 491.79 

Southeast Slavonic group 

.81 Bulgarian (Church Slavonic) 

.82 Serbo-Kroatian Serbian 

.83 Kroatian 

.84 Slovenian 

West Slavonic group 

.85 Polish 

.86 Bohemian Bohemian Czech 

.87 Moravian Slovakian 
.871 Moravian 
.872 Slovakian 

.88 Sorbian or Sorabian Wendish or Lusatian 

.89 Polabian 

Slavonic of the Elbe 

.9 Lettic Baltic languages 

.91 Old Prussian 

.92 Lithuanian 
.93 Lettish 

.99 Other Indo-European languages 

.991 Albanian 

492 Semitic 

Northern group 

.1 Aramaic 

.19 Assyrian Babylonian 

Babylon and Nineveh cuneiform 

.2 Chaldee 

.3 Syriac (Peshito) 

Central group 

.4 Hebrew 

Canaanitish dialects 

.49 Yiddish 
.5 Samaritan 

Language of the Pentateuch 

.6 Phenician Punic Carthaginian 

Southern group 

.7 Arabic 
.8 Ethiopic 

Ethiopian Semitic languages; literary Ethiopian; Ghez; Abyssinian dialects; 
Amharic (language of the Abyssinian court since ijoo A.D.); Tigrus Harari 
See also 493.5 Hamitic Ethiopian languages 

Himyaritic or Sabean 

Ancient language of Yemen and eastern Arabia: Minaeen. Sabean. 
Hadramaut, Ehlcili 


493 Hamitic 

.1 Old Egyptian 

See 419.25 Hieroglyfics 

.2 Coptic 

.3 Libyan or Berber group 

Algerian Kabyle, Mozabi, Moorish, Touarik or Touareg 

.5 Hamitic Ethiopian languages 

Hamitic group of languages of central Africa, spoken in south of Egypt and in 

certain parts of Abyssinia 

See also 492,8 Ethiopian Semitic languages 
.51 Somali 
.52 Galla 
.53 Bedja 

Language of Bedouins 
.54 Saho 
.55 Dankali 
.56 Agaou 

494 Scythian Ural-Altaic Turanian 

Except Malay-Polynesian languages clast under 490 

.1 Tungusic languages 

. 1 1 Tungus proper 

.12 Lamut 

.13 Manchu 

.2 Mongol languages 

.21 Eastern Mongol 

.22 Kalmuk 

.23 Buriat 

.3 Turkish or Tatar languages 

.3 1 Yakut 

.32 Uigurian 

.321 Uigurian proper 

.322 Djagataic 

.323 Turkoman 

•33 Nogair 

.34 Kirghiz 

.35 Osmanli or Turkish proper 

.4 Samoyed languages 

.41 Northern branch 

.411 Yurak 

.412 Targhi 

.413 Yeniseian Samoyed 

.42 Eastern branch 

.42 1 Samoyed-ostiak 

422 Kamassin 


494.5 Ugrian, Finno-Hungarian, Finno-Ugric, or Uralic languages 

.51 Ugric languages 

.51 1 Magyar Hungarian 

.512 Vogul 

.5 1 3 Hongro-ostiak 

.52 Finnish of the Volga 

.52 1 Chercmissian 

.522 Mordvinian 

.53 Permian languages Finno-Permian 

.53 1 Permian 

.532 Syryenian 

■533 Votiak 

.54 Western Finnish 

.541 Suomi Finnish 

.542 Karelian 

.543 Chudic 

• 544 Krevin 

.545 Esthonian 

.546 Livonian 

•55 Lapp 

.8 Dravidian languages 

Tamul, Tamil or Malabares languages 

.81 1st group 

.811 Tamul or Tamil 

.812 Malayalam 

.813 Telinga or Telugu Andhra 

.814 Kanarese or Kannada 

.815 TuluorTuluva 

.816 Kodagu 

.82 2d group 

.821 K6ta 

.822 Touda or Toda 

.823 G&nd 

.824 Khond or Kou 

.825 Radjmahal 

.826 Oraon 

495 Asiatic 

Excluding those provided for above 

. i Chinese 

.4 Tibetan 

.5 Himalayan 

.6 Japanese 

.7 Korean 

.8 Burmese 

.91 Siamese 

.92 Annamite 

.95 Mundari family 

Language of the Kolarians 


4.96 African 

Excluding 493 Hamitic, 491.8 Ethiopic, etc. included in families above 

.1 Language of Hottentots 
.2 " " Bushmen 

.3 " " Bantu group 

Kafir dialects 

.4 Negro dialects 

.5 Nubian languages Language of Pouls 

497 North American 

498 South American 

499 Malay-Polynesian and other 

.1 Negrito and Papuan 

.11 Negrito 
.12 Papuan 

.2 Malay 

.21 Tagala branch 

.211 Philippine languages 

.212 Formosan 

.213 Language of Ladrones or Mariana ilands 

.214 Malagasy- 

.22 Malay- Javanese branch 

.221 Malay proper 

.222 Javanese 

.223 Bali 

.224 Maduran 

.225 Sundanese 


.226 Batak Sumatran 

.227 Dyak 


.228 Makassar 

Bugi, Alfourou 

.5 Isolated ilands 
.9 Other languages 

.96 Caucasus 

.961 Northern group 

1 Lesghian group 

2 Kistic or Chechenze group 

3 Cherkesse or Circassian group 
.962 Southern group 

1 Georgian 

2 Svanetian 

3 Mingrelian. 

4 Lazistan 

Pure Science 

500 Science in general 

501-509 ail hav Science in general as their subject, but it is treated in these 
various forms. A periodical on Chemistry goes with 540.5, not 505, which is only 
for periodicals on Science in general, o in any clas number In any part of the 

classification shows the subject to be general, not specific 

501 Philosofy, theorjes, utilities, etc. 

502 Compends, outlines 

For ancient and medieval science prefer 509.01-02 

503 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

504 Essays, lectures, addresses 

505 Periodicals, scientific magazines 

506 Societies: transactions, etc. 

507 Education, methods of teaching and study 

508 Polygrafy: collected works, extracts, etc. 

.1 Extracts .2 .3 General scientific travels .4 — .9 Travels and 

purveys (if general) divided gcograficly like 940-999 

509 History of science 

For subdivisions see Table 2 following Relativ index 

510 Mathematics 

Works on Mathematics in general, not limited to any one or two sections, are 
groupt by form of treatment like Science in general above; i. e. 
510.1 Philosofy .2 Collections, compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, papers, 
tracts, letters .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education .8 Logarithmic and 
other tables .9 History 

511 Arithmetic 

See 372.7 Teaching elementary arithmetic 

.1 Systems of arithmetic 

See also 512.81 Theory of numbers 

.2 Notation and numeration Fundamental rules Abacus 

.3 Prime numbers 

.4 Fractions 

.5 Analysis Permutation and combination 

.6 Proportion and progression 

.61 Magic squares 

.7 Involution and evolution 

.8 Mercantil rules Interest Alligation Mensuration 


.9 Problems and tables 


512 Algebra 

.1 Systems of algebra 

.2 Numeric equations Imaginary expressions 

.21 Equations, 1st to 4th degrees 

.22 Higher numeric equations 

.23 Indeterminate equations Diophantin analysis 

.24 Imaginary expressions 

.3 Algebraic equations Maxima and minima 

.4 Series Fractions Binomial theorem Taylor's theorem 

.5 Combinatory analysis 

.6 Proportion and progression 

.7 Involution and evolution 

.8 Higher algebra 

.8l Theory Of numbers See sn.i Systems of arithmetic 

.82 Theory of equations Complex variable j_See»i«o 517.8 

.83 Determinants 

.84 Symmetric functions 

.85 Elimination: eliminants and discriminants 

.86 Transformations Substitutions 

.87 Quantics 

.88 Invariants Co variants Contra variants 

.89 Universal algebra 

.9 Problems and tables 

513 Geometry 

Plane and solid geometry bound together ar 513. Deicriotlv geometry is sis 
See also 744 Mathematic drawing 

.1 Plane geometry 

. 1 1 Right lines 

. 1 2 Intersecting lines 

.13 Parallel lines 

. 1 4 Triangles 

. 1 5 Quadrilaterals 

.16 Other polygons 

. 1 7 Similarity 

. 1 8 Areas 

.19 Maxima and minima 

.2 Curvs 

.21 Circles 

.22 Conic sections 

.23 Ellipse 

.24 Hyperbola 

.25 Parabola 

.a 6 Higher plane curvs 


513.3 Volumetric or solid geometry 

.3 1 Lines and planes 

.3 2 Intersecting planes 

.33 Parallel planes 

.34 Polyedrons 

.35 Pyramids 

.36 Prisms 

•37 Regular 

.4 With curvd surfaces 

.41 Sphere 

.42 Cone 

43 Cylinder 

.5 Modern geometry 

.51 Points Lines Planes Duality 

.52 Transversals 

.53 Cones Conies Involution 

.54 Radical axes and centers of similitude 

.55 Poles and polars Reciprocal polars 

.56 Harmonic and anharmonic properties 

.57 Correspondence Correlation of figures 

.58 Quadric surfaces: spheroconics, curvs of double curvature 

.59 Surfaces of higher order: cubics 


.7 Infinitesimal and kinematic geometry 

.8 Non-Euclidean geometries Analysis situs 

.81 Absolute or non-Euclidean geometry 

.82 N-dimensional geometry 

.83 Analysis situs Geometric topology 

.9 Problems 

514 Trigonometry 

.1 Trigonometric functions General formulas 9<*> 532.7 

.a Trigonometric series 

.3 Exponential formulas 

.4 Solution of trigonometric equations 

.5 Plane trigonometry : solution of plane triangles ; analytic 

.6 Spheric trigonometry General formulas 

.7 Solution of spheric triangles 

.8 Differences of triangles, plane and spheric 

.9 Problems 


515 Descriptiv geometry and projections 

See also 744 Mathematic drawing 

.1 Orthogonal projection on 2 planes 

. 1 1 Straight lines Planes 

.12 Single curvd lines 

.13 Double curvd lines 

.14 Single curvd surfaces 

. 1 5 Double curvd surfaces 

.16 Surfaces of revolution 

. 1 7 Warpt surfaces 

.18 Intersections of surfaces 

.2 Isometric and analogous projections 

.3 Oblique projection 

.4 Conic projection 

.5 Spheric projection See 526.8 Map projection 

.51 Orthografic 

.52 Globular 

.53 Stereografic 

.54 Polar 

.55 Gnomonic 

.56 Conic 

.57 Cylindric 

.6 Perspectiv See also 742 Drawing 

.61 Plane Parallel Oblique Angular 

See also 750 for Scene painting 

.62 Cylindric 

See also 750 for Panorama painting 

.63 Shadows; natural and artificial light 

.64 Reflections 

.65 Circles, cylinders and spheres 

.66 Distortions and corrections 

.07 Human figure 

.68 New methods Special devices 

.7 Shades and shadows 

.8 Stereotomy 

.8l StOneCUtting See also 693.12 Masonry; 730 Sculpture 

.82 Carpentry See also 694 Bilding 

.83 Stairbilding See also 694.8 Bilding; 729.39 Architectural design 



16 Analytic geometry 

Plane loci 

Right lines 
























Transformation of coordinates 

Conic sections 



Higher plane curvs 
Loci in space 
Right lines 

Transformation of coordinates 
Curvd surfaces 

Conicoids or quadric surfaces 



Surfaces of higher order 
Modern analytic geometry 
Systems of coordinates 
Abridged notation 

Higher plane curvs 

Poles and polars Reciprocal polars 
Harmonic and anharmonic properties 
Method of projection 

Quadric surfaces : spheroconics, curvs of double curvatures 
Surfaces of higher order : cubics 

Quaternions : calculus of direction and position 


517 Calculus 

.1 Infinitesimal Method of exhaustions 

Differential and Integral calculus, bound together, ar put here 

.2 Differential 

.21 Series 

.22 Indc terminate lorms 

.23 Change of the independent variable 

.24 Theory of plane curvs Curv tracing 


.26 Theory of curvd surfaces 

.27 Maxima and minima 

.29 Problems 

.3 Integral 

.3 1 Formulas of reduction and integration 

.3 2 Definit integrals Eulerian integrals 

.33 Rectification Quadrature Cubature 

.34 Multiple integrals 

.35 Laplace's functions Bessel's and allied functions 

.36 Elliptic and hyperelliptic functions Abelian functions 

•37 j • >•>], L.t: jj.'. • '!-v%- J J>i' 'tv ?R'^j«V ; 

.38 Differential and partial differential equations 

.39 Problems and tables 

.4 Of variations 

.5 Of functions 

.6 Of finite differences 

.7 Of operations 

.8 Of imaginaries Complex variables see also S12.82 

.9 Problems 

519 Probabilities 

.1 General principles Direct and inverse probabilities 

.2 Mathematic and moral expectation 

.3 Testimony : decisions of juries and tribunals 

.4 Probability of future events deduced from experience 

.5 Life contingencies: annuities, life insurance see 368.J 

.6 Errors of observation Mean or average values 


.8 Method of least squares 

.9 Problems 


520 Astronomy 

520.1 Astrology, see I33-S 520.2 Compends 5^0.3 Dictionaries S30.4 Essays 
520.5 Periodicals 520.6 Societies 520.7 Study and teaching of astronomy 

520.8 Collections, etc. S20.9 History of astronomy 
See also note under Pure science in general, 500-509 

521 Theoretic astronomy 

Mathematic investigation of celestial motions, specially of the Solar system 
Motions of individual bodies ar clast under separate heds in 523 

.1 Celestial dynamics 

1 1 General laws of equilibrium and motion See also 531-3 

12 Law of universal gravitation and motion 

See also 531.51 

13 Problem of 3 bodies 

14 Figures of hevenly bodies 

1 5 Rotation of hevenly bodies 

2 Geocentric and heliocentric place 

2 1 Plane of orbit in space 

22 Position of orbit in its plane 

23 Position of body in its orbit 

24 Position of body in space 

2 5 Heliocentric longitude and latitude 

26 Geocentric longitude and latitude 

27 Variations of right ascension and declination 

28 Variations of longitude and latitude 

3 Orbits 

3 1 Definitions of orbits 

3 2 Determination from 3 observations 

33 Determination from 4 observations 

34 Variation of elements of orbit 

3 5 Correction of approximate elements of orbit 

3 6 Application of method of least squares 

37 Kepler's problem 

38 Equation of center and radius vector 

4 Perturbations 

41 Mutual action of planets 

42 Action of satellites 

43 Nonsphericity of planets 

44 Resisting medium 

5 Theory of planets 
.6 Theory of satellites 
.7 Theory of comets 
.8 Theory of eclipses 

.9 Precession and nutation see also 522.95-.96 


522 Practical and spheric 

.1 Observatories 

.11 General plan, location 

.12 Material and mechanism of dome, drum, etc. 

.13 Transit bildings, wings, etc. 

.14 High altitude observatories 

. 1 s Portable 

.19 History, reports and serial publications of observatories 

.2 TeleSCOpeS See also 53S-83 Optica 

.21 Reflecting 

.22 Refracting 

.23 Eye piece and accessories 

.24 Object glas 

.25 Mounting, tube, etc. 

.26 Equatorial mounting 

. 2 7 Transit mounting 

.28 Observing chairs, etc. 

.19 Famous telescopes 

May be divided like 930-999 

.3 Meridional instruments 

.31 Finding meridian line 

.32 Mural circles 

.33 Meridian circles 

.34 Transit: placing in position 

.3 5 Collimation constant 

.36 Level constant 

.3 7 Azimuth constant 

.38 Other constants, flexure, index error, etc. 

.4 Extra meridional instruments 

.41 Sextant and quadrant, reflecting circle, astrolabe 

.42 Altazimuth 

.43 Zenith telescope 

.44 Transit out of meridian 

.45 Heliometer 

.46 Equatorial 

.47 Prime vertical 

.5 Auxiliary instruments 

.51 Sidereal clock and chronometer 

.52 Electrochronograf 

.53 Micrometers 

.54 Personal equation machine See also S22.97 Corrections 

.55 For illumination 

.56 For solar observation 

.57 Artificial horizons 

.58 Heliostat 


522.6 Auxiliary observations 


.62 Photometry See 53S.2 Optics 

.63 PllOtOgrafy See SiS &S Optics; 770 Photografy 


.65 Polarization See 535-5 Optics 


.67 Spectroscopy See also 53S-84 

Technic; application to astronomy and use with telescope. For results see 

523.37, 523-57, 523 67, 523 77, 523-87 


.7 Spheric astronomy See also 514-6 

.71 Celestial sphere Spheric coordinates 

.72 Rectangular coordinates 

.73 Transformation of coordinates 

.74 Differential variations of coordinates 

.75 Interpolation 

.76 Meridian line Variation of compass 

.77 Reduction of observations to the meridian 

.78 Use of globes 

.9 Corrections 

.91 Parallax 

.92 Refraction See 535.3 Optics 

.93 Semidiameter of celestial bodies 

.94 Aberration 

.95 Precession See 5219 

.96 Nutation 

.97 Personal equation See 522.54 

.98 Instrumental errors 


523 Descriptiv astronomy 




Structure of universe 


Nebular hypothesis 


Plurality of worlds 


Space and its temperature 


Resisting medium 


Cosmic dust 


Repulsiv force 


523.2 Solar system 

.21 Distribute v laws of planets 

.23 Conjunctions and oppositions 

.24 Motion of solar system in space 

.25 Constitution of planetary system 

.26 Stability of solar system Ecliptic 

.28 Orrery, planetarium, gyroscope, etc. 

See 531-34 Rotation 

.29 Zodiac 

.3 Moon 

.31 Constants: size, mass Distance and parallax 

.32 Heat and light Phases 

.33 Orbit and motions 

Sidereal month, tropical, perigee and apogee, sun and earth's attraction, 
librations. See also 321.6 for Orbit 

.34 Features of surface : mountains, plains, etc. 

.35 Atmosphere 

.36 Physical condition 

.37 Spectrum 

.38 Eclipses 

.39 Charts, photografs, etc. 

.4 Planets 

.41 Mercury and intramercurial 

.42 Venus 

.43 Mars 

.44 Asteroids 

.45 Jupiter 

.46 Saturn 

.47 Uranus 

.48 Neptune and transneptunian 

.49 Charts, photografs, etc. 

.5 Meteors and zodiacal light 

. s 1 Meteorites 

.52 Fireballs 

.53 Meteoric showers, radiant points, etc. 

.54 Systems of meteors 


.56 Connection of comets and meteors 

.57 Spectrum 

.58 Hight of atmosphere from observation 

.59 Zodiacal light Aurora (borealis and australis) 

decimal clarification 

523.6 Comets 

.6 1 Appearance and development 


.63 Orbits 

.64 Remarkable comets 


.66 Physical constitution 

.67 Spectrum 


.69 Charts, photografs, etc. 

.7 Sun 

.71 Constants, dimensions 

.72 Heat and light: theories as to source 

.73 Apparent motion Rotation See 523.38 Tables 

.74 Spots, faculae, and other features of surface 

.75 Prominences, chromosphere, corona 

.76 Theories of physical constitution 

.77 Spectrum 

.78 Eclipses 

.79 Charts, photografs, etc. 

.8 Stars 

.81 Stellar parallax, distance 

.82 Heat and light Photometric observations Magnitude 


.83 Proper motion, stardrift 

.84 Variable, double, and multiple stars 

.85 Clusters and nebulas 

.86 Physical constitution 

.87 Spectrum 

.89 Constellations, maps, catalogs, etc. 

.9 Transits and occultations 

.91 Transits of Mercury 

.92 Transits of Venus and solar parallax 

.93 Delisle's method 

.94 Halley's method 

.95 Photografic method 

.96 Transits of Venus to 1874 

.97 Transit of 1882 


.99 Occultations 


524 Maps, observations, and tables 

Series of observatory publications may be kept together under 524, or under 522.19 
with the history and reports of the observatory. Special maps or observations, e. g. 
on Sun or Moon, ar better placed in subsections 9 under those heds in 523, with 
charts and photografs, e. g. 523.79, thus leaving 524-524.8 blank. These numbers 
ar printed to provide a place in case it is wisht to keep alt maps and observations 

.3 Of mOOn See also 523 -39 

•4 Of planets See also 523 49 


.6 Of COmetS See also S23.69 

• 7 Of SUn See also 523-79 

.8 Star catalogs see also 523.89 

525 Earth 

.1 Constants 

. 1 1 Mass Weight 

. 1 2 Density 

.13 Dimensions, diameter 

.14 Figure: geomorfy, equatorial belt 

. 1 5 Distance from sun 

. 1 6 Parallax 

.2 Heat Light 

.3 Orbits and motions 

.3 1 Period of revolution 

.32 Obliquity of ecliptic to equator 

.33 Eccentricity 

34 Perturbations 

.35 Rotation 

.36 Foucault's pendulum 

.3 7 Deviation of falling bodies and projectils 

.38 Tables of the sun Apparent motion See 523.73 Sun 

.4 Geografic coordinates 

.41 Finding latitude See also 5271 

.42 By meridian altitudes 

.43 By Pole star 

.44 By altitude of 2 or more stars 

.45 By other methods 

.46 Finding longitude See also 527.2 

.47 Terrestrial means: chronometers, telegraf, signals 

.48 Celestial signals: eclipses, occultations, transits 

.49 Lunar methods 

.5 Seasons 

.51 Effect of inclination of equator to ecliptic 

.52 Effect of eccentricity of earth's orbit 

.53 Secular changes of seasons 

.54 Seasons on Mars and other planets 


525.6 Tides 

.61 Mathematic theory 

.62 Effect of sun and moon in producing tides 

.63 Distribution, diurnal inequality, spring and neap, priming 

and lagging 

.64 Establishment of a port Coast form modification 

.65 Velocity of hight of tide wave 

.66 Tides on inland seas 

.67 Supposed effect in retarding Earth's revolution 

.68 Tide registering and predicting machines 

.69 Tide tables 

.7 Twilight 

526 Geodesy 

526. 2-. 8 apply to surveys of large tracts, requiring allowance for earth's curva- 
ture and more exact methods of determination. For local surveys see 526.0 

.1 Theory and determination of Earth's figure 

.11 Potentials of ellipsoids 

. 1 2 Equilibrium of rotating spheroid 

.13 Law of ellipticity 

.14 Airy's and Pratt's theories as to attraction of mountains 

.15 Determination of figure by Airy, by Bessel, and by Clarke 

. 1 6 Ellipsoidal figure and position of axes 

. 1 7 Geoidal figure 

.2 Base mesuring and apparatus 

.21 Standards of length and temperature 

.22 Apparatus of Struve, Bessel, Colby, U. S. coast survey, 

U. S. lake survey, etc. 

.23 Adjustments of apparatus 

.24 Location of base line 

.25 Field operations 

.26 Calculation of results and corrections 

.27 Verification 

.3 Field work of triangulation 

.3 1 Reconnaissance 

.32 Stations 

Names, signals, tripods, scaffolds and towers, surface and underground monu- 

.33 Observations, instruments and records 

.34 Reduction to station's center 

.35 Corrections for phase of signal and eccentricity 

.36 Spirit leveling 

.37 Barometric leveling 

.38 Trigonometric leveling 

These are methods. See 55I-S3t 
for results, lists of hights, etc. 


526.4 Computation of triangulation 

.41 Spheric excess 

.42 Legendre's theorem 

.43 Chord process 

.44 By spheric trigonometry 

.45 By spheroidal trigonometry 

See also application of least squares, 526.S 

.46 L M Z formulas and applications 

.47 Direct deduction by Bessel 

.48 Deduction by Puissant 

.49 Tables for computation 

.5 Theory of least squares in adjustment of figures, etc. 

.51 Method of independent angles 

.52 Adjustment of a quadrilateral 

.53 Adjustment of triangulation net 

.54 Method of directions 

.55 Adjustment for closure of a circuit 

.56 Method of repetitions 

.57 Adjustments of base mesurcs 

.58 Adjustments of leveling 

.6 Astronomic determinations and their connection with 
geodetic results 

.61 Latitude determinations 

.62 Longitude determinations 

.63 Azimuth determinations 

.64 Effect of irregularities of Earth's surface on latitude, 

longitude and azimuth 

.65 Effect of same on angles of triangle 

.7 Gravity experiments and results 

.71 Mathematic theory 

.72 Pendulum apparatus 

.73 Pendulum operations 

.74 Corrections 

.75 Reduction of results 

.8 Map projections See 515 5 Spheric projections 

.81 Perspectiv projections 

.82 Orthomorfic projections 

.83 Development projections 

.84 Zenithal projections 

.85 Equivalent projections 


526.9 Surveying 

.91 Instruments and methods See 526.2 

.92 Mesurement of distances 

.93 Mesurement of angles 

.94 Mesurement of hights 

.95 Leveling See s26.36-.38 

.96 Plotting 

.97 Computation of areas 

.98 Topografic drawing 

.99 For special purposes: military, naval, railroad, mining, etc. 

527 Navigation Nautic astronomy 

.1 Finding latitude at sea s ee also 525.41 

.2 Finding longitude at sea See also 525 46 

.3 Finding time at sea See also 529 74 

.4 Sumner's method 

.5 Great circle sailing 

528 Ephemerides Nautic almanacs 

May be further subdivided like 061-068 

.1 American .4 French .7 Slavic 

.2 English .5 Italian .8 Other 

.3 German .6 Spanish .9 Ephemeris making 

529 Chronology 

.1 Sidereal and solar day 

Apparent and mean time, equation of time, causes of inequality 

.2 Eras, kinds of years, months, weeks, decades etc. 

.3 Kalendars in general; including ancient and nonchristian 

.4 Christian kalendars 

.41 Coptic and other primitiv Christian kalendars 

.42 Kalendar of Julius Caesar 

.43 Kalendar of Gregory, 1582- Almanacs 

.44 Ecclesiastic kalendar: determination 

For feasts etc and kalendars themselvs see 264.021, 264.031 etc 

• 5 Modern projects for reform of kalendar 

.7 Horology 

.71 Finding time by transit 

.72 Finding by equal altitudes 

.73 Finding by single altitude 

.74 Finding by sextant See also 527.3 

.75 Time systems, and standards 

.76 Distribution of time 

.77 Cosmic time 

.78 Instruments for mesuring: dials, hourglasses, clocks, 
watches, etc. 

See 522.51 for Sidereal clocks and chronometers 
See 681 1 1 for Clock and watch making 


530 Physics 

Like Science in general: viz, general works only ar arranged 

530.1 Philosofy .2 Compends, textbooks .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, lectures, etc. 
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education, methods of teaching, experiments 
.8 Physical units .9 History 

531 Mechanics 

.1 Pure motion Kinematics 

.2 Statics Grafic statics 

.21 Force and its mesure 

.22 Composition of forces and motions 

.23 Moments 

.24 Parallel forces Center of gravity 

.3 Dynamics Kinetics 

.3 1 Rectilinear motion 

.3 2 Vibration 

.33 Undulation 

.34 Rotation 

.35 Centrifugal and centripetal force 

.4 Work Friction See 621.89 Lubrication 

.41 Unit of work 

.42 Diagram of work 

.43 Laws of friction Modulus of machines 

.44 Sliding friction 

.45 Rolling friction 

.5 Gravity 

.51 Law of universal gravitation 

.52 Laws of falling bodies 

.53 Pendulum 

.54 Mass. density, etc. 

.55 Projectils 

.58 Apparatus for illustration 

.6 Conservation of energy 


.8 Machines Transmission of force 

See also 621.8 Mechanism of transmission 

.81 Lever and balance 

.82 Wheel and axle 

.83 Cord and catenary 

.84 Pulley 

.85 Inclined plane 

.86 Wedge 

.87 Screw 


.9 Tables Problems Questions 


532 Liquids Hydrostatics Hydraulics 

.1 Properties of liquids Pressure 

.2 Equilibrium of liquids 

.3 Buoyant effects Floating bodies 

.4 Specific gravity Hydrometer 

.5 Liquids in motion Hydrodynamics 

. 5 1 Theoretic flow 

.52 Orifises, adjutages, fluid vein 

• 53 Weirs, overfalls 

.54 Pipes, open channels, rivers 

.55 Bends, valvs, sudden enlargements and contractions 

.56 Efflux ; variable pressure 

.57 Hydrometry Velocity 

.58 Impulse and resistance 

.59 Theory of waves 

.6 Capillary attraction 

.7 Osmose Absorption 

.8 Applications Machines See 621.2 water engms 

Except for libraries making Physics much more prominent than Useful arts, all 
the ' Applications ' wil be more useful under their proper heds in Useful arts. 
It is better to keep all the material in one place, referring to it from the oths:, 
rather than attempt division 

.81 Hydraulic press See also 621.266 

.82 Hydraulic engin See also 621.2s 

.83 Water ram See also 621.27 

.84 Water wheels See also 621.21 

.85 Water blast See also 621.269 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 

533 Gases Pneumatics 

.1 Properties of gases and vapors Absorption 

.2 Laws of compressibility 

•3 Atmosphere 

.4 Barometer 

.5 Air pump 

6 Ae ronautics ■ 1 \>z 

.7 Kinetic theory of gases 

.8 Applications See 621.6 Blowing and pumping englns 

Preferably clast in Useful arts, see 532.8, note 

.82 Manometer Pressure gageS Sec 621.18473 Steam generation 

.83 Condensing pump 

.84 Force pump 

.85 Suction pump 

.86 Diving bel 

.87 Forge bellows 

.88 Pneumatic dispatch 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 


534 Sound Acoustics 

.1 Theory Undulations 

.2 Propagation of sound : velocity, diffraction 

•3 Musical SOUnd Tuning forks See also 781.1 Theory of muiio 

.4 Analysis of sounds Resonators 

.5 Superposition of vibrations 

.6 Grafic representations 

.7 Physiologic : ear and larynx 

For other relations see Ear. Larynx, in Relativ index following Tables 

.8 Applications Preferably clast with topics elsewhere See 532-8, not* 


.83 Signals in navigation See also 654 Communication 

.84 Applications to architecture 

.85 Musical instruments See also 780 Music 

86 Phonograf 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 

535 Radiation Light Optics 

.1 Theory 

.2 Propagation Velocity Mesurement 

.3 Reflection Refraction Absorption 

See also 522.92 Astronomy 

.4 Dispersion Diffraction Interference 

.5 Polarization Polariscope Double refraction 

.6 Color 

.7 Physiologic: eye 

Optical principles of sight. See also Eyes in Relativ index 

.8 Applications Preferably clast with topics elsewhere See 532.8, not* 

* .81 Lenses and prisms 

.82 MicrOSCOpeS and magnifiers See also 578 Microscopy 

.83 TeleSCOpeS See also 522.2 Astronomy 

.84 Spectroscopes and spectrum analysis 

Most general number. See also Spectroscopy, Spectrum, in Relativ index tof 
other relations and applications 

.85 PhotOgrafy See also 770 

.86 Other applications of lenses 

.87 Mirrors and reflecting instruments 

.88 Lighthouses See also 627.9 Harbor engineering; 656 Commerce 
.8 9 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 


536 Heat 

.1 Theory Nature 

.2 Communication 

.3 Action of bodies on heat 

.3 1 Reflection 

.32 Refraction 

.33 Radiation 

.34 AbRorption 

.35 Diathermancy 

.4 Effects Action of heat on bodies 

.41 ExpanRion 

.42 Liquefaction 

.43 Solidification 

.44 Vaporization and condenRation 

.45 IncandeRcence 

.46 CombuRtion Flame 

.5 Temperature Ree 551-52 Meteorology; 613.18 Hygten* 

.51 Thermometry 

.52 Pyrometry 

.53 Electric methodR of meRuring 

.6 Calorimetry 

.7 Thermodynamics Mechanical equivalent 

.8 Applications Preferably go in Useful arts.See 533.8, note 

.81 Steam eilginR See 621. 1 Engineering 

.82 GaR enginR Ree 621.43 Engineering 

.83 Heating see 697, 621.19, 628.8. 644 

.84 Ventilation Ree 697, 622.4, 628.8 

.9 Tables Problems Questions 

537 Electricity 

Ree also 621.3 Electric engineering 

.1 Theory Nature 

.2 Static 

.21 Quantity, potential 

.22 Conduction, distribution 

.23 Machines 

.24 Condensers 

,25 Electrometers 


.4 Atmospheric Lightning rods 

.5 Dynamic 

.51 Theory of coils Constants 

52 Induction Rpark 

.53 Induction Rpark in rarified gases 

.6 Electro dynamics 

.7 Electric mesurements 
















Applications Preferably clast in Useful arts. See 621.3, and 532.8, note 
Xelegra.1 F° r telegraf business, see 654 

Telefone Microfone 

For telefone business see 654.6 

Dynamos Electric lighting 
Tranmission of power Storage 
E lectrometal lurgy 

Galvanometers Batteries Coils 

Medicin See also 61S.84 

Electric signals See 654 9 
Tables Problems Questions 


For Animal magnetism, Mesmerism, etc., see 134 

Theory Properties of magnets Lines of force 
Communication Induction Touch 


Terrestrial magnetism 
Applied Magnetic machines 
Tables Problems Questions 

Molecular physics 

Theory Molecular structure Vortex rings 
Properties of solids 
Elasticity Torsion 
Strength of materials 

See also 620.1 Engineering materials 

Permanent displacement of molecules 




Intermolecular forces 

See also 541.38 Radiochemistry ; 546.432 Radium 

Tables Problems Questions 


540 Chemistry 

Pure or theoretic chemistry 

.1 Early theories, alchemy, phlogiston .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries, cyclo- 
pedias .4 Essays, lectures, etc. .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Education 
methods of teaching .8 Collectiv works .9 History 


541-542 General chemistry 

541 Chemic theories 

542 Operativ and experimental chemistry 
543-545 Analytic chemistry 

543 Analysis 

544 Qualitativ analysis 

545 Quantitativ analysis 

546 Inorganic chemistry 

547 Organic chemistry 


612.015 Physiologic chemistry 660 Chemic telcnology 

615 Medical " 669 Metallurgy 

616.0756 Pathologic " 770 Photografy 

541 Theoretic chemistry Physical chemistry 

Modern chemic theories General properties of bodies from chemic point of 
view Composition Constitution Elements and compounds Affinity 
Formulas Nomenclature 


.2 Atomic theory 

Ultimate constitution of matter. Nature and phases of ultimate particles: 
atoms, ions, anions, kations, electrons. Atomicity. Relationship of mass to 
chemic properties of bodies. Laws of chemic combination: weight, definit 
proportions, equivalence, multiple proportions. Laws of volume for gases. 
Simple or compound nature of chemic elements. Molecules. Atomic and 
molecular weights; methods of determination. Atomic and molecular volumes 
Laws fundamental to atomic theory; see also 541 .9 Classification, periodic law, 

See also physics, S3 2. 4 Specific weights 

.3 Physical chemistry 

Borderland between physics and chemistry. Including densities in different 
phases; chemic affinity, statics and dynamics', thermochemistry and electro- 

.31 Solid state 

See also physics, 536.43 Solidification; 539.2 Properties of solids 

.32 Liquid state 

See also physics, 532.1 Properties of liquids; 536.42 Liquefaction; 541.34 

.321 General 

Surface tension, vapor tension, viscosity, capillarity 

.325 Special types of liquids: gelatinous liquids 
.326 Inorganic liquids 

.327 Organic liquids 

.33 Gaseous state 

Subdivide lil»e 541 .32. See also physics, 533.1 Properties of gases; 536 44 


541.34 Solute state Solubility 
.341 General 

Surface tension, viscosity, diffusion, osmosis, conductivity. See also 532.7 
» Osmose of liquids; 542.61 Dissolving 

1 Theories: kinetic, hydrate and dissociation 

2 Laws Terminology 

.342 Solution pressure Solubility 

Tables of solubility 

.344 Solubility and solution of different forms 

1 Solids 2 Liquids 3 Gases Absorption 

.345 Solution types 

2 Colloid solutions Emulsions 

Including general discussion of colloids 

.346 Solvents 

.35 Photochemistry 

Relation of light to chemic action, of polarized light to chemic structure, etc. 

,36 Thermochemistry 

Relationship of heat to chemic properties of bodies. Thermodynamics and 
energetics applied to chemistry. Relations between specific heat and chemic 
constitutions. Molecular heats; atomic heats; latent heats of physical, allotropic, 
and chemic transformations. Principle of initial and final phases. Study of 
changes of phase. Melting points and boiling points. Liberation and absorption 
of heat in reactions. Exothermic and endothermic reactions. Variation with 
temperature of the quantity of heat used in transformations. Principle of maxi- 
mum work 

.37 Electrochemistry 
.378 Magnetochemistry 
.38 Radiochemistry 

Chemistry of radioactiv substances. See also 539.7 Radioactivity; 546.432 

.39 Chemic dynamics, statics and equilibrium Affinity 

Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemic equilibriums. Kinetic theory of 
chemic equilibriums (of Guldberg and Waage, Pfaundler, van't Hoff); thermo- 
dynamic theory (of Willard Gibbs, of Iiorstmann, of van't Hoff, of Duhem, etc) 
Reaction velocities. Accelerating and retarding influences. Catalysis. See 
also in physics 536.7 Thermodynamics and energetics 

Variation of affinity with physical conditions. Valence. Combinations. Un- 
limited and limited decomposition. Dissociation, efflorescence, limits of dissocia- 
tion and maximum dissociation. Combustion 

.4 Various types of compounds 

Acids, bases, salts, alloys 

.5 Molecular types 
.6 Compound radicals 

Stereochemistry Formulas of structure 

.7 Allotropy 

Isomerism Amorfous and crystallin states Tautomerism Polymerlsm 
Clas here material on structure not included in 541-6 

.9 Other general subjects 

Classification Nomenclature Notation Formulas Stoichiometry 
Tables Periodic law 


Practical and experimental chemistry 

Manipulations Chemic operations For analyses see 543-545 

1 Laboratories 

Interior construction and installation General arrangements Foi archi- 
tecture see 737.5 

2 Apparatus and manipulations For special apparatus see 54a. 3- -9 

21 Manipulations Arrangements Procedure 

2 2 Preparation of substances 

Mechanic separation: trituration, pulverization, porphyrization; morta s 
and pestles, crushers, sifting and sivs. Disintegration by wetting heated 
mass. Levigation 

23 Laboratory receptacles and their accessories 

For uses of receptacles see also various processes and operations 

231 Glas and quartz 

Beakers, bottles, flasks, retorts, test tubes, funnels, adapters, glas rods 
and tubing 

5 Glas manipulation : blowing, grinding 

232 Porcelain 

Evaporating dishes, tubes, retorts. Refractory pottery: crucibles, plates 

233 Metallic 

Containers made of platinum, silver, iron, nickel, aluminum, etc. 

24 Supports Fixt, adjustable, wood. Triangles, tripods, clamps 

25 Stoppers Glas, cork, rubber Corkborers 

26 Rubber tubing Luting and cements 
29 Other appliances 

3 Mesuring apparatus 

32 Determination of weights and density 

Balances and weights Descriptions and directions for use 

33 Specific gravity apparatus Clas preferably in 533.4 

35 Determination of volume 

Mesuring volume of liquid Calibrated vessels Graduated pipets, burets 
and cylinders 

4 ' Heating Distillation 

See also 536.5 Mesurement and regulation of heat; 543.53 Blowpiping 

41 General 

42 Heating with coal 

Laboratory furnaces: trof, cupola, reverberatory, tubular, cupel, blast 
Tube furnaces for organic analysis v 

43 Heating with liquid fuels, etc. Lamps; special burners 

44 Heating with gas 

Coal gas, carburetted air, acetylene, etc. 

Fishtail and Bunsen burners; gas furnaces and grates; pressure regulators 

46 Indirect heating 

Baths and heaters: water baths; salt, metal and oil baths; metal plates or 
wire gauzes 

47 Electric heating 

Heaters, muffles and furnaces; kryptol furnaces 
See also 542.8 Electric and galvanic manipulations 

48 Operations 

Melting, fusing, boiling. Vaporization, distillation. Distilling apparatus, 
alembics or stills. Deflegmators. Vacuum operations 

Evaporation with heat: sublimation, dessication. For evaporation in vac- 
uum see 543 .77 

49 Other heating operations 


542.5 Flames Blowpipes 

See also S44- 2 Dry methods of analysis; 669.9 Assaying 

.51 Flame 

Nature of flame; candle flame; oxidizing and reducing flames 

.52 Coloration of flame 

Beads, colord beads Composit flames 

.53 Blowpipes 

Varieties of blowpipes and how to use them 

For applications see Blowpiping in Relativ index following Tables 

.6 Aqueous and liquid treatment 

Dissolving, aqueous separation, levigation, etc; alcohol, ether, carbondisulfid, 
hydrocarbons, etc. 

.61 Dissolving Solution 

Solvents, maceration, digestion, decoction, lixiviation 

.6? Determination of solubility Supersaturation 

Supersaturated solution 

.65 Diffusion 

Lowering the solidification point or surfusion 

.64 Dialysis Dializers 

See also qualitativ analysis 544-5 Dialysis 

.65 Solidification 

Precipitation, crystallization, crystallizers 

.66 Decantation 

Decantation funnels, Florentin receivers, syfons, pipets 

.67 Filtration and filters 

Filtration with textils, with paper, thru cotton, asbestos, powders, etc. 
Hot filtration Filtration in seald vessels, by suction, by compression 
Filter presses 

.68 Expression and presses Drying of press residues; drying machines 

.69 Washing Continuous, automatic; decantation, wash bottles 

.7 Gas manipulation 

See also 545.7 Eudiometry 

.71 General 

.72 Gas production 

.73 Gas collecting and decanting 

Pneumatic trof, gas sampling-tube, gas pipets; displacement and decanting 

.74 Washing and dissolving gas 

Wash bottles Apparatus for drying and absorbing gas 
• 75 GaS Storage Gasometers, rubber bags 

.76 GaS meSUrement Graduated tubes, meters 

,7'i Rarefaction of gas 

Pumps: air, vacuum, mercury; blowing engins, bellows, suction gasometers; 
manometers; vacuum regulators; trompes 
See also physics, 533.5 Air pumps 

.78 Gas compression 

Seald tubes and bulbs, bellows, compression pumps, gasholders 

.79 Gas liquefaction and solidification 

Faraday tubes Apparatus for expansion; of Thilorier; of Cailletet and 


542 8 Electric and galvanic manipulations 

See also physics, 537.85 Applications of electricity to chemistry. Clas here 
only apparatus for preparing chemic substances, not apparatus for study of 
phenomena. For analytic apparatus see special substance under 543 or special 
process under 544 or 545 

.9 Other operations 

Attacks by acids and gases: oxidations, reductions 6te. 

543-545 Analytic chemistry 

543 Analysis 

Divided by material analyzed, whether qualitativly or quantitativly ; i.e. 9ubstanca 
takes precedence of process. Clas in 543 general works covering both qualitativ 

and quantitativ analysis 
Sec also 614.3 Adulterations 

.1 Analysis of food and drink 

See also 613.2 Hygiene, 61 3 .39 Nutrition 

.2 Dairy products Milk 

See also agriculture, 637 Dairy products 

.3 Water 

See also hygiene 613.31 Water as a beverage; and therapeutics 615.79 Min. 

eral waters 

.4 Analysis of drugs and medicins 

See a'so 614.35 Inspection of drugs; 615 Medicin 

.5 Poisons 

See also 615.9 Toxicology 

.6 Analysis of rocks and ores 

See also 549 Mineralogy, 669.9 Assaying, 631.41 Soil chemistry 

.7 Analysis of inorganic products in general 

For general works and special matter not provided for in previous subdivisions 

of 543 

.8 Analysis of organic products in general 

For genera] works and special matter not provided for in previous subdivisions 

of S43 

.9 Analysis of organic products of animal origin 

For general works and special matter not provided for in previous subdivisions 
of 543 See also 577.1 Biology 


544 Qualitativ analysis 

Determination of chemic elements of substances General processes and methods 

.1 Wet method 

.11 Reagents 
.12 Determination of bases 
.13 Determination of acids 

• .2 Dry method 

See also 669.9 Assaying 

.3 Blowpiping 

For other relations see Relativ index 

.4 Gas analysis Reactions 

Identifying an isolated gas Analysis of gaseous mixtures See also 5^5.7 

.5 Dialysis 

For technic see 542.64; for electric dialysis see 542.8 

.6 Spectrum analysis 

See also physics, 535.84 Spectrum analysis 

.7 Polariscopic analysis 

See also physics, 535.5 Polarization 

.8 Microscopic examinations 
.9 Other methods 


.92 Capillary analysis 

545 Quantitativ analysis 

.1 Gravimetric 

Analysis by weighing, sampletaking 

.2 Wet method 

Titration solution, alkalimetry, acidimetry 

.3 Electric methods 

See also physics, 537.85 Electrometallurgy 
For galvanoplastics see 671 

.311 Constant current analysis 

.312 Constant voltage analysis 

.36 Catalytic analysis 

•4 Dry method 

Quantitativ analyses with blowpipe, cupellation etc. 
See also 669.9 Assaying 

.5 Titrometric methods In general 

.6 Volumetric analysis of liquids 

See also 542.3 Mesuring apparatus 

. 7 Volumetric analysis of gases 

Eudiometry and eudiometers; gas burets, absorption pipets 
See also 544.4 Gas analysis 

.8 Other methods 

Colorimetric Polarimetric Refractometric 

.9 Synthesis 

General processes 

.97 Electric synthesis 


546-547 Inorganic and organic chemistry 

Inorganic chemistry 

.1 Nonmetallic elements 

.11 Hydrogen 

.12 Halogen group 

.13 Chlorin 

.14 Bromin 

. 1 5 Iodin 

.16 Fluorin 

.17 Nitrogen group Nitrogen 

.18 Phosphorus 

.19 Arsenic 

.2 Oxygen group 

.21 Oxygen 

.22 Sulfur 

.23 Selenium 

.24 Tellurium 

.25 Carbon group 

.26 Carbon 

.27 Boron 

.28 Silicon 

.29 Helium group 

.291 Helium .296 Radon Niton 

.292 Neon 

.293 Argon 

.294 Krypton 

.295 Xenon 

.3 Metals 

.31 Alkali group 

.32 Potassium 

.33 Sodium 

.34 Lithium 

.35 Rubidium 

.36 Caesium 

.4 Alkalin earths 

Calcium and magnesium groups considerd together 

.41 Calcium 

.42 Strontium 

.43 Barium 

.432 Radium See also 539-7 Radioactivity; 541.38 Radiochemistry 

.44 Magnesium group 

.45 Beryllium or glucinum 

.46 Magnesium 

.47 Zinc 

.48 Cadmium 



546.5 Led and silver group 

.51 Led 

.52 Thallium 

55 Silver group 

.56 Copper 

.57 Silver 

.58 Mercury 

.6 Cerium group Rare earths 

.61 Yttrium 

.62 Cerium 

;63 Lanthanum 

.64 Didymium 

.642 Praseodymium 

.643 Neodymium 

.65 Erbium 

.652 Ytterbium 

.653 Terbium 

.66 Aluminum 

.67 Indium 

.68 Gallium 

.69 Other metals of rare earths 

.691 Scandium 

.692 Samarium or decipium 

.694 Gadolinium 

.695 Germanium 

.696 Europium 

.697 Thulium 

.7 Iron group 

Iron and chromium groups conaiderd toget£ie> 

.71 Manganese 

.72 Iron 

.73 Cobalt 

.74 Nickel 

.75 Chromium group 

.76 Chromium 

.77 Molybdenum 

.78 Tungsten or wolfram 

.79 Uranium See also 541.38 

.8 Tin group 

Tin and vanadium groups considerd togethel 

.81 Tin 

.82 Titanium 

.83 Zirconium .832 Hafnium 

.841 Thorium See also 541.38 

.842 Actinium See also 541.38 

.85 Vanadium group 

.851 Vanadium 

.86 Antimony 

.87 Bismuth 

.88 Tantalum 

.891 Niobium or columbiuro 

.892 Polonium See also 541.38 


546.9 Platinum group 

.91 Gold 

.92 Platinum 

.93 Iridium 

.94 Osmium 

.95 Ruthenium group 

.96 Ruthenium 

.97 Rhodium 

.98 Palladium 

.99 False and putativ elements 

Arrange alfabeticly 

547 Organic chemistry 

.1 Cyanogen and its compounds 

.2 Hydrocarbons Fatty series 

For occurrence as minerals see 549.8 

.21 Paraffins 

.22 Olefins 

.23 Acetylenes 

.24 Valylene Dipropargyl, etc. 

.25 Aromatic series 

.26 Benzenes 

.27 Diphenyl group 

.28 Naphthalene Anthracene Phenanthrene 

.29 Higher series 

.3 Alcohols Phenols 

.4 Ethers: simple, compound; haloid 

.5 Aldehydes 

.6 Ketones Quinones 

.7 Acids: acid halids, acid anhydrids, sulfo-acids 

.8 Nitroderivates : amins, compound ammoniums, amids, 

amic acids, azo-bodies, azoxy-bodies, hydrazo-bodies, 

.9 Compounds with metals 


548 Crystallografy 

Genera!; phenomena of a special mineral belong with that mineral; e.g 

cleavage of borates 549.73 


Systems of crystallization 


Twin crystals Crystallin aggregations 


Cleavage Isomorfism Polymorfism 


Irregularities Internal imperfections 


Formation and growth of crystals 




Mathematic: mesurement of angles 





549 Mineralogy 

.01 Philosofy, classification .02 Compends .03 Dictionaries .04 Essays, papers, 
etc. .05 Periodicals .06 Societies .07 Study and teaching, museums .08 Col- 
lectiv works .09 History 

.1 Determinativ Blowpiping 

See also 543-6 Methods of analysis of rocks and ores 

See 542.53 Blowpipes and their manipulation. For othei relations see Blow- 
piping in Relativ index following Tables 

.2 Nativ elements 

.3 Sulfids, tellurids, selenids, arsenids, antimonids, bismuthids 

.4 Compounds of chlorin, bromin, iodin, and fluorin 

.5 Oxygen compounds: oxids 

.6 Silicates 

,6 1 Anhydrous 

.65 Hydrous 

.7 Other ternary oxygen compounds 

.71 Tantalates Columbates 

.72 Phosphates Arsenates Vanadates Antimonates 

.73 Borates 

.74 Tungstates Molybdates Chromates 

.75 Anhydrous sulfates 

.76 Hydrous sulfates 

.77 Tellurates 

.78 Carbonates 

.79 Oxalates 

.8 Hydrocarbons 

Occurrence as minerals. For chemistry ot hydrocarbons see 547.2; for 

economic geology see 553.2 

.9 Geografic distribution 

divided like 940-999 For economic geology see 553.09 



5 so. I Philosofy, theories, geologic time .2 Compcnds .J Dictionaries .4 Essays, 
pipers, tracts, letters .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching, 
museums .8 Collectiv works .9 History 

Physical and dynamic geology 

Including geophysics (physiografy, physical geografy) and geochemistry broadly 

treated; see also 551 .94. For Cosmic geografy, see 523 

.1 Structure of earth as a whole 

.1 1 Interior of earth 

.12 Internal heat 

.13 Earth's crust 

.14 Conductivity of rocks 

.2 Seismology 

. 2 1 Volcanoes 

.22 Earthquakes 

.23 Hot springs, geysers 

.24 Oscillations of the earth's crust 

.3 Erosion and deposition 

.3 1 Glaciers and glacial phenomena 

.3 2 Moraines 

.33 Transported materials, till 

.34 Icebergs 

.35 Aqueous erosion 

.36 Coast changes 

.37 Aerial erosion 

.4 Surface features of the earth 

.41 Continents 

.42 Hands 

.43 Mountains Valleys Orology 

.44 Caves 

.45 Plains 

.46 Oceans Submarine topografy 

.47 Ocean currents 

48 Rivers Lakes 

.49 Springs Wells Ground water 9 Antarctic 

.5 Meteorology Climate 

.51 Atmosferic currents Winds 

.52 Thermometry, heat 

For other relations see Heat, Temperature, in Relativ index following Tables 

.53 Hypsometry, elevations See 526.36-8 for methods 

.54 Barometry, pressure 

.55 Storms 

See also 537.4 Atmosferic electricity 

.57 Moisture: rainfall, flow of streams, floods 

.58 Prairies, forests, and deserts 

Division of Oceans for use under .46 

and .47 

1 Atlantic North sea Baltic 

2 Mediterranean Black sea 

3 Gulf of Mexico Caribbean 

4 Southern Atlantic 

5 Pacific 

6 Eastern Pacific or American coast 

7 Indian Bay of Bengal Red sea 

8 Arctic 


551.6 Metamorfism 

.7 Stratigrafic geology 

.71 Archean 

.72 Primary, paleozoic, Cambrian 

.73 Silurian 

.731 Lower Silurian 

.732 Upper Silurian 

.74 Devonian Old red sandstone 

.75 Carboniferous 

.76 Secondary, mesozoic, triassic and Jurassic: lias, oolite 

.77 Cretaceous 

.78 Tertiary, cenozoic 

.781 Eocene, oligocene 

.782 Miocene 

.783 Pliocene 

.79 Quaternary Postpliocene Glacial 

.791 Recent 

.8 Structural geology 

.81 Stratification 

.82 Curvature and contortion 

.83 Ripple marks and sun cracks 

.84 Joints Cleavage Polarity in rocks 

.85 Dip Outcrop Strike 

.86 Anticlinal Synclinal 

.87 Faults and folds Dislocations 

.88 Veins Dykes Necks Bosses 


.9 Agents of geologic work 

.91 Frost 

.92 Water 

.93 Atmosphere 

.94 Geochemistry 

Chemic changes: heat. See also note to 551 

.95 Animals 

.96 Coral reefs 

.97 Plants 

.98 Segregation and concretion 

.99 Other agents 


552 Lithology Petrografy Petrology 

.1 Igneous rocks 

.2 Volcanic rocks 

.21 Lavas Scoria 

.22 Volcanic ashes Volcanic tufa Tuff 

.23 Obsidian Pumis Pitchstone 

.24 Trachyte 

.25 Rhyolite 

.26 Andesite Dacite Phonolite 

.27 Felsites 

.28 Basalt 

.29 Other volcanic rocks 

.3 Plutonic rocks 

.3 1 Porphyry Porphyrite 

.32 Syenite 

.33 Granit 

.34 Diabase and gabbro 

.35 Dolerite 

.36 Diorite 

.37 Norite 

.38 Peridotite 

.39 Other Plutonic rocks 

.4 Metamorfic rocks 

.41 Granits and syenites 

.42 Gneiss 

.43 Schists 

.44 Slates Argillite Phyllite 

.45 Quartzite Novaculite Itacolumite 

.46 Marble Crystallin limestone 

.47 Serpentine 

.48 Chrysolitic rocks 

.49 Other metamorfic rocks 

.5 Sedimentary rocks 

.51 Sandstone Conglomerate Sand Gravel 

.52 Shale Clay Silt 

•53 Gypsum Salt 

.54 Limestone Marl Ooze 

.55 Dolomite 

.56 Oolite 

.57 Infusorial or diatomaceous earth 

.58 Glauconite Greensand 

.59 Other sedimentary rocks 

.6 Meteorites 

.7 Decay of rocks 


552.8 Microscopic petrografy 

.81 Determination of rock minerals 

.82 Rock structure 

553 Economic geology see also 622 Mining engineering 

.1 Ore deposits 

. 1 1 Formation and structure 

. 1 2 Classification 

.13 Superficial: placers 

.14 Stratified: beds, etc. 

. 1 5 Unstratified 

.16 Disseminated thru eruptiv rocks 

17 Stockwerks Fahlbands Contacts 

.18 Chambers and pockets Impregnations 

.19 Mineral veins 

.2 Carbon series WhiIe the history of al , 

• 2I Peat other products goes in 553, 

.2 2 Lignite and jet history of metals is more 

.2\ Cannel coal Bituminous shale useful in 669, Metallurgy 

.24 Bituminous and semibituminous coals 

.25 Anthracite and grafitic anthracite 

.26 Grafite Plumbago 

.27 Asfalt and asfaltic coals Ozocerite 

.28 Petroleum Natural gas 

.29 Fossil gums and resins 

.3 Ores of iron 

.4 Ores of metals other than iron 

.41 Ores of gold 

.42 Ores of silver 

.43 Ores of copper 

.44 Ores of led 

.45 Ores of zinc and tin Mercury 

.46 Ores of manganese and chromium 

.47 Ores of antimony and arsenic 

.48 Ores of nickel and cobalt 

.49 Other metallic ores 

.5 Bilding stones 

.51 Marbles and limestones 

.52 Granits and syenites 

.53 Sandstones 

.54 Slates 

.55 Serpentines Soapstones 

.56 Porphyries 

• 57 Trap 

.58 Tufa Peperino 

.59 Other bilding stones 


553.6 Earthy economic minerals 

.O I 

r 11c ciciyb ui lva cictyo r unci \-icty& 




ixOCK Salt ^jypsurn 


a nOSpilcllco jrvptlLlLc LJUclIlU 000 also 031.55 


1 - - 1 ! 1 I y V^VJI U.11U U.1I1 


Hevy spar Sulfur 


Asbestos, etc. 


Limes and mineral cements 


Other earthy economic minerals 


Mineral waters 

.71 Alkalin 

.72 Salin 

.73 Chalybeate, ironbearing 

.74 Sulfuric 

.75 Calcic 

See also 551-23 

.8 Gems Ornamental stones 

.9 Other economic minerals 

554 Geology of Europe S54-S59 subdivided by countries like 940-9VV 

555 Geology of Asia 

556 Geology of Africa 

557 Geology of North America 

558 Geology of South America 

559 Geology of Oceania Polar regions 

r /T _ T-\ n 1 aavi4a1/\/VW UsC f ° rm divisions as in 550 and divide 9 geograficly 

^OO XT cliGOUXOlOgy like 930-999; e. g. Paleontology of England 560.942 

See also last paragraf of notes under 58 ; 

561 PlantS So 1 is subdivided like Botany, 580 

562 Invertebrates 562-569 is subdued nke zoology, 592-599 

563 Protozoa Radiates 

564 Mollusks 

565 Articulates 

566 Vertebrates 

567 Fishes Batrachia 

568 Reptils Birds 

569 Mammals 


570 Biology Archeology 

570.1 Philosofy .2 Compends .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, 'ecturcs, etc. 
.5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching, museums 
.8 Collectiv works .9 History 

571 Prehistoric archeology 

For Customs, see 390 For Archeology of special countries, see 913 

.1 Paleolithic, or early stone age 

. 1 1 Drift remains 

. 1 2 Cave men 

.13 Remains of animals Shells 

.14 Chipt stones 

. 1 5 Flint flakes Arrow heds Knives, etc. 

.16 Other stone remains 

.19 Other remains 

.2 Neolithic, or late stone age 

.21 Stone quarries 

.23 Remains of animals 

.24 Polisht stones 

.25 Sharpend stones: celts, tools, wepons 

.26 Perforated stones: spindles, net sinkers, pipes 

.27 Hollowd stones: mortars, cups, food vessels 

.28 Other stone remains 

.29 Other remains 

.3 Bronze age 

.3 1 Ancient copper and tin mining 

.34 Bronze remains 

.35 Tools Wepons, etc. 

.37 Cups Vessels 

.39 Other remains 

.4 Iron age 

.5 Other remains 

.51 Implements of wood 

.52 Implements of bone 

.53 Basket work 

.54 Textil fabrics 

.55 Pottery 

.56 Glas 

.6 Prehistoric industries 

.7 Rudiments of art Ornaments 

.71 Drawings 

.72 Paint 

.73 Sculptures 

.74 Beads 




















Natural caves 

Earth houses Pit dwellings Weems 
Lake dwellings Crannoges 
Cliff dwellings 

Tents as dwellings 
Mounds and monuments 

Mounds and mound bilders 
Grave mounds 

Kitchen middens Shell banks 
Monoliths Cromlechs 
Circles Labyrinths 

Ethnology Anthropology 

See also 136.4 Mental race caracteristics 

Unity of human race 
Diversity of races 
Migrations of men 

Original home of man: Eden, Atlantis, etc. 

Savages : races divided by practises 

Clas description of savages of special country in 914-919; e. g. Australian bush- 
men 919 .4 

Races divided by language like 400 
Races divided by countries like 930-999 

Divide by countries where possible. Use language divisions for groups like 
Semitic, Aryan, Teutonic, English, etc. 

Natural history of man Somatology 

Man's place in nature 
Origin of man 
Antiquity of man 

Influence of climate and surroundings 

Color in man 



Dwarfs and giants 


See also 611. 012 Teratology; 613.91 Congenital defects; 617.3 Deformities 


574 Physiologic and structural biology- 
Natural history 

Subdivided where wisht like 581 and 591; but clas phylogeny on 575, variation 
on 575.2, ecology on 575. 3. abiogenesis on 576.1, cytology on 576.3 

575 Evolution Phylogeny 

See also 213 Creation; 215 Religion and science; 239.8 Apologetics 

.01 Theory 

.016 Miscellaneous theories 

2 Darwinism 

3 Orthogenesis Determinate evolution 

4 Weismannism 

5 Mutation theory 

6 Lamarckism 

.07 Study and teaching 

.072 Experiment and reserch 

5 Methods 

52 Conserving method 

53 Agricultural " 

54 Horticultural method 
56 Zooteknic " 

.1 Heredity Eugenics 

See also 613.9 Hygiene of offspring, stirpiculture. For other relations 
see Heredity in Relativ index following Tables 

. 1 1 General questions and laws 

.112 Blending inheritance 

2 Galton's law 

.113 Alternativ inheritance 

2 Mendel's law 

.114 Mosaic inheritance 

. 1 2 Inheritance of caracters 

.122 Normal hereditary units Genotypes 

.123 Inheritance of acquired caracters 

Permanence of acquired caracters 

.124 Inheritance of sports 

• 125 " " fluctuating variations Phenotypes 

.126 Heredity of special caracters 

2 Factors of caracters 4 Polymorfic caracters 

3 Sexual caracters 


575.13 Breeding Heredity 

.131 Theoretic and general questions 

2 Effects of external influences 

3 " u internal " 

.132 Outbreeding Mongrelization 

See also 57s. 282 Hybridization 

.133 In-and-in breeding Self fertilization 

Effects of consanguinity, incest 

.134 Sterility 

.135 Xenia 

. t 3 1 Telegony 

.737 Atavism 

.138 Cytology of heredity and breeding 

.139 Other topics 

.15 Mekanic fenomena 

.16 Chemic " 

.17 Morfologic " 

.2 Variation 

Divided Hire 581.15, but clas selection on 575.4-.S 

.3 Ecology Environment Bionomics 

Divided like 581.5. See also 136.2 Mental characteristics: 573.4 j\atui„ 
history of man 

.4 Adaptation Adjustment 

.42 Factors of adjustment 

.422 Self adaptation 

.423 Natural selection Survival of the fittest 

.424 Artificial " 

.43 Special results 

.432 Cros fertilization 

.433 Resistance to unfavorable environment 

.5 Sexual selection 

.6 Development 

.7 Degeneration Regeneration Extinction 

.8 Origin of species 
.y " " sexes 

See also 574.36 Production and differentiation of sexes 

576 Origin and beginnings of life 

.1 Abiogenesis Spontaneous generation 

.2 Protoplasm Bioplasm 

.3 Cels Cytology 

Divided like 581.87 

.4 Begirmings of motion and sensation 

•5 Associations of eels and unicellular organisms Cel 



577 Properties of living matter 

.1 Chemic: difference between organic and inorganic 

See also 574.19 Biochemistry 

.2 Life : difference between ded and living matter 

See also 612.013 Physiology 

.21 Theoretic and general questions 

Nature of life 

.212 Mekanism 
.213 Vitalism 

.214 Physico-biologic conception of life 

Structure necessary to life 

.22 Living and ded matter 

.23 Molecular life 

Life considerd as sinthesis of molecular energies 

.24 Relations between life and deth 

.3 Difference between vital and physical fenomena 

.4 Conditions of life : moisture, temperature 

See also 575-3 Ecology 

.5 Difference between plants and animals 

.6 Vital force 

.7 Deth 

See also 612.013 

.72 Definitions Conditions Causes 

.73 Longevity and mortality of living organisms 

.74 Fenomena of decomposition among living organisms 

Autolysis, putrefaction 

.75 Types of deth 

.76 Signs " " 

.8 Sex in nature 

See also 575.9 Origin of sexes 

.81 Theoretic and general questions 

Nature of sex 

.82 Sexes 

.822 Male 

.823 Female 

.824 Hermaphrodite 

.825 Neuter 

.84 Factors effecting sex 

Sex inversion 

.841 External factors 

.842 Internal " 

.85 Physiologic fenomena 

.86 Morfologic " 

.88 Determination of sex 

.9 Other topics 


578 Microscopy See also S3S-82 Optics 
.1 Varieties of microscopes 

.2 Optic parts 

.3 Mekanic parts 

.4 Accessory apparatus Management of microscope 

.5 Illuminating apparatus 

.6 Preparation and mounting of objects 

.7 Special preparation and study of inorganic material 

.8 " botanic material s ee S 8i.8 Histology 

.9 " zoologic material ' 591 8 

579 Collectors manuals 

.1 Preparing skeletons 

.2 Preservativs and hardening fluids 

.3 Injections 

.4 Taxidermy 

.5 Mounting specimens 

.6 Collecting 

.611 Alluring; bait, light etc. 

.612 Hunting; nets, collecting bottle, etc. 

.613 Killing 

.614 Exchange Purchase 

.615 Rearing 

.616 Transporting 

.7 Arrangement of specimens in museums 

.71 Cabinets .72 Labels 

.8 Preservation of specimens 

.81 Museum pests .82 Pestifuges .83 Prevention of moisture .84 Re- 
tention of colors, 



580 Botany 

For full list of form divisions sec Tabic 2 after Rclativ index 

. i Theory 

.14 Nomenclature Terminology Simbols Abbreviations 

For dictionaries see 580.3 

.142 Etimology 

.143 Scientific 

2 Names of genera, species etc 

3 Teknical terms: organs, functions, processes etc 
.144 Popular 

.148 Sistems of notation: simbols, abbreviations etc 

.7 Study and teaching 

.72 Reserch and experimentation 

.722 Laboratories 

.723 Field work 

.725 Methods 

2 Under glas 

22 Comparison of conditions under gles and in life 

3 fn life 

32 Comparison of artificial and natural conditions 

4 Methods of culture 

42 Sterilization of cultures 

5 Biometric and statistical methods 
.9 History of botany 

Divided like 930-990. For geografic distribution of plants see 581.9 

581 Physiologic and structural botany 

.1 Physiology 

.11 Circulation Transport 

Absorption and movement of liquid substances, sap 

.111 Theoretic and general questions 

Nature of circulation 

.112 Absorption of liquids 

.113 Circulation of " 

Rize of sap 

.114 Translocation and distribution of foods 

.115 Methods 

1 Adhesion Cohesion 

2 Capillarity 

3 Imbibition 

4 Diffusion 

5 Osmosis 

6 Suction 

62 Leaf suction Negativ tension 

63 Root suction Root pressure 

7 Stem action 

8 Action of living eels 

9 Other 


581.12 Respiration 

Katabolism ; see also 581.132 Digestion, 581.14 Excretion, 581.193 Fer- 

.121 Theoretic and general questions 

Nature of respiration. Absorption and movement of gases 

2 Aeration and aerating sistem 

22 Absorption of gases 

23 Circulation " " 

3 Oxidation 

32 Complete 

33 Incomplete 

34 Production of carbon dioxid 

35 " " light, phosforcscence, luminescence 

36 " " heat Temperature attaind 

37 Other products of oxidation 

4 Respiratory ratio 

5 Influence of external conditions 
.122 Dermal respiration 

.124 Intercellular respiration 

.126 Tracheal respiration 

.128 Intramolecular or anaerobic respiration 

.129 Exhalation and transpiration 

Exudation, guttation. See also 581.14 Secretion and excretion 

.13 Nutrition Metabolism 

.131 Acquisition of food 

.132 Digestion " " 

.133 Assimilation and storage of food Anabolism 

1 Theoretic and general questions 

* Nature of assimilation 

2 Assimilation by autotrophic plants 

3 " " allotrophic or heterotrophic plants 

4 Processes of assimilation 

42 Photosynthesis 

Agents: chlorophyl, carotinoids, bacteriopurpurin 

43 Chemosynthesis 

44 Nitrification 

45 Proteid synthesis 


581.1335 Substances assimilated 

52 Carbon 

53 Nitrogen 

54 Mineral substances 

542 Water 

543 Sulfur 

544 Phosforus 

545 I ron 

546 Mineral salts 

2 Calcium salts 3 Potassium salts 4 Sodium salts 

55 Organic foods 

552 Vegetable 

553 Animal 

6 Reassimilation of degenerate parts 

7 Products of assimilation 

72 Protoplasm 

73 Plastic products 

8 Food storage Reservs 

82 Formation of reservs 

83 Dissolving " 1 " 

84 Distribution 

85 Types of reservs 

852 Water 

853 Starchy or amylaceous 

854 Cellulose 

855 Oily or oleaginous 

856 Albuminoid and nitrogenous 

9 Other topics 
.134 Growth 

1 Theoretic and general questions 

12 Rate and periodicity 

Rest periods 

13 Influence of tissue tension 

14 Polarity Internal influences Correlations 

1 5 Influence of environment 

152 Metcorologic conditions 

Divided like 551.5 

153 Light 

154 Electricity 

155 Mekanic forces 

2 Primary growth 

22 Growing regions Vcgctativ points 

23 Methods of growth 

232 By eel enlargement and lengthening 

2 Protoplasmic growth 

3 Growth of eel wall ; of enveloping membrane 

233 By eel division, multiplication 

3 Secondary growth 

32 Normal growth with single annual cambium layer 

322 Growth of central cilinder 

323 " " bark or surface 

33 Abnormal growth 

See also 581.22 Teratology 


581.135 Development Ontogeny 

General and postembyronic; for embryonic development see 581.3 

1 Theoretic and general questions 

Nature of development 

2 Differentiation and development of members 

See also S81.4 Morfology. 581.7 Organografy. Divilcd like 581.4 

3 Periods of development 

32 Youth 

33 Maturity 

34 Rejuvenescence 

35 Senescence Degeneration Decline 

352 Exfoliation 

Scaling or peeling off 

353 Falling of lcavs 

354 " " branches 

355 Cicatrization 

36 Deth 

.136 Repair of waste 

.137 Production of organic material 

.138 Conditions of nutritiv activity 

Water culture mediums, etc 

.139 Longevity Vitality 

.14 Secretion Excretion 

.141 Mucous Sebaceous Laticiferous 

2 Mucous 3 Sebaceous: fats etc 4 Laticiferous: 

latex, gums etc 

.142 Sericeous 

.143 Digestiv 

. 144 Protectiv and attractiv 

Odoriferous, sweet, luminous, electric, etc. 

2 Odoriferous 

Essences, perfumes, resins etc 

3 Sweet-tasting 

Nectar, honey etc 

4 Pigmentary 

42 Green coloring matter, chlorophyl 

43 Yellow " " xanthophyl 

44 Red " " carotinoids 

45 Blue " " anthocyans 

46 Purple " " bactcriopurpurin 
.145 Poisonous Gall formation 

See also 581.27 Galls 

.146 Spermatic 
.149 Other 

2 Urinary 4 Cristallin 5 Inorganic 

Urea etc Amorfous inorganic products, etc 


i s Variation 

See also 575.2 Evolution 

151 Theoretic and general questions 

Nature of variation 

2 Physiologic, embryologic and cytologic aspects 

22 Production of variations 

23 Variation and development 

232 Variation at special developmental stages 

233 " and recapitulation 

24 Correlated variation 

242 Immediate or physiologic correlation 

243 Mediate or biometric " 

2 Homotypy 

25 Variation and germ plasm 

252 Corresponding variation of chromosomes and soma 

26 Variation and heredity 

See also 575.1 Evolution 

3 Variation of particular caracters 

31 General laws 

311 Varietal vs specific caracters 

312 New vs old caracters 

313 Secondary sexual caracters 

314 Variation in caracters of wi deranging species 

32 Secular variation and periodicity 

4 Variation and selection 

42 Natural selection Adjustment 

43 Artificial " 
45 Sexual 

9 Polymorfic variation 

152 Environmental variation Modification 

Extrinsic causes of variation 

2 Meteorologic influences 6 Geografic variation 

Divided like 551.5 7 Effect of nutritiv agents 

3 Effect of light 72 Food 

4 " " electricity 73 Water 

5 " " gravity and 74 Chemic agents 
other mekanic forces 75 Solutions 

153 Heterofagic 

154 Polygoneutic 

155 Mimetic 

156 Sexual 

Sexual dimorphism, etc 

157 Colorational 

158 Hybrids Grafts 

Intrinsic causes of variation 

2 Hybrids 3 Grafts See a l s ° 581.16582 Propagation 1 

159 Mutations Abnormalities 

Monstrosities. See also 581.22 Teratology 


581.16 Generation Reproduction 

.1C1 Abiogenesis Spontaneous generation 

.162 Parthenogenesis Apogamy Apospory Neuters 

.163 Metagenesis Alternation of generations 

.165 Vegetativ, asexual, nonsexual reproduction 

1 Theoretic and general questions 

Nature of vegetativ reproduction 

2 Fission Fragmentation 

22 Strobilation 

23 Gemmation Unicellular budding 

3 Brood organs: bulbils, gemmae, gonidia, soredia etc 

4 Bulbs Tubers Winterbuds (as of Potamogeton) etc 

5 Shoots, offsets, propagules, runners etc 

6 Shedding of hormogons, branches or other parts 

7 Regeneration 

8 Artificial propagation 

82 Grafts 83 Slips or cuttings 84 Layers 

9 Other 

.166 Sexual reproduction 

Nuclear fusions 

1 Theoretic and general questions 

Nature of sexual reproduction, formation of sex eels, etc; see also 
581.36 Production of sexes 

2 • Fertilization Fecundation Conjugation 

22 Pollination 

23 Self vs cros fertilization 

24 " fertilization 
242 Cleistogamy 

25 Cros fertilization 

252 Dichogamy 

253 Heterogamy 

1 Dimorphic 3 Trimorphic 

254 Diclinism 

2 Monoecious 3 Dioecious 4 Polygamous 
256 Adaptation to special carrying agents 

2 Forms of adaptation 6 Zoophily 

Traps, vexillary dispo- Divided like 500, but 

sition, etc clas adaptation for in- 

3 Hydrophily sect carriers on 

4 Anemophily 581. 1662567 

7 Entomophily 

Divided like 595.7 

26 Artificial control of fertilization 
.167 Hermaphroditism 

.168 Viviparity 

.169 Superfetation Superfecundation Superfertilization 

Double fertilization, triple fusion, twinning 


581.17 Histogenesi s 

.171 Development of sperm eels 

.172 " " germ eels Micropyle 

.179 Reparation of wounds Regeneration of parts 

.18 Irritability and movement 

.181 Theoretic and general questions 

Nature of irritability; perception and transmission of stimuli 

.182 Physical or mekanic movements 

2 Stability 6 Hygroscopic movements 

3 Elasticity 62 Movements due to cohesion of water 

4 Turgidity content 

5 Tensions Dehiscence of anthers, projection of sporangia, 


63 Movements due to swelling or dis- 

.183 Paratonic movements 

1 General irritations or stimuli 

2 Tropisms 

Movements dependent on direction of stimulus 

22 Geotropism 

23 Water and moisture tropisms Chemic tropisms 

232 Rheotropism 

233 Hydrotropism 

234 Osmotropism 

235 Chemotropism 
2 Aerotropism 

24 Light and heat tropisms 

242 Phototropism Hcliotropism 

243 Radiotropism 

244 Thermotropism 

25 Electrotropism Galvanot ropism 

26 Haptotropism Stereotropism Thigmotropism 

Of tendrils, sensitiv plants, etc 

27 Traumatropism 

3 Nastic movements 

Movements dependent on intensity of stimulus independently of 

32 Nyctinastic Nyctitropic Photcolic Photonastic 

Sleep movements, periodic sleep, etc 

33 Seismonastic 

Movements due to shock (as in Mimosa, Biophytum etc) 

34 Thermonastic 

4 Taxies Locomotion 

Divided like 581.1832; see also 581.1866 Autonomic locomotion 

.184 Turgor movements 

Gyrations etc (as of traps, trigger hairs, etc) 


581.185 Autonomic movements 

2 Of variation 6 Projections due to motions 

3 " nutation and of variation and nutation 
Circumnutation Projection of germs and 

4 Epinasty spores thru such movements 

5 Hyponasty 

.186 Cytoplasmic, protoplasmic movements 

2 Streaming 

3 Rotation 

4 Movement of plastids 
6 Autonomic locomotion 

See also 581.1834 Paratonic locomotion 

62 Swimming 

622 Ciliary 623 Flagellary 624 Excretory 

63 Rampant Creeping Ameboid 
.19 Physiologic chemistry 

.192 General chemic composition 

Plant constituents 

2 Composition of ash 7 Stimulants 

3 Organic composition 8 Mutual influences of con- 

4 Necessary elements stituents Protectiv influence 

5 Superfluous " of salts 

6 Noxious and toxic 9 Other topics 
elements Poisons 

.193 Ferments and fermentation Enzymes and catalysis 


1 Theoretic and general questions 

Energesis etc; see also 581.12 Respiration 

2 Processes and products 

3 Influences of external factors 

4 Special ferments 

41 Oxidants Oxidases Reducing ferments 

42 Hydrolytic 

43 Proteolytic 

44 Lipolytic and saponifying 

442 Lipolytic 

443 Saponifying 

45 Amylolytic and sucroclastic 

46 Glycolytic 
461 Alcoholic 

9 Antiferments Antienzymes 

.194 Hormon3S Vitamins 

.196 Internal reactions 

.197 Special products 

Divided like 547 Organic chemistry 


581.2 Pathology 

Sec also 632 Agriculture 

.21 Nonparasitic or physiologic diseases 

Diseases due to malnutrition, etc 

.22 Teratology Malformation 

See also 581.150 Abnormalities 

.221 Union of organs Abnormal fusions 

2 Cohesion 

Union of similar parts 

3 Adhesion 

Union of dissimilar parts 

7 Synophyty 

Union of embryos 

8 Union of special organs or parts 

Divided like 581.4 

.222 Division Separation Adesmy 

Abnormal fissions 

2 Division of similar organs or parts 

3 " " dissimilar organs or parts normally attacht 

7 " " embryo 

8 " " special organs or parts 

Divided like 581.4 

.223 Displacement Ectopy 

Abnormal position of organs 

2 Homotopy 

3 Heterotaxy 

7 Displacement of embryo 

8 " " special organs or parts 

Divided like 581.4 

.224 Metachromism and metamorfism 

2 Metachromism 

Abnormal changes of color 

27 Of embryo 

28 " special organs or parts 

Divided like 581.4 

3 Metamorfism 

Change of 1 organ or part into another. For normal metamorfosis 
see 581.34 

37 Of embryo 

38 " special organs or parts 

Divided like 581.4 

.225 Changes of number 

8 Of special organs or parts 

Divided like 581.4 

.226 Deformations Heteromorfy 

2 Fasciation 7 Deformation of embryo 

3 Enations 8 " " special organs or parts 

4 Torsion Divided like 581.4 

.227 Stasimorfy Atrofy Loss of function Abortion 


7 Of embryo 8 Of special organs or parts 

Divided like 581.4 


581.228 Hypertrofy 

Abnormal enlargement of organs or parts 
7 Of embryo 8 Of special organs or parts 

Divided like 581.4 

.229 Other abnormalities 

.23 Parasitic and infectious diseases 

For galls sec 581.27; see also 581.55763 Parasitism, 581.693 Parasitic plants 

.232 Diseases due to parasitic plants 

2 Bacterial diseases 

Divided like 589.95 

3 Algal diseases 

Divided like S89.3-.6 

4 Smuts Bunts 

5 Rusts 

6 Other fungus diseases 

Clas here general works on fungus diseases. Divided like 589.2 

7 Other thallophytic diseases 

Clas here general works on thallophytic diseases. Divided like 589 

8 Diseases due to other parasitic plants 

Divided like 580 

.233 Diseases due to parasitic animals 

3 Protozoans 

Divided like 5931 
5 Worms 

Divided like 595.1 
7 Insects 

Divided like 595. 7 

9 Diseases due to other parasitic animals 

Divided like 590 

.234 Virus diseases 

.24 Injuries 

Divided like 632.1 

. 2 5 Anatomy of diseasd and injured tissues 

.26 Cytology " " " " " 

. 2 7 Galls 

.271 Theoretic and general questions 

Nature of gall producing stimuli, etc 

.272 Fungus galls Mycodomatia Mycocecidia 

Divided like 589.2 

.273 Galls due to other plant agencies 

Clas here general works on galls due to plant agencies. Divided like 580 

.274 Insect galls 

Divided like 595-7 

.275 Galls due to other animal agencies 

Clas here general works on galls due to animal agencies. Divided like 


.276 Regions affected 

Divided like 581.4 

.277 Anatomic study of galls 

.28 Means of protection against diseases 

Divided like 632.9 

.29 Other topics 


581.3 Embryology Phylogeny 

.32 Sporogenesis Gametogenesis 

.322 Microsporogenesis Spermatogenesis 

.323 Macrosporogenesis Oogenesis 

.324 Spore sacs 

2 Ovules 4 Sporogonia Sporangia 

3 Thecae 5 Spore mother eels 
.325 Embryo sacs and spores 

2 Embryo sacs 

3 Pollen grains 

4 Spores 

42 Asexual spores 43 Sexual spores 

Gonidia, zoospores Zygospores, oospores, carpospores 

.326 Gametes 

2 Isogametes 4 Coenogametes 6 Spermatozoids 

3 Anisogametes 5 Eg eels 

.327 Seed 

For seed morfology see 581.467 

.33 Development of embryo 

.331 Theoretic and general questions 

Division of fusion nucleus, etc 

.332 Anatomy of embryo 

2 Embryonic tissues 7 Cotyledon 8 Radicle 
5 Stem 74 Plumule g Suspensor 

.333 Germination 
.334 Seedling 

i Theoretic and general questions 

Significance of juvenil stages, etc 

5 Primary shoot or stem 

52 Hypocotyl 

53 Epicotyl 

7 Primary leavs 

8 " root 

.34 Metamorfosis 

For abnormal metamorfism see 581.2243 

. 3 5 Hypermetamorf osis 

.36 Production and differentiation of sexes 

See also 575.9 Origin of sexes, 581.1661 Formation of sex eels 

.38 Phylogeny 

See also 575 Evolution 


581.4 Morfology Comparativ anatomy Homologies 

.41 Circulatory organs Vascular sistem 

.413 Fibro vascular bundles 

2 Xylem Tracheae 4 Phloem Bast Siv tubes 

3 Cambium 5 Leaf traces 

.414 Veins Venation 

.42 Respiratory organs 

.421 Stomata Lenticels 

2 Stomata 3 Lenticels 

22 Gard eels 
.423 Aerenchyma 
.424 Intercellular spaces 

.43 Nutritory organs 

Mesophyl, palisade eels, etc 

.44 Secretory and excretory organs 

.442 Laticiferous vessels 

.446 Secretory glands and eels 

Nectaries, epidermal glands, etc 

.46 Generatory organs 

.462 Cryptogamic generatory organs 

2 Antheridia 3 Archegonia Oogonia 4 Sporophyls 

.463 Flowers 

As generatory organs; for flowering plants see 582.13 

1 Theoretic and general questions 

12 Origin of flower 

13 Differentiation 

2 Gross anatomy 

22 Peduncle 

23 Receptacle 

24 Perianth 

242 Calyx Sepals 

243 Corolla 

2 Petals 3 Ligulea 

Vexilla, banners or standards 

244 Corona 

25 Essential organs 

252 Stamens Androccium 

Filament, anther, pollen sac 

253 Pistils Carpels Gynoecium 

Ovary, style, stigma 

4 Estivation 

5 Inflorescence 

6 Modifications of flower parts 

.464 Fruit 

See also 634 Agriculture 

.467 Seed 

For seed formation see 581.327 

2 Anatomy 

22 Nucellus 25 Micropyle 

23 Endosperm See also 581.172 Develop- 

24 Seed coats ment of germ eels 


581.47 Motory organs Integumentary sistem 

.473 Motory organs 

2 Cilia 3 Flagella 
.477 Integumentary sistem 

Cuticle, epidermis, cortex, bark 

.478 Hairs, emergences etc 

1 Hairs, trichomes, bristles, tentacles 

Piliferous layers, root hairs, etc 

2 Emergences, prickles, papillae, warts etc 

.48 Nervous sistem 

.49 Regional anatomy 

.492 Thalloid structures 

.495 Stems 

1 Theoretic and general questions 

12 Origin of stem 

13 Differentiation 

2 Gross anatomy 

22 Collar 24 Internodes 

23 Nodes 25 Terminal bud 

3 Storage and supporting regions 

32 Pith 34 Bundle sheath 

33 Medullary rays 35 Mekanic tissues 

5 Branches and branching 

6 Modifications 

62 Aerial stems 63 Underground stems 

Cladodes or cladophyls, phyl- Rhizomes, bulbs, 

loclades, thorns, stem tend- corms, tubercles etc 

rils, filaments, haptera etc 
622 Climbing stems 
.497 Leavs Fronds Phyllomes 

1 Theoretic and general questions 

12 Origin of leaf 13 Differentiation 

2 Gross anatomy 

22 Blade Lamina 25 Base of leaf 

23 Petiole 26 Stipules Stipels Ocreae 

24 Cicatrix Leaf scar Ligules 

3 Storage and supporting regions 

4 Leaf buds Vernation 

5 Phyllotaxy Leaf arrangement 

6 Modifications 

Spines, phyllodes, leaf tendrils, bracts, involucres etc 

.498 Roots 

1 Theoretic and general questions 

12 Origin of root 13 Differentiation 

2 Gross anatomy 

Root cap, etc 

3 Storage and supporting regions 

5 Secondary roots Root branching 

6 Modifications 

Aerial and adventitious roots, root tendrils, root buds, haustoria, 
rhizoids etc 


581.5 Habits Behavior Ecology Bionomics 

See also 581.15 Variation 

. 5 1 Instinct 

.52 Environment Abode 

.522 Individual ecology Autecology 

Adaptation and response in general 

2 Effect of environment on individual 

For climate and seasons see 581.54 

22 Soil Edaphic factors 

23 Light 

24 Electricity Magnetism 

25 Gravity and other mekanic factors 

26 Smoke 

27 Fluid substances 

For food see 581.53 

272 Gases 

2 Oxygen 3 Carbon dioxid 4 Noxious gases 

273 Water 

274 Chemic and poisonous solutions 

275 Osmotic solutions 

3 Effect of individual on environment 

32 Prevention of wethering and erosion 

33 Sand binding 

34 Deposition of silt and plant remains 

35 Soil enrichment Accumulation of humus 

36 " exhaustion 

37 Modification of atmosferic conditions 

4 Adjustment Acclimatization 

5 Ecologic anatomy 

Correlation of structure with environment, advantageous or adaptiv 

52 Ecologic anatomy of organs 

Divided like 581.4 

53 Ecologic anatomy of tissues 

Divided like 581.82 

54 Structural correlations with special environmental factors 

Divided like 581.5222 

55 Structural correlations with special climatic factors 

Divided like 551.5 

6 Migration Dissemination 

See also 581.166256 Reproduction 

61 Theoretic and general questions 

Centers of distribution, migration routes, etc 

62 Dissemination by wind 

63 f " water 
632 " " glaciers 

64 " " gravity 

65 " " propulsion 

66 " " offshoots, runners etc 

67 " " animals 
Divided like 590 

68 Dissemination by man 

69 Other 


581.524 Assockilional ecology Synecology 

1 Theoretic and general questions 

Mutual influences of living organisms 

1 2 Nature of competition 

14 Natural pruning 

15 Toxic effects 

2 Invasion 

3 Succession 

31 Theoretic and general questions 

Dynamic relations 

32 Succession correlated with physiografic factors Physio- 
grafic ecology 

322 Succession following seismologic disturbances 

Divided like 551.2 

323 Succession following erosion and deposition 
1 Following glaciation 

5 " aqueous erosion and river activity 

7 " wind erosion and deposition 

72 Blow-outs 

73 Dunes 

G Following landslides 

324 Succession due to orografic movement 

325 " in lake-swamp-medow series 

326 " following floods and breaking of dnms 

33 Succession following disturbances by animal agencies 

Divided like 590 

34 Succession following disturbance by man 

342 Burnd areas 

Including areas burnd by other agencies, e.g. lightning 

343 Lumberd areas Natural reforestation 

For artificial forestation see 634.956 

344 Following cultivation 

346 " drainage 

347 8 irrigation 

4 Zonation 

41 Theoretic and general questions 

Causes of zonation, etc 

42 Horizontal zonation 

43 Vertical " 

44 Climatic zones 

441 Arctic regions 


442 Temperate regions 

5 Subtropics 

443 Tropics 

444 Alpin regions 

2 Arctic-alpin 3 Boreal-subalpin 

5 Alternation 


581.526 Formational ecology 

1 General physiognomy and aspect 

2 Factors determining occurrence and extent of formations 

3 Hydric formations Hydrophytes 

32 Aquatic formations 

322 Running water 

323 Benthos 

Flora attacht to bottom of sea, streams etc 
2 Freshwater 3 Saltwater 4 Brackish water Foul water 

324 Pleuston 

Submerged free swimming or floating freshwater flora, found 
specially in quiet water under shelving banks 

325 Plankton Pelagic botany 

Free swimming or floating surface flora 
2 Freshwater 3 Saltwater 4 Brackish water Foul water 

326 Hot water 

33 Freshwater swamp and low moor formations 

For salt marsh formations see 581.526522 

34 Heath formations 

35 Bog and high moor formations 

4 Mesic formations Mesophytes 

42 Forest formations 

422 Rain forest formations 

2 Tropic 3 Temperate 

423 Monsoon forest formations 

424 Savannah woodland " 

425 Deciduous or hardwood forest formations 

426 Evergreen forest formations 

2 Conifer 3 Krummholz Elfin wood 4 Sclerophyl 

427 Thorny forest formations 

43 Vines Climbing plants Lianas 

44 Epiphytes 

45 Prairie formations 

5 Xeric formations Xerophytes 

52 Halic formations Halophytes 

522 Salt marsh formations 

523 Alkali land " 

53 Desert and semidesert formations 

532 Chaparral formations 

533 Tundra or cold desert formations 

534 Arid or dry desert " 

535 Strand formations 

536 Dune 

See also 581.52432373 Dune succession 

54 Rock surface formations 

55 Snow and ice " 

.527 Floristics Floral regions 

For floras of special geografic 

regions see 581.9 


Theoretic and general 







Floral regions and 


Adventiv plants 

their delimitation 


Statistical floristics 




Other topics 









• 542 





















Footi Nutritiv substances 

See also 581.13 Nutrition 


For parasitism see 581.55763 

Of vegetable origin 
" animal " 

Carnivorous and insectivorous plants 
Saprophytism Saprophytes 
Climatic conditions Seasons 
Effect of climatic conditions 

1 Winds 4 

2 Temperature 5 

22 Cardinal points 6 

23 Harmonic optimum, etc 7 

24 Freezing Winter killing 8 

25 Temperature inversions, etc 9 

3 Altitude 

Seasonal habits Phenology 

2 Spring 6 Periods of quiescence 

Barometric pressure 

Cosmic influences 

dormancy, sus- 

pended animation 

Hibernation, encystment etc 

3 Summer 

4 Autum 

5 Winter 

Sociability Plant associations and associes 
Consociations Consocies 

Dominant groups within an association 

Societies Socies Clans 

Subdominant groups within an association 


Small groups on otherwize bare areas 

Climax and serai communities 

Climax communities 

Serai communities 
Symbiosis Consortism 


Commensalism Mutualism Messmatism 



Myrmecophilism Myrmecophytes Acarophilism 




Antagonistic Antipathetic 



See also 581.23 Parasitic diseases, 581.693 Parasitic plant* 


581.56 Breeding habits 

.57 Means of protection and attraction 

Adaptations for self preservation 

.572 Against mekanic forces 

2 Solidity of organs 4 Sensitivity Scnsitiv plants 

3 Attachment of organs 

.573 Against plants and animals 

For symbiotic protection sec 581.357 
2 Anatomic means 5 Electric means 

Spines etc 

4 Chemic means 7 Deceptiv means Mimicry 

Secretions, raphides etc Protectiv resemblance 

.574 Means of attraction Fascination 

.6 Economic botany Applied botany 

See also 630 Agriculture 

.61 Usefulness 

.62 In nature 

.63 As food and medicin 

.632. Food for man 

.633 Fodder plants and products 

.634 Medicinal plants 

Divided like 615.3 

8 Drug adulterants 

See also 614.35 Adulteration of drugs 

.64 In chemistry and manufactures 

.642 Fiber plants and fibers 

Divided like 633.5 

.643 Wood and wood products 

Divided like 634.98. Do not clas here products specificly provided 
for under other hedings, e.g. Food products 581.63, Tanning materials 
531.644, etc 

.644 Tanning materials 

.645 Oils 

.646 Waxes 

.647 Bleaching and dyeing materials 

Divided like 667 

.64 j Gums, resins, essences etc 

Divided like 668 

643 Other useful plants 

.65 Noxiousness Weeds 

See also 632.5 Parasiti: and injurious plants 

.66 Offensiv plants 

.67 Plants causing diseases 

.68 Injuring plant and animal products and inorganic 


.69 Injuring living plants and animals 

.692 Poisonous plants 

.693 Parasitic " 

Sec also 581.23 Parasitic diseases, 581.55763 Parasitism 


1.7 Organografy Descriptiv anatomy 

Divided like 581.4 

.8 Histology Cytology 

See also 578.8 Microscopic botany 

.81 Theoretic and general questions 
.811 Origin and nature 

.812 Formation 
.813 Modification 
.814 Growth 

Cambium activity. See also 581.134 Nutrition 

.82 Kinds of tissues 

See also 581.4 Morfology 

.821 Absorptiv and conductiv or siv tissues Prosenchyma 

.822 Aerativ tissues 

.823 Synthetic " Chlorenchyma 

.824 Secretiv and excretiv tissues Glandular tissues 

.825 Water storage tissues Aqueous tissues 

.827 Fundamental and mekanic tissues 

2 Fundamental or ground tissues Parenchyma 

3 Protectiv and mekanic or sustaining tissues 

32 Collenchyma 

33 Sclerenchyma 

.84 Histologic structure of organs 

Divided like 581.4 

.87 Cytology Cel physiology 

For general cytology see 576.3 

.871 Theoretic and general questions 

.872 General eel structure and contents 

.873 Protoplasmic contents 

2 Nucleus 

22 Linin network 25 Spiremes 

23 Chromosomes Chromatin 26 Nuclear membrane 

24 Nucleolus 

3 Plastids 

32 Chloroplasts 33 Chromoplasts 34 Lcucoplasts 

4 Cytoplasm 

42 Trophoplasm 

43 Kinoplasm 

432 Centrosomes Centrospheres 

433 Asters 

434 Blepharoplasts 
46 Plasma membrane 


581.874 Nonprotoplasmic contents Cel sap 

2 Food material : aleurone 4 Vacuoles 
grains, etc 8 Waste products 

3 Pigments 

.875 Cel wall 

.876 " activities 

See also 581.186 Protoplasmic movements 

2 Cel reproduction 

See also 581.165 Vegetativ generation 

22 Direct nuclear division Amitosis 

23 Indirect " Mitosis Karyokinesis 

231 Theoretic and general questions 

Dynamics of mitosis 

232 Prophase 

233 Metaphase 

234 Anaphase Reduction division 

Meiosis, chromosome reduction, synapsis 

235 Telophase 

238 Artificial mitosis 

Mekanic or physical imitations 

24 Segmentation of protoplasm 

242 Cleavage by constriction or by furrows 

243 " " cel plates 

244 Free cel formation 

3 Cel unions and nuclear fusions 

See also 581.1662 Fertilization 

5 Cei degeneration and deth 

See also 581.13535 Degeneration. 581.13536 Deth 

7 Cel activities at critical ontogenetic periods 

See also 581.16 Generation, 581.3 Embryology 

.877 Specialized plant eels 

For reproductiv eels see 581.16 Generation, 581.3 Embryology 

2 Coenocytes 
.878 Comparativ cel morfology and physiology 

.879 Other topics 


1.9 Geografic botany Geografic distribution 
of plants 

See also 581.527 Floristics 

This Geografic clasification is to be uzed only for general works and cros 
references. 'Flora of North America' is 581.97; but 'North American cryptogams' 
is 586 with a reference from 581.97, but North American phanerogams go with 
581.97 becauz it so completely covers the subject. General works covering both 
Phanerogamia and Cryptogamia ar put under 580 as books covering Vertebrates 
and Invertebrates ar put under 590 

In applying these numbers to Fossil plants, 561, note that one more figure must 
be uzed than for fossil animals. The Zoology numbers ar alredy given in the 
3d place in Paleontology, e.g. 592 Invertebrates, 562 Fossil invertebrates, and 
so on to 599 Mammals, and 569 Fossil mammals. But in Fossil plants, 561, all 
8 sections ar groupt together and the section number must be repeated. Fossil 
phanerogams ar 561.2 not 562, which is assignd to Invertebrate zoology as more 
important. Lichens ar 561.91, etc. In the same way the Fossil flora of North 
America is 561.197, i.e. the first 2 Botany figures, 58, ar changed to 561 to giv 
the corresponding Fossil botany number, while in Zoology the only change is 
from 59 to 56 for first 2 figures, except in 591 which can not change to 561, which 
is assignd to Botany. The Fossil fauna of North America must therefore go 
among general works under 560.97 

.91 Insular floras 

Geografic distribution. Divided like 930—999 

.92 Aquatic flora Marine flora 

Geografic distribution. See 581.52632 for general discussions of aquatic 
plants, where the geografic feature is of distinctly minor importance. 
Clas here works on aquatic flora in general, when the geografic element is 
prominent, also works on marine flora divided like 551.46 and .47, e.g. 
Marine flora of Pacific ocean 581.925, but with Antarctic ocean included 
with Arctic on 581.928 

.929 Freshwater flora Divided like 930—999 

•93 _ -99 By COUntry Divided like 930-999 


582-589 Sistematic botany Taxonomy 

Based on Bentham & Hooker's Genera planlarum; revized and expanded in 1928, in accordance with 
best German, English and American authorities, thereby bringing tables up to date and providing (without 
seriously diflturbi&fi erlier work) for clasifying material written by different authorities with varying ideas, 
as represented by books and articles, both old and new, which wil be found in libraries and to a stil greater 
extent in bibliogr.ific collections 

Authorities consulted 

Bcssey, C. E. & E. A. Essentials of college botany. "1914 

Britton, N. L. Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada. loot 

Clutc, W. N. Fern allies of North America north of Mexico. 1928 

Encyclopaedia Britannica 

Engkr, A. & Giln. E. Syllabus der pflanzenfamilien. 1924 

Prantl, K. Die naturlichen pflanzenfamilien. 1 887-1909 

2. aufl. 1924- 
Hirmir, M. Handbuch der palaobotanik. 1927 

Hutchinson, J. Families of flowering plants: 1 Dicotyledons. 1926 
RendR-, A. B. Classification of flowering plants. 1904-25. 2v. 
Staild&rd dictionary 

Swingle, D. B. Textbook of systematic botany. 1928 

Webster, N. New international dictionary , 
West, C. S. Treastise on the British freshwater algae. New and rev. edition.. 
F. E. Fritsch. 1927 

582 Phanerogamia Embryophyta siphonogama 
Spermatophyta Seed plants 

For general works; clas works relating to a special order, family, genus, species etc 
under appropriate division of 583-585. See also 634.9 Forestry, 715.2 Trees 

.1 General groupings 

.11 By life duration 

.112 Annuals 

.113 Biennials 

.114 Perennials 

. 1 2 Herbaceous plants 

For grasses see 584.9 

.13 Flowering plants 

Wild flowers. Clas here general works on wild flowering plants, even 
when including trees and shrubs as wel as herbaceous plants. Clas wild 
flowering plants of a special locality in 581. 93-. 99 

.14 Other herbaceous plants 

.142 Succulent herbs .145 Mat herbs 

.143 Carpet herbs Polster .146 Cushion herbs 
.144 Rosette " .147 Bush " 

.15 Woody plants 

.16 Trees 
. 1 7 Shrubs 

.172 Bushes .173 Half shrubs 

.18 Woody vines 

.19 Other 

Woody succulents 


See, in Appendix following Relativ index, table for Systematic botany from 
Universal Decimal Classification, which may be used as substitute for D. C. 


583-584 Angiospermae Anthophyta Flowering plants 

583 Dicotyledones Dicotyledonae Dicotyle- 

.1 Archichlamydeae Polypetalae 

See also 583.9 Apetalae 

Axiflorac-apopetalae-polycarpellatae, Calyciflorae-apopetalae. Chori- 
petalae. Dialypetalae 

Archichlamydeae includes Polypetalae and Apetalae (583.9) 

583.1 1-.255 Axiflorae-apopetalae-polycarpellatae 
583.1 1-.193 Thalamiflorae 

. 1 1 Ranalcs Ranunculales 


See also the following, included by Engler & Gilg under Ranales: 
583.931 Lauraceae, 583.9312 Hernandiaceae 

.111 Ranunculaceae Crowfoot family 

Clas here Ranunculineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a sub- 
order including Ranunculaceae, Menispermaceae (583.1 1.6), 
Berberidaceae (583.117) and Lardizabalaceae (583.1172) 

.112 DiUeniaceae Rough leaf tree family 

Clas here Dilleniales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ- 
ing DiUeniaceae and Crossosomataceae (583.36) See also 
583.16 Theineae 

.113 Calycanthaceae Carolina allspice or strawberry shrub 


.114 Magnoliaceae Magnolia family 

Clas here Magnoliales, given by Hutchinson as an order 
including, besides Magnoliaceae and next 3 families below, 
Trochodendraceae (583.1 191) and Cercidiphyllaceae 
(583.1192); clas here also Magnoliineae, given by Engler & 
Gilg as a suborder including, besides Magnoliaceae and the 
families given below (583.1144-.1152), Calycanthaceae 
(583.113), Lauraceae (583.931) and Hernandiaceae (583.9312) 

2 Winteraceae 

3 Schizandraceae 

Included by Engler & Gilg as a tribe, Schizandreae, of 
Magnoliaceae (583.114) 

4 Himantandraceae 

5 Lactoridaceae 

6 Myristicaceae Myristiceae Nutmeg family 

Changed from 583.927, as most authorities consulted clas 
under Ranales (583 11) Oast by Hutchinson under Laurales 
(see 583.931) 

7 Monimiaceae 

Changed from 583.928, as most authorities consulted clas 
under Ranales (583.11) Clast by Hutchinson under Laurales 
(see 583.931) 

8 Gomortegaceae 

Clast by Hutchinson under Laurales (583.931), by other 
authorities consulted under Ranales (583.11) 

.115 Anonaceae Annonaceae Custard apple family 

Clas here Anonales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ- 
ing Anonaceae and Eupomatiaceae (583.1152) 

2 Eupomatiaceae 
.116 Menispermaceae Moonseed family 


Berberidaceae Barberry family 

Berberidcae is, according to Englcr & Gilg. a tribe belonging 
to this family. Clas here Berberidales, given by Hutchinson 
as an order including Berberidaceae etc 




Nymphaeaceae Waterlily family 

Clas here Nymphaeineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a sub- 
order including Nymphaeaceae and Ccratophyllaceae 
(583.1182); clas here also Cabombaccae, included by 
Englcr & Gilg as a subfamily, Cabomboidcac, of Nym- 
phaeaceae; and Nelumbaccae, included by Englcr & Gilg as 
a subfamily, Nclumbonoideae, of Nymphaeaceae 

Ceratophyllaceae Ceratophylleae Hornwort family 

Changed from 583.987, as all authorities consulted clas under 
Ranales (583.1 1) 


Trochodendraceae Trochodendron family 

Parietales Rhoeadales 

See also the following included by Engler & Gilg under 

583.112 Dilleniaceae 583.462 Caricaccae 
.245 Ochnaceae .468 Begoniaceae 

.45 Passiflorales .469 Datiscaceae 

.983 Lacistemaceae 

Sarraceniaceae Pitcher plant family 

Clas here Sarraceniales, given by most authorities con- 
sulted as an order including Sarraceniaceae, 
(583 303) and Nepenthaceae (583.9221) 

Rhoeadales Rhoedalcs Papaverales 

See also 583.286 Brctschneideraccac, included by Engler & 
Gilg under Rhoeadales. Authorities differ considerably as 

to inclusivness of Rhoeadales 

Papaveraceae Poppy family 

Clas here Rhoeadineac, given by Engler & Gilg as a 
suborder of Rhoeadales (583.122) with only I family, 

Moringaceae Moringeae 

Clas here Moringincae, given by Englcr & Gilg as a 
suborder with only 1 family, Moringaceae. Clast by 
Hutchinson under Capparidales (see 583.13) 


Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Fumarioideae, 
of Papaveraceae (583.1221) 

Cruciferae Brassicaceae Mustard family 

Clas here Cruciales, given by Hutchinson as an order 
with only I family, Cruciferae 



Clas here Capparidales, given by Hutchinson as an order. 
See also S83.123 Cruciferae, included by Engler & Gilg under 

Capparidaceae Capparideae Caper family 

Koeberliniaceae is included by Engler & Oilg as a sub- 
family, Koeberlinioideae, of Capparidaceae 

Tovariaceae Tovaria family 

Resedaceae Mignonette family 

Clas here Resedineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a 
suborder with only 1 family, Resedaceae 

Cistaceae Rock rose family 

Clas here Cistineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
including Cistaceae and Bixaceae (583.138) 

Violaceae Violarieae Violet family 

Clas here Violales, given by Hutchinson as an order 
including Violaceae etc 


Clas here Cochlospermineae, given by Engler & Gilg as 
a suborder with only 1 family, Cochlospermaceae 

Canellaceae Winteranaceae Wild cinnamon family 
Bixaceae Bixineae Arnotto family 

Clas here Bixales, given by Hutchinson as an order 
including Bixaceae etc 


Clas here Flacourtiineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a 
suborder including Violaceae (583.135), Winteranaceae 
(583.137). Stachyuraceae (583.1392). Turneraceae 
(583-455). Passifloraceae (583.456), Malesherbiaceae 
(583.457) and Achariaceae (583.458) 



Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Geraniales (583.21) 
including Polygalaceae (583.143) and Tremandraceae (583.142) 
A group 'of doubtful position' (Rendle) variously placed — 
near Parietales (583.12), with Sapindales (583.28) or with 
Geraniales (583.21) 

Clas here Polygalales, given by Hutchinson as an order 
including Polygalaceae (583.143) etc 

Pittosporaceae Hedge laurel family 

Clast by Engler & Gilg under Saxifragineae (583.38) 
with Pittosporeae as a tribe of Pittosporaceae. Clas 
here Pittosporales, given by Hutchinson as an order 
including Pittosporaceae etc 

Tremandraceae Tremandreae 

See note under 583.14 

Polygalaceae Polygaleae Milkwort family 

See note under 583.14 

Vochysiaceae San Juan family 

Clast by Engler & Gilg under Geraniales (583.21) 
Hutchinson includes under Polygalales (see 583.14) 



Clas here Caryophyllales, given by Bcssey and Hutchinson 
as an order including Caryophyllaceae (583.152) etc. See 
also 583. 01 Centrospermae 


Caryophyllaceae Caryophylleae Pink family 

See also 583.91 Centrospermae 

Silenoideae Sileneae, pinks, Catchfhes, campions 
Alsinoideae Chickwecd, starworts, stitchworts 

See also 583.912 Ulecebraceae, included by Engler & 
Gilg under Alsinoideae 

1 Polycarpcae Allseeds 4 Paronychieae 

2 Alsineae Chickwecds Whitlow-worts 

3 Spcrgulcae 5 Sclerantheac 

6 Pterantheae 


See also 583.91 Centrospermae 
Portulacaceae Portulaceae Purslane family 

Clast by some authorities under Caryophyllales (see 
583.15), by others under Centrospermae (583.91) 


Tamaricineae Tamariscineae Tamaricaceae 
Tamarisk family 

Clas here Tamaricales, given by Hutchinson as an order 
including Tamaricaceae etc. See also Frankeniaceae (583.151) 
and Elatinaceae (583.161), included by Engler & Gilg under 

Theineae Guttiferales 

Theineae is given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Parietales 
(583.12) including (besides most of families given in sub- 
divisions below) Dilleniaceae (583.112) and Ochnaceae 
(583.245) Clas here Theales, given by Hutchinson as an order 
including Theaceae (583.166) etc. He also has Guttiferales, 
including Guttiferae (583.163) etc. Bessey and Rcndle hav 
Guttiferales, including Theaceae (583.166), Guttiferae 
(583.163) etc, while Britton givs Theaceae directly under 

Elatinaceae Elatineae Waterwort family 

See also 583.158 Tamaricineae 

Hypericaceae Hypericineae St Johns wort family 

Included by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as a genus, 
Hypericum, under Guttiferae (583.163) 

Guttiferaceae Guttiferae Clusiaceae Balsam fig 


Theaceae Ternstroemiaceae Camelliaceae Tea 

or camellia family 



Included by Engler & Gilg in Actinidiaceae (583.1661) 

Included by Hutchinson in Theaceae (583.166) 

Caryocaraceae Souari nut family 

Dipterocarpaceae Dipterocarpeae Wingd fruit 
tree family (camfor, gurjun-balsam, dammar) 
Chlaenaceae Schizolaenaceae 

Clast by Hutchinson under Theales (see 583.16), by 
Bessey and Engler & Gilg under Malvales (583.17) Clas 
here Chlaenineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
with only 1 family, Chlaenaceae 


Mai vales Columniferae 

See also 583.168 Chlaenaceae, included by Engler & Gilg under 
Mai vales 


Malvaceae Mallow or cotton family 
Bombacaceae Silk-cotton tree family 
Sterculiaceae Coco family 
Tiliaceae Linden family 

Clas here Tilialcs, given by Hutchinson as an order including 
Tiliaceae etc 


Elaeocarpineae Elaeocarpaceae 
Scytopetalincac Scytopetalaceac 

Clas here Geraniineae, given by Englcr & Gilg as a suborder of 
Geraniales, including most families of the order. See also the 
following, included by Engler & Gilg in Geraniales: 

583.14 Polygalineae 583.115 Vochysiaceac 

.142 Tremandraceae .951 Euphorbiaceae 

.143 Polygalaceae 

Linaceae Flax family 
Erythroxylaceae Coca family (cocain) 
Humiriaceae Bastard bullet tree 
Malpighiaceae Golden spoon tree 

Clas here Malpighiincac, given by Englcr & Gilg as a sub- 
order of Geraniales (583.21) including Malpighiaceae, Trigoni- 
aceae (583.215) and Vochysiaceae (583.145); clas here also 
Malpighiales, given by Hutchinson as an order including 
Malpighiaceae etc 


Zygophyllaceae Lignum vitae or caltrop family 

Zygophylleae is given by Englcr & Gilg as a tribe of Zygo- 
phyllaceae, subfamily Zygophylloideae 

Geraniaceae Geranium family 

Oxalidaceae Wood sorrel family (oxalis) 

Tropaeolaceae Nasturtium or Indian cres, canary bird 

Balsaminaceae Jewel weed family (touch-me-not) 

Bentham & Hooker, Bessey, Hutchinson and Rendle clas 
this with Geraniales (583.21); Britton and Engler & Gilg with 
Sapindales (583.28) Clas here Balsaminineae, given by Engler 
& Gilg as a suborder with only 1 family, Balsaminaceae 

Rutaceae Rue family 

Clas here Rutales, given by Hutchinson as an order including 
Rutaceae etc 

Simarubaceae Bitterwood or ailanrus family 

Simarubeae is given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Simaru- 
baceae, subfamily Simaruboidcae 


Ochnaceae Red ironwood family 

See also 583.16 Theineae 
Burseraceae Torchwood family 
Meliaceae Mahogany family 

Clas here Meliales, given by Hutchinson as an order with 
only 1 family, Meliaceae 

Callitrichaceae Water starwort family 

Clas here Callitrichineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
with only 1 family, Callitrichaceae 

Dichapetalaceae Chailletiaceae 

Clas here Dichapetalineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a 
suuorcier with only 1 family, Dichapetalaceae 


583. 26-497 Calyciflorae-apopetalae 

Olacales Olacaceae Olacineae Olacad family 

Olacaceae is variously clast: by Hutchinson in Olacales, by Engler & 
Gilg and Rendle in Santalales (see 583.942 Santalineae), by Bessey 
in Celastrales (583.27) 


Included by Britton and Engler & Gilg under Sapindales (583.28); 
Bentham & Hooker, Bessey, Hutchinson and Rendle giv as separate 


Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder including, besides the 
families given below, Salvadoraceae (583.716) 

Celastraceae Staf tree family 

Cyrillaceae Cyrilla family 

Stackhousiaceae Stackhousieae 


Rhamnaceae, previously clast on this number, has been 
changed to 583.2791, as Britton, Engler & Gilg, Hutchinson 
and Rendle hav order Rhamnales (see 583.279) including 
Rhamnaceae and Vitaceae (583.2792) 


Staphyleaceae Bladder nut family 
Pentaphylacaceae Pentaphyllaceae 

Pentaphylax (only genus belonging to this family) included 
by Hutchinson in Theaceae (583.166) 

Aquifoliaceae Ilicaceae Ilicineae Holly family 

Changed from 583.269, as recent authorities clas family under 
Celastrales (583.27) 


Rhamnaceae Buckthorn family 

Rhamneae is given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Rhamnaceae. 
Changed from 583.275 as being a family of order Rhamnales, 
as constituted by Britton, Engler & Gilg, Hutchinson and 

Vitaceae Ampelidaceae Ampelideae Vine or grape 


See also following, included by Engler & Gilg under Sapindales: 
583.226 Balsaminaceae 583.716 Salvadoraceae 

.27 Celastrales .984 Empetrineae 


Sapindaceae Soapberry family 


Aceraceae Maple family 

Hippocastanaceae Buckeye family 


Included by Hutchinson in Sapindaceae (583.282) Clas here 
Bretschneiderineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
of Rhoeadales (583.122) with only 1 family, Bretschneidera- 


Melianthaceae Honey plant family • 

Included by Engler & Gilg in Melianthaceae (583.2871) as a 
genus, Greyia, and by Bentham & Hooker in Sapindaceae (583.282); 
Hutchinson givs as a family under Cunoniales (see 583.397) 


Didiereineae Didiereaceae 
Icacinineae Icacinaceae 
Sabiincae Sabiaceae 

Anacardiincac Anacardiaceae Cashew or sumac 

Buxineae Buxaceae Box family 

Clast by Engler & Gilg under Sapindales (583. 28), by Hutchinson 
under Hamamelidales (see 5*3-394) and by Rendle under Tricoccae 
(see 583-951) 

Limnanthineae Limnanthaceae False mermaid 

Clast by Engler & Gilg under Sapindales (583-28), by Bessey and 
Hutchinson under Geraniales (583.21) 

Coriariineae Coriariaceae Coriarieae 

Clas here Coriariales, given by Hutchinson as an order with only 1 
family, Coriariaceae. Changed from 583.298 to bring into affilia- 
tion with Sapindales (583.28) under which it is clast by Engler & 

Anomalous Disciflorae 

583.297 and .298 hav been transposed to bring Coriariaceae under 
Sapindales. See note under 583.297 

583.3-.497 Calyciflorae 


See also the following, included by Engler & Gilg under Rosales: 
583.141 Pittosporaceae, 583.92 Podostemonineae, 583.971 Platanaceae 


See also 583.971 Platanaceae, included by Engler & Gilg under 


Clast by Hutchinson under Sapindales (583. 28 J 

Leguminosae Pulse family 

Mimosoideae Mimosaceae Mimosa subfamily 
Papilionatae Papilionaceae Fabaceae Pea sub- 

Caesalpinioideae Cacsalpiniaceae Cassiaccae 

Senna subfamily 

The 3 groups, 583.321-.323 ar given by Engler & Gilg 
and Rendle as subfamilies of Leguminosae; Bessey, 
Britton and Hutchinson uze the family names — Bessey 
and Britton as families of Rosales, Hutchinson as families 
of Leguminosae, which he givs as an order. Krameria- 
ceae is included by Engler & Gilg in Caesalpinioideae as 3 
tribe, Kramerieae 


See also 583.112 Dilleniales 

Rosaceae Rose family 

Malaceae and Pomaceae ar included by Engler & Gilg in 
Rosaceae, subfamily Pomoideae (apple subfamily); Prunaceae 
and Drupaceae or Amygdalaceae ar included by Engler & 
Gilg in Rosaceae, subfamily Prunoideae (plum or peach sub- 



Clas here Saxifragales, given by Hutchinson as an order including 
Saxifragaceae (583.381) etc. See also 583-141 Pittouporaceae. 
included by Englcr & Gilg under Saxifragineae 

Saxifragaceae Saxifrage family 

The following, given as families by some authorities, ar 
included by Engler & Gilg in Saxifragaceae: Saxifrageae as 
a tribe, subfamily Saxifragoideac; Hydrangcaceae as a sub- 
family, Hydrangeoideae (Hydrangea subfamily); Escalloni- 
aceae as a subfamily, Escallonioideae; Parnassiaceae as a 
tribe, Parnassieae, of Saxifragoideae; Grossulariaceae in 
subfamily Ribesioideae (gooseberries); Iteaceae is also in- 
cluded in Saxifragaceae 

Crassulaceae Orpine family 

Penthoraceae is included by Rendle in Crassulaceae 
Cephalotaceae Australian pitcher plant family 
Bybudaceae Roridulaceae 

Considerd 2 families by Engler & Gilg, alternativ names by 
Hutchinson; formerly included in Droseraceae (583.393) 

Droseraceae Sundew family 

See also 583.121 Sarraceniaceae (Sarraceniales) Bcr.tham & 
Hooker and Bessey clas under Rosales (S83.3) 

Hamamelidaceae Witch hazel family 

Hamamelideae is given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Ham- 
amelidaceae, subfamily Hamamelidoideae. Clas here 
Hamamelidales, given by Hutchinson as an order including 
Hamamelidaceae etc 




Clast by Hutchinson under Cunoniales (see 583.30/) 

Clast by Hutchinson under Hamameliaalcs (see 583.394; 

* Cunoniaceae 

Clas here Cunoniales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ- 
ing Cunoniaceae etc 


583.4 Myrtales Myrtiflorae 

See also 583-933 Thymelaeineae, included by Engler & Gilg under 

.41 Myrtineae 

.411 Rhizophoraceae Rhizophoreae Mangrove family 

.412 Punicaceae Pomegranate family 

.413 Hydrocaryaceae Trapaceae Water chestnut family 

Included by some authorities in Onagraceae (see 583.445) 

.414 Combretaceae Myrobalan family 

.415 Nyssaceae Tupelo or sour gum family 

Clast by Hutchinson under Umbelliflorae (583.48) 

.416 Alangiaceae 

Clast by Hutchinson under Umbelliflorae (583.48) 

.417 Halorrhagaceae Haloragaceae Haloragidaceae 

Halorrhagidaceae Halorageae Water-milfoil family 

Changed from 583.308, as most authorities consulted clas 
under Myrtales (583.4) Clast by Hutchinson under Lyth- 
rales (see 583.441) 

.42 Myrtaceae Myrtle family 

.423 Lecythidaceae 

Brazil nut, monkey pot tree, sapucaia nut etc 

.43 Melastomaceae Melastomataceae Medow beauty 


.441 Lythraceae Lythrarieae Loosestrife family 

Clas here Lythrales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ- 
ing Lythraceae etc 

.442 Heteropyxidaceae 

Clast by Hutchinson under Rhamnales (583.279) 

.443 Sonneratiaceae 
444 Crypteroniaceae 

.445 Onagraceae Oenotheraceae Onagrarieae Evening 

primrose family 

Oenotheras is given by Engler & Gilg as a genus of Onagraceae 

446 Hippuridineae Hippuridaceae Mare's tail family 

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Myrtiflorae (583.4) with 
only 1 family. Formerly included in Halorrhagaceae (see 583.417), 
where it is left by Britton and Hutchinson as the genus Hippuris 

.4.47 Cynomoriineae Cynomoriaceae 

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Myrtiflorae, with only I 
family; clast by Hutchinson and Rendle under Santalales (583.94) 



See also 583.12 Parietales 

Clast by Hutchinson under Bixales (see 583.138) 
Loasaceae Loaseae Loasa or star flower family 

Clas here Loasineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of 
Parietales (583.12) with only I family. Loasaceae; clas here 
also Loasales, given by Bessey and Hutchinson as an order 
including Loasaceae etc 


Clast by Bessey under Loasales (see 583.453) Clas here Ancis- 
trocladineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Parie- 
tales (583.12) with only 1 family, Ancistrocladaceae 

Passifloraceae Passifloreae Passion flower family 



Cucurbitales Peponiferae 

According to Engler & Gilg this order, with only I family, Cucur- 
bitaceae (583.461), belongs with Metachlamydeac (583.5); Britton 
classes the family in same large division under Campanulales (583.57); 
Bessey, Hutchinson and Rendle leav it with Archichlamydeae (Poly- 
petalae) as did Bentham & Hooker. Cucurbitales or Peponiferae 
includes, according to Hutchinson and Rendle, 583 461, 583.468-.469; 
Hutchinson also includes 583.462 

Cucurbitaceae Gourd family 

Caricaceae Papayaceae Papaya family 

Clast by Hutchinson under Cucurbitales (583.46) Clas here 
Papayineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Parietales 
(583.12) with only 1 family, Caricaceae 

Begoniaceae Begonia family 

Clast by Hutchinson and Rendle under Cucurbitales (583.46) 
Clas here Begoniineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
of Parietales (583.12) with only 1 family, Begoniaceae 

Datiscaceae Datisceae American false hemp, Asiatic 
bastard hemp 

Clast by Hutchinson and Rendle under Cucurbitales (583.46) 
Clas here Datiscineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
of Parietales (583.12) ■with only 1 family, Datiscaceae 


Cactaceae Cacteae Cactus family 

Clas here Opuntialcs, given by Britton, Engler & Gilg and 
Rendle; and Cactales, given by Bessey and Hutchinson, as 
an order with only 1 family, Cactaceae 

Aizoaceae Ficoidaceae Sea purslane or carpet 
weed family 

Ficoideae is given by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as a subfamily 
of Aizoaceae. See also 583.91 Centrospermae 


I tcludctl by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Molluginoideae, 

of Ai::oaccae (583.475) 

Umbelliflorae Umbcllales 

Umbelliferae Apiaceae Ammiaceae Parsley or 
carrot family 

Araliaceae Ginseng family 
Cornaceae Dogwood family 


Metachlamydeae Gamopetalae Monopetalae 

Axiflorae-gamopetalae-polycarpellatae. Axiflorae-gamopctalae-dicarpel- 
latae, Calyciflorae-gamopetalae 

583.51-.591 Sympetalae-tetracyclicae-inferae 

Calyciflorae-gamopetalae Inferae 


See also the following, included by Engler & Gilg in Rubiales: 583.531 
Valerianaceae, 583.541 Dipsacaceae 
Caprifoliaceae Honeysuckle family 
Adoxaceae Moschatel family 
Rubiaceae Madder family 

Valerianaceae Valerian family 

Clas here Valerianates, given by Britton as an order including 
Valerianaceae and Dipsacaceae (583.541); clas here also 
Valerianeae, given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Valeri- 
anaceae. See also 583.51 Rubiales 

Dipsacaceae Dipsaceae Teasel family 
See also 583.51 Rubiales 

Calyceraceae Calysereae 

See also 583.57 Campanales 

Compositae Composits 

Compositae is sinonimous with Bessey's order Asterales. In 
uzing family names below, rather than tribe names, Bessey 
is followd. See also 583.57 Campanales 

Liguliflorae Cichoriaceae Lactucaccac Cichorieae 

Chicory or lettuce family 

Tubuliflorae Labiatiflorae 

Mutisiaceae Mutisieae Mutisia family 
Carduaccae Cynareae Thistle family 
Arctotidaceae Arctotidcae Gazania family 
Calendulaccae Calcndulcae Marigold family 

Senccionidaceao Senccioncac Groundsel family 
Anthemidaceae Anthemideae Camomile family 
Heleniaceae Helenieae False sunflower 

family (sneezewced) 

Inulaceae Inuleae Everlasting family 
Asteraceae Astereae Aster family 
Eupatoriaceae Eupatorieae Blazing star 
family (hemp-agrimony) , 
Vernoniaceae Vernonieae Ironweed family 
(elefant's foot) 

Ambrosiaceae Ambrosiinae Ragweed family 

Included by Engler & Gilg and Rendle in Helian- 
theae (583.554?) 

Helianthaceae Heliantheae Sunflower family 








Campanales Campanulales Campanulatae 

See also the following, included by Engler & Gilg in Campanulatae: 
583. 546 Calyceraceae, 583.55 Compositae 

Stylidiaceae Candolleaceae Stylidieae Stylewort 

Goodeniaceae Goodenovieae 

Campanulaceap Bluebell, bellwort or bellflower 



Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Lobelioideae, of 
Campanulaceae (583.59) 

583.6-.6864 Sympetalae-pentacyclicae Heteromerae 

See also 583.899 Plantaginaceae, included in this group by 

.6 Ericales 
.61 Ericineae 

Includes following 5 families, 583.61 1-.631 

.611 Vacciniaceae Whortleberry or huckleberry family 

Included by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as a subfamily, Vac- 
cinioideae, of Ericaceae (583.62) 

.62 Ericaceae Heath family 

.622 Clethraceae White alder family 

.63 Monotropaceae Indian-pipe family 

Included by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as a subfamily, Mono- 
tropoidcae, of Pyrolaceae (583.631) with Monotropeae as a 

.631 Pyrolaceae Pirolaceae Wintergreen family 

.64 Epacridaceae Epacris family 

Clas here Epacridineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
of Ericales (583.6) with only I family, Epacridaceae, with 
Epacrideae as a tribe 

.65 Diapensiaceae Flowering moss, pyxie or diapensia 


Clas here Diapensiales, given by Engler & Gilg as an order 
with only 1 family, Diapensiaceae 

.66 Lennoaceae Lennoa family 

Clas here Lennoineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
of Tubiflorae (583.76) with only 1 family, Lennoaceae 

.67 Primulales 

.671 Plumbaginaceae Leadwort or plumbago family 

Clas here Plumbaginales, given by Engler & Gilg and Rendle 
as an order with only 1 family, Plumbaginaceae, with Plum- 

bagineae as a tribe 

.672 Primulaceae Primrose family 

.677 Myrsinaceae Marlberry family 

Myrsineae is given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Myrsinaceae, 
subfamily Myrsinoideae. Clas here Myrsinales, given by 
Hutchinson as an order with only I family, Myrsinaceae 

.678 Theophrastaceae 


583.68 Ebenales 

68 1 Sapotineae 

1 Sapotaceae Sapodilla family 

2 Hoplestigmataceae 
.685 Diospyrineae 

1 Ebenaceae Ebony family 

.6861 Styracaceae Styraceae Storax family 

Clas here Styracales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ- 
ing Styracaceae and the next 3 families 

2 Diclidantheraceae 

3 Symplocaceae Sweetleaf family 

4 Lissocarpaceae 

583-7-.8 Sympetalae-tetracyclicae-superae 


.7 Gentianales Contortae 

.71 Oleaceae Oliv family 

Clas here Oleineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
with only 1 family, Oleaceae; clas here also Olealcs, given by 
Rendle as an order including Oleaceae and Salvadoraceae 

.716 Salvadoraceae Salvadora family 

See also 583.271 Celastrineae, 583.28 Sapindales 

.72 Gentianineae 

.721 Apocynaceae Dogbane family 

1 Clas here Apocynales, given by Hutchinson as an order 

including Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae (583.73) 

.73 Asclepiadaceae Milkweed family 

Asclepiadeae is given by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as a tribe 
of Asclepiadaceae, subfamily Cynanchoideae 

.74 Loganiaceae Logania family 

Clas here Loganiales, given by Hutchinson as an order includ- 
ing Loganiaceae and Oleaceae (583.71) 

.741 Desfontaineaceae 

Included by Hutchinson in Loganiaceae (583.74) 

.73 Gentianaceae Gentian family 

Gentianeae is given by Engler & Gilg as a tribe of Gen- 
tianaceae, subfamily Gentianoideae 

.751 Menyanthaceae Buckbean family 

Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Menyanthoideae. 
of Gentianaceae (583.75) 



Includes 583.761-.891 ; see also 583.66 Lennoineae 


Britton's Polemoniales corresponds to Engler & Gilg's and Rendle's 
Tubiflorae (583.76); Bessey's Polemoniales corresponds to Ben- 
tham & Hooker's (583.761 1-.79); Hutchinson's includes only 
Polemoniaceae (583.7611) and Hydrophyllaceae (583.764) 

Polemoniaceae Polemonium or phlox family 
Fouquieraceae Fouquieriaceae Candlewood family 
Hydrophyllaceae Waterleaf family 
Boraginaceae Borraginaceae Boragineae 

Borage or forget-me-not family 

Clas here Borraginineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a 
suborder of Tubiflorae (583.76) including Borraginaceae 
and Hydrophyllaceae (583.764) Clas here also Bora- 
ginales, given by Hutchinson as an order with only 1 
family, Boraginaceae 

Convolvulaceae Convolvulus or morning-glory 

Clas here Convolvulineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a 
suborder of Tubiflorae (583.76) including' Convolvula- 
ceae, Polemoniaceae (583.7611) and Fouquieraceae 
(583.762) Clas here also Convolvulales, given by Rendle 
as an order with only 1 family, Convolvulaceae 

Cuscutaceae Dodder family 

Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Cuscutoideae, 
of Convolvulaceae (583.78) 
Solanaceae Nightshade or potato family 

Clas here Solanales, given by Hutchinson as an order 
including Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae (S83.78) See 
also 583.8 Solanineae 


Included by Hutchinson in Convolvulaceae (583.78) 
See also 583.8 Solanineae 


Personales Scrophulariales Solanineae 

Besides families given on 58j.81-.852 Engler & Gilg includes 
under Solanineae Solanaceae (583.79) and Nolanaccac (583.792) 

Scrophulariaceae Scrophularineae Figwort or 
snapdragon family 

See also 583.876 Selagincac, included by Engler & Gilg 
under Scrophulariaceae as a tribe of subfamily Antir. 

Orobanchaceae Broomrape family 
Globulariaceae Globe daisy family 
Lentibulariaceae Lentibularieae Eladdervort 


Gesneriaceae Gesneraceae 

Bignoniaceae Bignonia, catalpa or trumpet- 
creeper family 

Pedaliaceae Pedalineae Pedalium family 
Martyniaceae Unicorn plant family 
Acanthaceae Acanthus family 

Clas here Acanthineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a 
suborder of Tubiflorae (583.76) 


Myoporaceae Bastard sandalwood family 

Myoporineae is given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of 
Tubiflorae (583.76) with only 1 family, Myoporaceae 

Phrymaceae Lopseed family 

Clas here Phrymineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a 
suborder of Tubiflorae (583.76) with only 1 family. 

Selaginaceae Dwarf heath shrub family 

Included by Engler & Gilg in Scrophulariaceae (583.81) 
as a tribe, Selagineae 


Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Tubiflorae (583.76) 
including following 2 families 

Verbenaceae Vervain family 
Lamiaceae Labiatae Mint family 

Plantaginales Plantaginaceae Plantagineae 
Plaintain family 

Plantaginaceae is clast by Bessey under Primulales (583.67); other 
authorities consulted clas it as only family of order Plantaginales 


583.9 Apetalae Monochlamydeae 

Sec also 583.1 Archichlamydcae 

.gi Centrospermae Chenopodiales Curvembryeae 

See also the following, included by Engler & Gilg under Cen- 
trospermae: 583.15 Caryophyllincae, 583.156 Portulacineae. 583.475 


.g I2 Illecebraceae Illecebrum or knotwort family 

See also 583.154 Alsinoideae 

.913 Chenopodiales 

Under this order Hutchinson includes families given below in 
583.0131-.016 except 583.9153 Nyctaginaceae; he also includes 
here Basellaceae (583.1562) All families of this group ar cla6t by 

Bessey under Caryophyllales (see 583.15) 

1 Amarantaceae Amaranthaceae Amaranth family 
.914 Chenopodiaceae Goosefoot family 

Clas here Chenopodiineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a sub- 
order of Centrospermae (583.91) including Chenopodiaceae 
and Amarantaceae (583.9131) 
.915 Phytolaccaceae Pokeweed family 

Clas here Phytolaccineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a sub- 
order of Centrospermae (583.91) including, besides Phyto- 
laccaceae, the 2 families, Cynocrambaceae (583.9152) and 
Nyctaginaceae (583.9153), also Aizoaceae (583.475) 

2 Cynocrambaceae Thelygonaceae Dog cabbage family 

3 Nyctaginaceae Nyctagineae Four-o'clock family 

Changed from 583.91 1 , to bring into closer relation with 
Phytolaccaceae (583.915) and Cynocrambaceae (583.9152) 

.916 Batidaceae Batideae Batis family 

Clas here Batidales, given by Engler & Gilg as an order with 
only I family, Batidaceae 

.917 Polygonales Polygonaceae Buckwheat 'family 

Given by Britton, Engler & Gilg and Rendle as an order with only I 
family; Hutchinson includes Illecebraceae (583.912) 

.92 Multiovulatae aquaticae Podostemonales 

Clas here Podostcmonineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of 
Rosales (583.3) 

.921 Podostemonaceae Podostemaceae Riverweed 


1 Hydrostachyaceae Hydrostachydaceae 

.922 Multiovulatae terrestres Aristolochiales 

1 Nepenthaceae Indian pitcherplant family 

Clast by Hutchinson under Aristolochiales (583.922); by 
Bessey, Britton, Engler & Gilg and Rendle under Sarraceniales 
(see 583.121) 

2 Hydnoraceae 

.923 Raffiesiaceae Cytinaceae Patmawort family 

.924 Aristolochiaceae Birth wort family 


583.925 Micrembryeae Pipcrales 

1 Piperaceae Pepper family 

2 Saururaceae Lizard's-tail family 
.926 Chloranthaceae 

.93 Daphnales 

.931 Lauraceae Laurineae Laurel family 

Clas here Laurales, given by Hutchinson as an order including 
Lauraceae etc. See also Ranales, 583.114 Magno- 

2 Hernandiaceae Jack-in-a-box 

Clast by Hutchinson under Laurales (see 583.931) See also 
583.1 1 Ranales, 583.114 Magnoliineae 

.932 Proteales Proteaceae Honey flower 

.933 Thymelaeales 

Clas here Thymelaeineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of 
Myrtiflorae (583.4) All families of this group ar clast by Bessey 
under Celastrales (583.27) 

1 Thymelaeaceae Mezereum or mezereon family 

.934 Penaeaceae 
.935 Elaeagnaceae Oleaster family 

.936 Geissolomataceae Geissolomaceae 

.937 Oliniaceae Hard pear 

.94 Santalales Achlamydosporeae 

All families of this group ar clast by Bessey under Celastrales (5R3.27) 
See also 583.26 Olacaceae, included under Santalales by Engler & 
Gilg and Rendle 

.941 Loranthineae Loranthaceae Mistletoe family 

.942 Santalineae 

See also 583.26 Olacaceae, included under Santalineae by Engle» 
& Gilg 

.943 Santalaceae Sandalwood family 

.944 Myzodendraceae Myzodendron family 

.945 Opiliaceae 
.946 Grubbiaceae 

1 Octoknemataceae 
.947 Balanophorineae Baianophoraceae Balanophoreae 



Tricoccae Euphorbiales Euphorbiaccae Spurge 

Tricoccae is given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Geraniales 
(S83.21) with only 1 family. Euphorbiaccae; Hutchinson givs 
Euphorbiales as an order with only 1 family; Rcndle givs Tri- 
coccae as an order including Euphorbiaccae etc 

Balanopsidales Bulanopsidaceae Balanopseae 
Urticales Urticiflorae 

Urticaceae Nettle family 

Moraceae Mulberry family 


Included by Engler & Gilg in Moraceae (583.9622) as a sub- 
family, Cannaboidcae 

Ulmaceae Elm family 

Platanaceae Plane tree family 

See also 583.31 Rosiucae 

Leitneriales Leitneriaceae Leitnerieae Cork- 
wood family 

Juglandaceae Juglandeae Walnut family 

Britton and Engler & Gilg giv this as only family i,>. Juglan- 
dales (583.973); Hutchinson includes also Julianiaceae 
Julianiaceae Julianaceae 

Clas here Julianiales, given by Engler & Gilg and Rendle as 

an order with only 1 family, Julianiaceae 

Myricales Myricaceae Sweet-gale or barberry 

Casuarinales Casuarinaceae Casuarineae Beef- 

Fagales Cupuliferae 

Fagaceae Beech or oak family 
Betulaceae Birch family 

Included by Engler & Gilg in Betulaceae (5">.)-978)asa tribe, 


Other dicotyledones Anomali 

Salicales Salicaceae Salicineae Willow family 
Garryales Garryaceae Fever bush 
Lacistemineae Lacistemaceae 

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Parietales (583.12) with 
only 1 family, Lacistemaceae; family is clast by Bessey under 
Ranales (583.11), by Hutchinson under Piperales (583.925) 

Empetrineae Empetraceae Crowberry family 

Clast by Bessey, Britton and Engler & Gilg under Sapindales 
(583.28), by Hutchinson and Rendle under Celastrales (583.27) 

Pandales Pandaceae 


Monocotyledones Monocotyledonae Mon- 

584. i -.2 Monocotyledoneae-epigynae 

1 Microspermae Microspermeae 

n Hydrocharideae Hydrales Hydrocharitaceae 

Vallisneriaceae Frog's bit or tape gras family 

See also 584.72 Helobiae, 584.73 Butomineae 

1 2 Orchidales 

13 Burmanniaceae Burmannia family 

Clas here Burmanniineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a sub- 
order with only 1 family, Burmanniaceae 

15 Orchidaceae Orchideae Orchis or orchid family 

Clas here Gynandrue. given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
with only 1 family, Orchidaceae 

2 Epigynae Epigyneae Iridales 

21 Scitamineae Arillatae Scitaminales Musales 

211 Marantaceae Arrowroot family 

212 Cannaceae Canna family 

213 Zingiberaceae Ginger family 

214 Musaceae Banana family 

22 Bromeliineae Bromeliaceae Pineapple family 

Bromeliineae is given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Farinosae 
(584.3) including Bromeliaceae, Rapateaceae (584.39) and Thur- 
niaceae (584.391) 

23 Liliiflorae Liliales 

Clas here Liliineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder including the 
families in 584.231-.323 (except 584.24 Iridaceae) See also 584.45 
Juncaceae. For scope of Bessey's Liliales see note under 584.3 

231 Haemodoraceae Bloodwort family 

24 Iridaceae Irideae Iris family 

Clas here Iridineae, given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder 
with only 1 family, Iridaceae 

25 Amaryllidaceae Amaryllis family 

Amaryllideae is given by Engler & Giig as a tribe of Amaryl- 
lidaceae, subfamily Amarylhdoideae 

26 Taccaceae 

27 Dioscoreaceae Yam family 

28 Velloziaceae Tree lily 

Rendle includes this as a tribe, Vellozieae, of Amaryllidaceae 


584.3-.g Monocotyledoneae-hypogynae 
Coronarieae Farinosae Xyridales 

Sec also the following, included by Englcr & Gilt; under Farinosae: 
584.22 Bromeliineae, 384.41 Flagellariincae, 384.81 Enantioblastae 
Besscy's Liliales (see 584.23) corresponds more nearly to this group than 
to Liliiflorae (Liliales) (584.23) of Brittort, Engler & Gilg and Rendle 

Stemonaceae Roxburghiaceae 

See also 584.23 Liliiflorae 

Liliaceae Lily family 

See also 584.23 Liliiflorae 
Melanthaceae Bunch flower family 

Included by Englcr & Gilg as a subfamily, Melanthioidcae, 

of Liliaceae (584.32) 

Convallariaceae Lily-of-the-valley family 

Included by Engler & Gilg as a tribe, Convallarieac, of 
Liliaceae (584.32) 
Smilaceae Smilax family 

Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Smilacoideae. of 
Liliaceae (584.32) 


Pontederiaceae Pickerel weed family 

Philydrineae Philydraceae 

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder with only 1 family, Phily- 

Xyridaceae Xyrideae Yellow-eyed gras family 

See also 584.81 Enantioblastae 

Mayacaceae Mayaceae Mayaca family 

See also 584.81 Enantioblastae 

Commelinaceae Spiderwort family 

Clas here Commclinineae, given by Englcr & Gilg as a sub- 
order with only 1 family, Commelinaceae 


See also 5S4.22 Bromeliineae 


See also 584.22 Bromeliineae 

Calycinae Calycineae 

Flagellariineae Flagellariaceae Flagcllarieae 

See also 584.3 Farinosae 

Juncineae Juncaceae Rush family 

See also 584.23 Liliiflorae 

Principes Palmales Phoenicales Palmae 
Palmaceae Phoenicaceae Palm family 

Besscy, Britton and Engler & Gilg giv as an order with only 1 family; 
Rendle classes under Spadiciflorae (584.64) 

Nudiflorae Nudifloreae 


All families of this group ar clast by Bcssey under AHsmatales (584.7) 
Pandanaceae Pandaneae Hala family 
Sparganiaceae Bur-reed family 
Typhaceae Cat-tail family 

Changed from 584.63, as Britton, Englcr & Gilg and Rendle 
clas this family under Pandanales (584.61) 

Synanthae Cyclanthales Cyclanthaceae 
Arales Spathiflorae Spadiciflorae 
Araceae Arum family 

Aroideac, formerly on 584.64, is given by Engler & Gilg as 
a subfamily of Araceae 
Lemnaceae Duckweed family 


584.7 Apocarpeae Alismatales 

.71 Triuridales Triuridaceae Triurideae 

.72 Helobiac Hclobicae Naiadales Najadalcs Fluvialcs 

See also 384.11 Hydrocharitaceae, included by Engler & Gilg and 
Rcndlc under Helobiae 

.721 Alismatincae Alismaccae Alismataceac Water 

plantain family 

.73 Butomineae Butomaceae Water poppy 

Butomincae is given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder including 
Butomaceae and Hydrocharitaceae (5S4.11) Included by 
Rendlc as a tribe, Butomcae, of Alismaccae (584.721) 

.74 Potamogetonineae 

.741 Naiadaceae Najadaceae Naias or najas family 

.742 Potamogetonaceae Pondweed or riverweed family- 

Included by Britton as a genus, Potamogeton, in Naiadaceae 

.743 Aponogetonaceae Lattice plant or lattice-leaf 

.744 Scheuchzeriaceae Juncagineae Arrow gras family 

.8 Clumaceae Graminales 

.8 1 Enantioblastae 

Given by Engler & Gilg as a suborder of Farinosae (584.3) includ- 
ing, besides the 3 families following, Xyridaceae (584.36) and 
Mayacaceae (584.37) 

.811 Eriocaulaceae Eriocaulonaceae Eriocauleae Pipe- 

wort family 

.82 Centrolepidaceae Centrolepidiaceae Centrolepideae 

.83 Restiaceae Restionaceae 

.84. Glumiflorae 

.841 Cyperaceae Sedge family 

.9 Gramineae Poaceae Gras family 

Because of size and importance of this family the tribes ar 
here given, clasification being founded on Hackel, as given 
in Engler & Prantl. See also 633.2 Grasses 

.92 Spikelets i-flowcrd or rarely 2-flowerd 

.922 Maydcae Maiz grasses 

.923 Zoysieae 

.924 Tristegineae 

.925 Andropogoncae Blue-stem grasses 

.926 Paniceae Panic " 

.927 . Oryzeae Rice " 

.93 Spikelets 1- to indefinit-flowerd 

.932 Phalarideae Canary grasses 

.933 Agrostideae Redtop " 

.934 Aveneae Oat " 

.935 Chlorideae Gramma " 

.936 Festuceae Fescue " 

.937 Hordcae Hordecae Triticeae Wheat grasses 

.938 Bambuscae Bamboos 

.99 Other monocotyledones Anomali 


585 Gymnospermae 

.1 Gnetales Joint fir order 

.11 Gnetaceae Gnetum family (gnetum climbers) 


.12 Tumboaceae Welwitschiaceae Tumboa or wel- 

witschia family (welwitschia mirabilis) 

Tumbooideae, Tumboideae, Wchvitsehioideac 

.13 Ephedraceae Ephedra family 


.2 Coniferae Strobilophyta Pinales 

.21 Coniferales Conifer or pine order 

Rcndle and Swingle uze this term insted of Coniferae (585.2) 

.2ii Taxodiaceae Taxodineae Taxodium family (sequoia, 

bald cypress) 

Sciadopityoideae, Taxodioideae 

.212 Araucariaceae Araucarineae Old pine family 

.213 Pinaceae Abietaceae Abietineae Pine (modern 

pine) family (pine, hemlock, spruce, larch, tamarak, fir) 

Britton and Rendle uze Pinaceae as equivalent to Bessey's 
Coniferales (585.21) Pinoideae, uzed by Bessey as a clas 
name, including all his Strobilophyta (585.2), is given by 
Engler & Prantl as a subfamily of Pinaceae, other subfamily 
being Abietoideae 

.214 Cupressaceae Cupressineae Cypress family 


.215 Thuyopsidaceae Thuya or thuja family (white cedar, 

arbor vitae) 

Included by Engler & Prantl as a subfamily, Thujoideac, of 
Cupressaceae (5S5.214) 

.216 Juniperaceae Juniper family (juniper, red cedar) 

Included by Engler & Prantl as a subfamily, Juniperoidcac, of 
Cupressaceae (585.214) 

.22 Taxales Taxad order 

.221 Taxaceae Taxeae Yew family 

Britton and Rendle uze Taxaceae as equivalent to Bessey's 
Taxales (585.22) 

.222 Cephalotaxaceae 

Included by Bessey and Rendle in Taxaceae (Taxeae) 

.223 Podocarpaceae Podocarpeae 

Pherosphaeroideae, Podocarpoideae 

.224 Phyllocladaceae 

Included by Engler & Prantl as a subfamily, Phyllocladoideae, 
of Podocarpaceae (585.223); included by Rendle in Taxeae 

.5 Cordaitales 

Clas here Cordaitineae, given by Bessey as including Cordaitales, Gnetales 
(585.1) and Ginkgoales (585. 7) 

•Si Cordaitaceae Cordaiteae 

•52 Pityaceae 






Ginkgoales Ginkgoaceae Salisburyaceae Maiden- 
hair tree family (ginkgo) 

See also 634.572 Ginkgo 


Bescey includes, besides the orders given below, Cordaitineae (see 585.5) 

Cycadales Cycadineae 

Cycadaceae Cycadeae Cycad family (cycas) 
Zamiaceae Zamieae Zamia family 

Included by Engler & Prantl as a subfamily, Zamioideae, of 
Cycadaceae (585.911) 





Bennettitales Bennettitineae 

Bennettitaceae Bennettiteae 
Cycadofilicales Cycadofilices Pteridospermae 
Pteridospermeae Pteridospermales Pteridosperma- 
phyta Seed ferns 


Protopityaceae Protopityeae 










Medulloseae Medullosae 

Lyginodendraceae Lyginodendreae Lyginopterideae 

The following families ar clast by some authorities with Filicales 
(5*7-3) They hav caracteristics common to both Filicales and 
Cycadofilicales (585.95) 
























586 Cryptogamia Seedless plants 

587 588 Archegoniatae Embryophyta asiphonogama 
Embryophyta zoidiogama 

587 Pteridophyta Fern plants Vascular 

.1 Isoetales Isoetaceae Isoeteae Quillworts 

.2 Articulatae Calamophyta Calamites 

.21 E qui setales E qui seti neae 

.211 Euequisetales Equisetaceae Equisetae Horse- 

tails or scouring rushes 

.212 Calamariales Calamarineae Calamarieae Old 

1 Calamariaceae 

7, Protocalamariaceae Archaeocalamites 

. 2 2 Pseudoborniales Pseudoborniaceae 

.23 Cheirostrobales Cheirostrobaceae Cheirostrobeae 

.24 Sphenophyllales Sphenophyllineae Sphenophyl- 

laceae Wedge-leavd calamites 
.3 Filicales Filicinae Ferns 

Bessey's phylum Pteridophyta (see 587) is sinonimous with Filicales 
except that he includes also Isoetales (587.1) 

.31 Leptosporangiatae Modern ferns 

.311 Hydropteridineae Hydropterideae Marsiliales 

Salviniales Water ferns 

1 Salviniaceae Floating ferns 

2 Marsiliaceae Pepperworts 

.312 Eufilicineae Filicaceae Land ferns 

1 Osmundaceae 

2 Scbizaeaceae 

3 Gleicheniaceae 

4 Dipteridaceae 

Included by Engler & Prantl as a subfamily, Dipteridinae, 
under Polypodiaceae (587.3127) 

5 Matoniaceae 

6 Parkeriaceae Ceratopteridaceae 

7 Polypodiaceae Common ferns 

According to Engler & Prantl the tribe Aspidieae, of this 
family, includes Dipteridinae (see 587.3124) 

8 Cyatheaceae 

9 Hymenophyllaceae Filmy ferns 

Loxsomaceae is included by Engler & Prantl under Hymeno- 


587.33 Eusporangiatae Old-fashion d ferns 

Includes, according to Bessey, besides the 2 orders given b?'iow, 
Isoetalcs (587.1) 

.331 Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Adder's tungs 

.332 Marattiales Marattiaceae 

.335 Botryopterideae Botryopteridaceae 

.38 Fossil ferns of uncertain relationship 

Psaronieae, Tieteaceae, Knorriptcrideae, Rhizomopterideac, Invcr- 
sicatenaHes etc 

.4 Psilotales Psilotaceae 

Clast by Bessey and Clute under Lycopodiales (587.9) 

.45 Psilophy tales Psilophyton 

A fossil fern ally probably related to Psilotales (587.4) 

.9 Lycopodiales Lycopodinae Lepidophyta Club mosses 

.91 Lycopodiales ligulatae Lepidodendrineae Higher 
club mosses 

.911 Lepidophytineae Lepidodcndrales Lepidodendreae 

1 Pleuromeiaceae 

2 Sigillariaceae 

3 Bothrodendraceae 

4 Ulodendraceae 

Included by Engler & Prantl in Lepidodendraceae (587.9115) 

5 Lepidodendraceae 

.912 Selaginellineae Selaginellales Selaginellaceae 

Dwarf club mosses 
.92 Lycopodiales eligulatae Lycopodineae Lower 

club mosses 
•9 21 Cyclostigmaceae 

.922 Lycopodiaceae Common club mosses, ground pines 


Bryophyta Muscineae Mossworts 

1 Sphagnales Sphagna Peat mosses Sphagnaceae 
Large bog mosses 

Included by Bessey and Engler & Gilg under Musci (588.2) 

2 Musci Mosses 

2 1 Bryales True mosses 

2 1 1 Polytrichinales 

See also 588.214 Acrocarpi 

1 Polytrichales Polytrichaceae Haircaps 

2 Dawsoniales Dawsoniaceae 

2 1 2 Buxbaumiinales 

See also 588.214 Acrocarpi 

1 Diphysciales Diphysciaceae Weberaceae 

2 Buxbaumiales Buxbaumiaceac Humpback mosses 

213 Eubryinales 

214 Acrocarpi Top mosses 

1 Eubryales 

1 1 Timmiineae (Leafy bristle mosses) Tifnmiaceae 

12 . Bartramiineae : Bartramiaccae, Catoscopiaceae 

(Catascopiaceae), Mecseaceac, Aulacomniaceae 
(Aulocomniaccae), Spiridentaccac 

13 Hypnodcndrineae Hypnodendraceae 

14 Rhizogoniincae: Rhizogoniaceae, Calomniaccae, 
Mittcniaceae, Sorapillaccae, Eustichiaccac, Dre- 

15 Bryincae (Wood mosses): Mniaceae, Lcptosto- 
maceac (Leptostomataceae), Bryaceae 

2 Tetraphidiales (Tetraphidales) Georgiaccac 

3 Schisloslegiales Schistostegaceae 

4 Punariales 

41 Splachnineae: Splachnaceae (Petticoat mosses), 

42 Funariineae: Funariaceae (Bristle mosses), Ephe- 
meraccae, EHsceliaceae, Gigaspermaceae 

5 Grimmiales Grimmiaceae 

6 Pottiales 

61 Pottiineae: Pottiaceae, Trichostomaceae (Tri- 

62 Encalyptim-ac Mucalyptaceae 

63 Syrrhopodontineae: Syrrhopodontaceae, Calym- 

7 Dicranales 

71 Leucobryincae: Leucophanaceae (Leucophanoid- 
eae), Leucobryaceae (Cushion mosses) 

72 Pleurophascineae Pleurophascaceae 

73 Dicranineae: Dicnemonaceae, Dicranaceae (Turf 
mosses), Seligeraceae (Seligeriaceae), Ditrichaceae, 
Archidiaceae, Bryoxiphiaceae 

8 Fissidentales Fissidentaceae 


588.215 Pleurocarpi Side mosses 

1 Hypnobryales 

n Hypnincac: Hylocomiaceae, Rhytidiaceae, Hyp- 

naceae (Bog mosses), Sematophyllaceae, Plagio- 
theciaccac, Entodontaccae 

12 Leskcineae: Brachytheciaceae, Amblystegiaceae, 

Thuidiaceae, Leskcaceae, Rhegmatodontaceae 
(Rhcgmatodontoideae), Fabroniaccae, Theliaceae 

2 Hookeriales 

21 Hookeriineae: Hypopterygiaceae, Leucoir.iaceae, 
Symphyodontaceae, Hookeriaoeae, Pilotrichaceae 

22 Ncmatacineae Nemataceac (Ncmatocaceae) 

3 Isobryales 

31 Neckcrincac: Echinodiaceae, Lembophyllaccae, 
Neckeraceae, Phyllogoniaceae 

32 Leucodontineae: Meteoriaceae, Pterobryaceae, 
Myuriaceac, Trachypodaceae, Rutenbcrgiaccae, 
Prionodontaceae, Lepyrodontaceae, Ptychomni- 
aceae, Cyrtopodaceae, Leucodontaceae, Cryphae- 
aceae, Hedwigiaceae 

33 Fontinalineae: Climaciaceae (Tree mosses), Fonti- 
nalaceae (Brook mosses) 

34 Rhacopilineae Rhacopilaceac 

35 Orthotrichincae: Helicophyllaccac, Orthotrich- 
aceae, Ptychomitriaceae, Erpodiaccae 

.22 Andreaeales Andreaeaceae Black mosses, small 


.3 Hepaticae Liverworts 

.31 Jungermanniales Scale mosses 

.311 Jungermanniaceae acrogynae 

.312 " anacrogynae Metzgeriaceae 

.32 Anthocerotales Anthocerotaceae Hornworts 

.33 Marchantiales Great liverworts 

.331 Ricciaceae 

Clas here Ricciales, given by Bessey as an order with only 1 
family, Ricciaceae 

.332 Marchantiaceae 

Targionioidcae, Marchantioideae 

.333 Corsiniaceae 

Included by Engler & Gilg as a subfamily, Corsinioidcae of 
Marchantiaceae (588.332) 

.4 Charophyta Charales Stoneworts 

Some authorities clas Charophyta under Algae (589.3) 

.41 Characeae 
.42 Nitellaceae 

Included by Engler & Gilg and Hirmir as a tiibe, Nitelleae, 
of Characeae (588. 41) 



i Lichenes Lichens 

1 1 Basidiolichenes 

in Hymcnolichenes 

112 Gasterolichenes 

1 5 Ascolichenes 

1 6 Pyrenocarpeae Pyrenolichencs Angiocarpae 
Lichens with coverd fruit, closed lichens 

Mycoporaceae, Mastodiaceac, Pyrenotrichaceac, Xantho- 
pyrcniaceae, Pyrenidiaceae, Strigulaceac, Astrotheliaccae, Par- 
athcliaceae, Trypetheliaceac, Phyllopyreniaceae, Pyrcnulaceae, 
Pyrcnothamniaccae (Pyrenothamnaccae), Dermatocarpaceae, Vcr- 
rucariaceae, Epiglocaceae, Moriolaccae 

1 7 Gymnocarpeae Gymnocarpae Lichens with 
naked fruit 

171 Cyclocarpineae Discolichenes Disk lichens 

Physciaccae, Buelliaccae, Thcloschistaceae, Caloplacaceae, 
Usneaceac, Parmeliaceae, Lecanoraceae, Pcrtusariaceae, 
Acarosporaceae, Gyrophoraceae, Cladoniaciac, Phyllo- 
psoraceae, Lecideaceae, Peltigeraceae, Stictaccae, Pannar- 
iaceae, Hcppiaccae, Collemaceae (Collemataceae), Lichin- 
aceae, Pyrenopsidaceae, Ephebaceae, Coenogoniaccae, 
Gyalectaceae, Ectolechiaceae, Diploschistaccae, Thclotrc- 
maceae (Thelotremataceae), Chrysothricaccae (Chrysotri- 
chaccac), Byssolomaceae (Pilocarpaceae), Lccanactidaceae 

172 Graphidineae Graphidales Slit lichens 

Rocccllaceae, Dirinaceae, Chiodectonaceae, Graphidaceae, 


173 Coniocarpineae Caliciales Powdery lichens 

Sphaerophoraceae, Cypheliaceae, Caliciaceae 

18 Gelatinosae Gelatinus lichens 

19 Byssaceae Filamentus " 


589.2 Eumycetes Carpomyceteae Fungi Mushrooms 

Terms Carposporeae (formerly assignd to 580.21 and 580.4), Oosporeae 
(J89.24 and 589.5), Zygosporeae (589.27 and 589.6) and Zoosporeae 
(589.67) hav been discarded by best authorities for clasification purposes, 
but erly literature on those subjects is kept on the old numbers. For 
physiologic discussions see 581.32 Spores 

.21 Basidiomycetes Basidiales Smuts, rusts, mushrooms 

Carposporeac, see note under 589.2. Basidiomycetes changed from 

.22 Eubasidii Eubasidiomycetes Basidiosporeae 

.221 Autobasidiomycetes Gasteromycetes Stinkhorn 

fungi, pufball, erth star 

3 Exobasidiineae Exobasidialcs 

Exobasidiaceae, Ilypochnaceae 

4 Dacryomycetincae Dacryomycctaceae 

5 Phallincae Phallales Phalloideae Stinkhorn 
fungi, buzzard's nose 

Phallaceae, Clathraceae 

6 Hymenogastrineae Hymcnogastralcs Hymeno- 
gastereae Hymenogastraccac Subterranean fungi, 
false tubers 

7 Lycoperdineae Lycoperdales Lycoperdeae Puf- 
balls, devil's snuf box, earth star 

Lycoperdaceae, Tylostomataceae 

8 Nidulariineae Nidulariales Nidularieae Bird's 
nest fungi 

9 Sclerodermatineae Sclerodermatales Sclero- 
dermeae Plectobasidiincac Hard pufballs 

Tulostomataceae, Sphaerobolaceae, Calostomataceae, 
Sclerodermataceae, Podaxaceae 

.222 Hymenomycetineae Hymenomycetes Agaricales 

Mushrooms, toadstool fungi, fairy clubs 

Tulasnellaceae, Corticiaceae, Thelephoraceae (lethery 
fungi), Clavariaceae (Clavarieae, coral fungi), Hydnaceae 
(Hydneae, hedgehog or prickly fungi), Polyporaceae 
(Polyporeae, tubebearing fungi), Agaricaceae(Agari- 
cineae, gillbearing fungi, toadstools) 

.223 Protobasidiomycetes 

Removed from 589.224, which this group has been shar- 
ing with Hemibasidiomycetes 

1 Auriculariineae Auricularialcs Auricularieae 
Ear fungi, Jew's ear 

Pilacraceae (Pilacreaceae) , Auriculariaceae. Changed 
from 589.2251 

2 Tremellineae Tremellales Tremelleae Trembling 
or jelly fungi 

Hyaloriaceae, Tremellaceae (Tremellinaceae), Siro- 
basidiaceae. Changed from 589.2252 

.224 Hemibasidii Hemibasidiomycetes - Teliosporeae 

Brand fungi 

.225 Uredinales Uredineae Rusts 

Melampsoraceae (Uredinaceae), Coleosporiaceae, Cronarti- 
aceae, Schizosporaceae, Endophyllaceae, Pucciniaceae (Aeci- 

.227 Ustilaginales Smuts on corn, wheat, oats 

1 Ustilaginineae Ustilagineae Ustilaginaceae 

2 Tilletiineae Tilletiaceae Bunts 

.229 Protomycetes Protomycetineae Protomycetaceae 


Ascomycetes Ascosporeae Parasitic or ascus fungi 
Tuberineae Tuberales Truffles or tubers 

Balsamiaceae, Eutuberaceae (Tuberaceae) See also 589.233 

Laboulbeniales Laboulbeniineac Beetle fungi 

Ceratomycetaceae, Laboulbeniaceae, Peyritschiellaceae 

Euascales Discomycetes Carpoascomycetes 
Helvellineae Helvellales 

Helvellaceac, ('«•<> ilnssieeac, Rhizinaceae 

Pezizineae Pezizales Pezizeae Cup fungi 

Cyttariaceae, Cordieritidaceac, Ccnangiaccac Patcllariaceae, 
Cclidiaccac, Mollisiaccac, Helotiaceae, Ascobolaceae, Pezi- 
zaccac, Pyronemataccae 

Hysteriineae Hysteriales Slit fungi 

Acrospermaceae, Hystcriaccac, Ostropaceae, Dichaenaceae, 

Protocaliciineae Protocaliciaceae Powdery fungi 
Phacidiineae Phacidiales Little cup fungi 

Phacidiaceae, Tryblidiaceae, Stictidaceae 

Pyrenomycetineae Pyrenomycetales Pyrenomycetes 
Closed fungi: ergot, black knot (cherry, plum), black 
rot (grape) 

Sphaeriaceales: Xylariaceao, Mclogrammataccae, Dia- 
trypaccae, Melanconidiaceae, Valsaceae, Clypeo- 
sphacriaccae, Gnomoniaccac, Massariaceae, Pleo- 
sporaceac, Mycosphaerellaceae, Lophiostomataccae, 
Amphisphaeriaceae, Coryncliacoac, Cucurbitariaoeae, 
Ceratostomataccac, Sphaeriaoeae, Chaetomiaccae, 

Dothideaceales Dothideaccae (Dothidiaccae) 

Hypocrcaccalcs Hypocrcaccae 
Perisporiineae Perisporales Perisporineae Mil- 
dews, powdery mildew 

Microthyriaceae, Perisporiaceae, Paropsidaceae, Erysibaceae 


Hemiascomycetes Hemiascales 

Saccharomycetineae Saccharomycetae Saccharo- 
mycetes Saccharomycetaceae Yeast fungi 

Ascoideaceae, Endomycetaceae, Dipodascaceae, Eremascaceae 

Protodiscineae Exoascineae Exoascales Exoas- 
ceae Pocket fungi: peach leaf curl, plum pocket, 
witch's broom (witch's besom, hexenbesen) of cherry etc 

Ascocorticiaceae, Taphrinaceae (Exoascaceae) 

Plectascineae Gymnoasceae Aspergillales Little 

Myriangiaceae, Terfeziaceae, Elaphomycetaceae, Tricho 
comaceae (Trichocomataceae), Onygenaceae, Aspergillaceae, 


589.24 Deuteromycetes Fungi imperfecta 

Oosporeae, see note under 580.2 

.241 Fungi imperfecti: conidic type 

1 Hyphomycetes Moniliales Molds: potato, peach, 

apricot scab 

Tuberculariaceae, Stilbaceae, Dematiaceae, Mucedinaceae 

.242 Sphaeropsidales Spot fungi: black fungi, cranberry 


Excipulaccae, Lcptostromataceae, Nectrioidcaeeae (Nectrioid- 
aceae), Sphacrioideaccae (Sphacrioidaceae, Sphacropsidiaccac) 

.243 Melanconiales Melanconieae Melanconiaceae 

Black dot fungi 

Anthracnosc of grape, raspberry and blackberry; butternut 
blight; ripe rot; root rot of tobacco, violet, lupin; brown rot 
of stone fruits 

.244 Fungi imperfecti: mycelic type 

.25 Phycomycetes Phycomyceteae Siphonomycetes 

Algaelike fungi, tube fungi 
.251 Oomycetes Eg spore fungi 

.252 Peronosporineae Peronosporales Peronosporeae 

Downy mildews; blights on tobacco, grape vine, potato, 

Pythiaceae, Peronosporaceae (downy mildews), Albuginaceae 
(white rusts) 

.26 Saprolegniineae Saprolegniales Saprolegnieae 


Leptomitaceae, Saprolegniaceae 

.262 Ancylistineae 

Ancylistacene, Lagenidiaceae 

.263 Monoblepharidineae Monoblepharidaceae 

. 2 7 Zygosporeae 

See note under 589.2 

.28 Zygomycetes Mucorales Lowest fungi, moldlike 

.281 Mucorineae Black mold 

Piptocephalidaceae, Chaetocladiaceae, Mortierellaceae, Cho- 
anephoraceae, Mucoraceae 

.282 Entomophthorineae Entomophthorales Ento- 

mophthoreae Entomophthoraceae Fly fungi 

.283 Endogonineae Endogonaceae 

.284 Basidiobolineae Basidiobolaceae 

.285 Chytridiineae Chytridineae Plasmodiophorales 


Plasmodiophoraceae, Synchytriaceae. Olpidiaceae, Rhizi- 
diaceae (Chytridiaceae), Hypochytriaceae, Cladochytriaceae 
(Oochytriaceae) See also 580.20 Myxomycetts 

.29 Phytosarcodina Myxothallophyta Myxomycetes 

Myxophyta Mycetozoa Slime mold 

This whole group is claimd by both botanists and zoologists. The 
following may be clast in botany; other mycetozoa should be clast in 
zoology under 593-H- See also 589.285 Plasmodiophorales (Plas- 
modiophoraceae) , Phytomyxinae 

.292 Acrasiales Acraseae Sorophora 

Dictyosteliaceae, Guttulinaceae 


589. 2Q3 Myxogasteres Myxogastres Myxogastrales 


1 Ectosporeae Exosporeae Ceratiomyxaceae 

2 Endosporeae 

Physaraceae, Didymiaceae, Spumariaceae, Brefeldiaceae, 
Stemunitaccae, Reticulariaccae. Trichiaceae, Cribrariaceae, 
Clathroptychiaceae, Liccaceae 

.3 Algae 

.4 Carposporeae 

See note under 589.2 

.41 Rhodophyceae Red algae 

.411 Florideae Euflorideae Red seaweeds 

.412 Ceramiales Sea mosses 

Delesseriaceae (Delessariaceae), Rhodomelaceae, Cerumiaceae 

.413 Rhodymeniales Rhodymeninae Higher red sea- 


Rhodymeniaceae, Sphaerococcaceae 
.414 Gigartinales Gigartininae Soft red seaweeds 

Rhodophyllidaceae, Gigartinaceae, Acrotylaceae 

.415 Cryptonemiales Hard red seaweeds 

Corallinaceae, Solenoporaceae, Squamariaceae, Rhizophyl- 
Hdaceae (Rhiziphyllidaceae), Nemastoniataceae (Nemasto- 
maceae), Dumontiaceae, Grateloupiaceae, Gloiosiphoniace le 

.416 Nemalionales Nemalioninae Lower red seaweeds 

Wrangeliaceae (Bonnemaisoniaceae) (clast by Bessey under 
Ceramiales, 589.412), Gelidiaceae, Chaetangiaceae, Thore- 
aceae, Helminthocladiaceae, Lemaneaceae 

.42 Bangiales Bangioideae 

Bangioideae is Bessey 's name for this clas, which he divides into 
2 orders, Rhodochaetales (including Compsopogonaceae and 
Rhodochaetaceae) and Bangiales (with only 1 family, Bangiaceae) 

.45 Pliaeophyceae Euphaeophyceae Brown algae 

.451 Dictyotales Dictyotineae Tetrasporineae Dictyo- 


.452 Fucales Cyclosporeae Cyclosporinae Rockweeds 

Sargassaceae (Sargassum), Fucaceae (Fucus), Himanthali- 
aceae, Durvilleaceae (Durvillacaceae) 

.453 Tilopteridales Phaeozoosporineae 

Choristocarpaceae (clast by Bessey under Ectocarpalcs, 
589.457), Tilopteridaceae. Clas here Phaeosporeae, given 
by Bessey as a clas name including orders 589. 453-. 457 

.454 Laminariales 

Chordaceae, Laminariaceae, Prototaxitaceae. Clast fry 
Bessey under Ectocarpales (589.457) 

.455 Cutleriales 

Splachnidiaceae, Cutleriaceae 

.456 Sphacelariales Sphacelariaceae 

Clast by Bessey under Ectocarpalcs (589.457) 

.457 Ectocarpales Kelps 

Gifferdiaceae, Hydroclathraceae, Asperococcaceae (Stri- 
ariaceae, Myriotrichiaceae), Dictyosiphonaceae, Arthrocladi- 
aceae, Scytosiphonaceae, Punctariaceae, Sporochnaceae, 
Desmarestiaceae, Encoeliaceae, Spermatochnaceae (Stilo- 
phoraceae), Elachistaceae, Myrioncmataceae (Ralfsiaccae), 
Corynophlaeaceae, Mesogloeaceae (Chordariaceae), Ecto- 


589.47 Chlorophyceae Euchlorophyceae Isokontae 

Green algae 

.471 Siphonophyceae Siphoneae Tube algae 

.472 Siphonales Vaucherioideae Codiales Lower tube 

algae, green felts 

2 Vaucheriaceae 

3 Codiaceae 

4 Phyllosiphonaceae 

5 Derbesiaceae 

6 Caulerpaceae 

7 Bryopsidaceae Sea ferns 

Clas here Bryopsidoideae, given by Bessey as a clas 
name for higher tube algae 
.473 SiphonocladaJes Siphonocladeae 

2 Sphaeropleaceae 

Clas here Sphaeropleales, given by West as an order 
under Ulotrichales (589.474) with only 1 family, Sphaero- 

3 Cladophoraceae 

Clas here Cladophorales, given by Bessey and West as 
an order in which Bessey includes Cladophoraceae and 
Sphaeropleaceae (589.4732) and classes under Vaucheri- 
oideae (589.472), while West includes only 1 family, 
Cladophoraceae, and classes under Ulotrichales (589.474) 

4 Dasycladaceae 

Clas here Dasycladales, given by Bessey as an order 
including Dasycladaceae etc 

5 Siphonocladaceae 

6 Valoniaceae Large bladder algae 

Clas here Valoniales, given by Bessey as an order includ- 
ing Valoniaceae etc 

474 Ulotrichales Confervales Confervoideae 

2 Chaetophorales 

22 Oedogoniaceae 

Clas here Oedogoniales, given by West as an order v.-itL 
only 1 family, Oedogoniaceae 

23 Cylindrocapsaceae 

24 Coleochaetaceae Coleochaeteae 

Clas here Coleochaetales, given by Bessey as an Order 
with only 1 family, Coleochaetaceae 

25 Aphanochactaceae Herposteiraceae 

26 Chaetopeltidaceae 

27 Trentepohliaceae Chroolepidaccae Wittrockie 1 ' 

28 Chaetophoraceae Microthamniaceae 

3 Eu-ulotrichales 

32 Blastosporaceae Prasiolaceae 

Clas here Prasiolales, given by West, and S~hizogoniales, 
given by Bessey, as an order with only 1 family, Pra- 

33 Microsporaceae 

Clas here Microsporales, given by Bessey as an order 
with only 1 family, Microsporaceae 

34 Ulotrichaceae 

35 Ulvaceae 

Clas here Ulvales, given by Bessey as an order with only 
I family, Ulvaceae 


Protococcales Protococcoideae Green slimes 
Euprotococcales Chlorococcales 

Autosporinae: Coclastraceae, Dictyosphaeriaccae, 
Selenastraceae, Oocystaceae, Chlorellaceae, Eremo- 
sphaeraceae, Protothecaceae 

Zoosporinae: Hydrodictyaccae, Protosiphonaceae, 
Pleurococcaccae, Protococcaceae (Chlorococcaccae), 
Chlorosphaeraccae, Rhodochytriaceac 

Tetrasporalcs: Tetrasporaceac, Myurococcaceae, Pal- 
mcHaceae (Palmcllalcs) 
Chlorodendrales Chlorodendraceae 
Chlamydomonadales (Coenobialcs) : Vo!vocaceae 
(Sphaercllaceae, volvox), Pliacotaccac, Hyalovolvo- 
caccac, Chlamydomonadaceae (eudorina, pandorina), 
Heterokontae Heterocontae Yellow-green algae 

Botrydiaceae (Hydrogastraceae) Little bladder algae, 


Monociliaceae, Tribonemaceae 


Ophiocytiaceae, Marpochytriaceae, Chlorotheciaceae, Chlo- 


Heterocapsalts Botryococcaceae 

Chloramoebalcs Heterochloridaceae 

See note under 589.2 

Zygophyceae Conjugate algae 

Zygosporeae, see note under 589.2 

Conjugatae Conjugateae Euconjugatae 
Zygnematales Zygnemales Pond scum 

Zygnemataceae (Zygnemaceae, zygnema), Spirogyraceae 
(spirogyra), Mesocarpaceae, Mougeotiaceae, Gonatozygaceae 

Desmidiales Placoderm desmids 

Desmidiaceae, Cosmariaceae (Cosmarieac), Closteriaceae 
(Closterieae, Penieae) 

Mesotaeniales Mesotaeniaceae Saccoderm desmids 

Bacillariophyta Bacillarioideae Bacillariales 
Diatomales Diatomeae Diatoms 

Centricae Eupodiscales Cryptoraphideae Round 


Biddulphioideac: Rutilariaceae, Anauliaceae, Euodi- 
accac, Biddulphiaceae, Chaetocerotaceae 
Solenioidcae (Solenoideae) : Soleniaceae, Rhizoso- 

Discoideae: Eupodiscaceac, Actinodiscaceae, Cos- 
cinodiscaceae, Melosiraceae 


Pennatae Naviculales Raphideae Pseudoraphideae 
Flat diatoms 

Surirelloideae Surirellaceae 
Nitzschioidcae : Bacillariaceae, Nitzschiaceae 
Naviculoideae: Cymbellaccae, Gomphonemaceae, 

Achnanthoideae Achnanthaceae 
Fragilarioideae : Eunotiaceae, Fragilariaceae, Dia- 
tomaceae, Meridionaceae, Tabellariaceae 

See note under 589.2 

Protophyta Protista Schizophyta 

Chlorophyllaceae Schizophyceae Myxophyceae 
Cyanophyceae Phycochromaceae Archiplastideae 
Containing chlorophyl, slime algae, blue-green or 
fission algae 

Coccogonales Coccogoneae Chroococcales Chroococ- 

Hormogonales Hormogoneales Hormogoneae 

Stigonemataceae (Sirosiphonaceae) , Rivulariaceae, Camp- 
totrichaceae, Nostocaceae, Scytonemataceae, Oscillatoriaceae 

Chamaesiphonaceae, Pleurocapsaceae 

Holoplastideae Glaucocystales Glaucocystaceae 

Achlorophyllaceae Lacking chlorophyl 
Saccharomycetes Yeast 

Preferably clast in 589.2361 

Schizomycetes Bacteriales Fission fungi, bacteria, 
microbes Bacteriology 

Thiobacteria Thiobacteriales 

Rhodobacteriaceae, Beggiatoaceae, Achromatiaceae 

Eubacteria Eubacteriales 

Myxobacteriaceae (Myxobacteriales), Phycobacteriaceae 
(Chlamydobacteriaceae, Chlamy dobacteriales) , Actinomy- 
cetaceae (Actinomycetales), Mycobacteriaceae, Bacteri- 
aceae, Spirillaceae. Coccaceae, Nitrobaeteriaceae 

Special applications of bacteriology 

In general libraries best clast with subject, e.g. Soil bacter- 
iology 631.46; but may be kept together here by dividing like 
main clasification, e.g. Agricultural bacteriology 589.95863 


Groups given here ar claimd by both botanists and zoologists. 
Botanic discussions may be clast here and zoologic under 593.16, or, 
either number may, as preferd, be chosen to include all the material 

Silicoflagellatae Dichtyochidae 
Siphonotestales Dichtyochaceae 
Stereotestales Ebriaceae 


589.973 Dinoflagellatae Peridinales Peridiniales 

Peridineae Peridinieae Dinophyceae Cilio 

See also in zoology 59317 Ciliata, Cilioflagellata 

2 Diniferidea Deniferina 

22 Peridinioidae Peridiniaceae 

23 Gymnodinioidae 

232 Blastodiniidae 

233 Pouchetiidae 

234 Noctilucidae 

235 Polykrikidae Polykrikos 

236 Gymnodiniidae Gymnodiniaceae 

237 Protodiniferidae 

3 Adiniferidea Adinida Adinina 

32 Thecatoidae Prorocentricae Prorocentraceae, 

33 Athecatoidae Exuviaella 
5 Doutful dinoflagellatae 

Amphilothioideae, Cystoflagellata (RhynchoflaBeUata), Cyito- 

.974 Flagellatae Phytoflagellatae Enflagellatae 

2 Euglenales Euglenineae 

Peranemataceae (Peranemaceae), Astasiaceae, Euglenaceae 

3 Chloromonadales Chloromonadaceae Vacuolaria 

4 Cryptophyceae 

42 Cryptococcales 

43 Phaeocapsales 

44 Cryptomonadales: Nephroselmidaceae, Cryptomonad- 


5 Chrysophyceae 

52 Rhizochrysidales 

53 Chrysotrichales Phaeothamnionaceae 

54 Chrysosphaerales 

55 Chrysomonadales 

552 Chrysocapsales: Hydruraceae, Chrysocapsaceae, 

553 Ochromonadales Ochromonadaceae 

554 Hymenomonadales : Euhymenomonadaceae (Hy- 
menomonadaceae) , Isochrysidaceae 

555 Chromulinales: Mallomonadaceae, Euchromuli- 
naceae (Chromulinaceae) 

6 Protomastigales 

Protomastigaceae, Tetramitaceae, Trimastigaceae, Amphi- 
monadaceae, Bodonaceae, Monadaceae, Phalansteriaceae, 
Craspedomonadaceae, Bicoecaceae, Oicomonadaceae 

7 Diastomatales Diastomataceae 

8 Pantostomatales Rhizoflagellatae 

Rhizomastigaeeae, Holomastigaceae 


590 Zoology 

jgo.l Philosofy, classification .1 Compenda .3 Dictionaries .4 Essays, 
lectures, etc. .5 Periodicals .6 Societies .7 Study and teaching, zoologic 
gardens, aquaria, museums .8 Collectiv works .9 History 

591 Physiologic zoology 

Divided where needed like .581 




















Exhalation of aqueous vapor 




Acquisition of food 


Digestion of food 


Assimilation of food 



O J 



Repair of waste 


Production of organic material 

Conditions of nutritiv activity 



Longevity, vitality 


Secretion and excretion 

Mucous and sebaceous 




Digestiv: salivary, gastric, pancreatic 


Protectiv and attractiv 

Odoriferous, sweet, luminous, electric, etc. 


Poisonous, gall formation, caprification 


Mammary, spermatic 






Urinary and fecal 


Variation See also 57S-3 Evolution 




















591.16 Generation 

.161 Abiogenesis 

.162 Parthenogenesis, neuters 

.163 Metagenesis, pedogenesis, nurses 

.165 Fission and gemmation 

.166 Fecundation 

.167 Hermaphrodites 

.168 Viviparity 

.169 Superfetation 

. 1 7 Histogenesis 

.171 Development of sperm cells 

.172 Development of germ cells, micropyle 

.179 Reparation of wounds 

.18 Nervous functions and sensation 

.19 Physiologic chemistry 

.2 Pathology 

.3 Embryology 

.33 Development of embryo 

.34 Metamorphosis, larva, pupa, molting 

• 3 5 Hypermetamorphosis 

.36 Production of sexes 

See also 575.9 Origin of sexes 

.4 Morfology Comparativ anatomy Homologies 

.41 Circulatory organs 

.42 Respiratory organs 

.43 Nutritory organs 

.44 Secretory and excretory organs 


.46 Generatory organs 

.47 Motory organs and integumentary system 

Skeleton, dermoskeleton 

.48 Nervous system 

.49 Regional anatomy 

.5 Habits and behavior 

Including popular books; animal stories, except fiction 

.51 Instinct Reason 

.52 Abode Migration 

.53 Food 

.54 Seasons Hibernation 

.55 Sociability 

.56 Philoprogenitivness Breeding 

.57 Means of protection Fascination 

.59 Other habits 


591.6 Economic 

.61 Usefulness 

.62 In nature 

.63 As food and medicin for man 

.64 In chemistry and manufactures 

.65 Noxiousness 

.66 Offensiv animals 

.67 Animals causing diseases [substances 

.68 Injuring vegetable and animal products and inorganic 

.69 Injuring living plants and animals Parasites 

.7 Organografy Descriptiv anatomy 

Subdivided like 591.4 Morfology 

.8 Histology See also 578.0 Microscopic zoology 

.9 Geografic distribution of animals 

Subdivided like 581.9 

592 Invertebrates 

593 Protozoans Radiates 

.1 Protozoans 

. 1 1 Rhizopoda 

. 1 2 Foraminif era 

.13 Heliozoa 

. 1 4 Radiolaria Polycystina 

. 1 5 Infusoria 

. 1 6 Flagellata 

.17 Ciliata 


.iq Gregarinidas 

.2 Radiates 

^ Ccelenterata Acalepha (old use of term, now limited to 593.73) 

.4 Sponges Porifera Spongia 

. 5 Cnidaria 

.6 Actinozoa Polyps Corals and sea anemones 

.6 1 Rugosa Tetracorolla 

.62 Alcyonaria Octocorolla 

.63 Zoantharia Hexacorolla 

.64 Antipatharia 

.65 Actinaria 

.66 Madreporaria 

.7 Hydrozoa 

.71 Hydromedusae 

.72 Siphonophora 

.73 Acalepha 

.74 Calycozoa 

.76 Marsupialida 

.77 Discophora Jelly fish 


593.8 Ctenophora Jelly fllh 

.9 Echinodermata 

.91 Crinoidea, sea lilies 

.92 Asteroidea, star fish 

.93 Stelleridea 

.94 Ophiuridea 

.95 Echinoidea, sea urchins 

.96 Holothuroidea, sea cucumbers 

.97 Pedata 

.98 Apoda 

.99 Enteropneusta 

594 Mollusks 

.1 Lamellibranchiata Bivalvs 

.2 Scaphopoda Toothshells 

.3 Gastropoda Univalvs : snails, slugs See also 633.643 Pests 

.31 Amphineura Chitons 

.32 Prosobranchia 

.324 Aspidobranchia 

.329 Pectinibranchia 

.34 Heteropoda 

.35 Opisthobranchia Sea slug, sea lemon 

.36 Nudibranchia 

.37 Tectibranchia Sea hare, bubble shell 

.38 Pulmonata Snails 

.4 Pteropoda Wingd shells 

.5 Cephalopoda Squids and cuttlefish 

. 5 1 Tetrabranchia 

.52 Nautilidae Nautilus 

.53 Ammonites 

.55 Dibranchia 

.56 Octopoda Octopus, cuttlefish, squid 

.58 Decapoda Ten-armd cephalopod, cuttlebone 

.6 Molluscoidea 

.7 Bryozoa (Polyzoa) Sea mats 

.71 Gymnolaemata Sea mats 

.711 Cyclostoma 

.712 Ctenostomata 

.713 Chilostomata 

.72 Phylactolaemata Fresh water polyzoans 

.73 Pterobranchia 

.74 Entoprocta 

.8 Brachiopoda Lamp shells 


594.9 Tunicata Sea grapes 

.91 Ascidia Sea squirt, sea pear, sea peach, sea potato 

.92 Copelata? Taild ascidian 

.93 Monascidiae Sea squirt 

.94 Synascidiae Composit ascidian 

.95 Pyrosoma Firebodies 

.96 Salpae Salp 

.97 Doliolum Doliolid 

595 Articulates 

.1 Vermes Worms see also 632.651 Pests 

. 1 1 Helminthes Parasitic worms 

.12 Platyhelminthes Flatworms 

.121 Cestoda Tapeworm 

.122 Trematoda Fluke 

.123 Turbellarii Black planarian 

.124 Nemertini Nemertean worm 

.13 Nematodes Trichina, thred worm, pin worm 

.131 Gordiacea Hairworm 

.133 Acanthocephali Barbd-headed worm 

.135 Chaetognathi 

.14 Annelida Jointed worms 

. 1 5 Hirudinea Leeches 

.16 Oligochaeta Earth worm, lugworm 

. 1 7 Polychaeta 

.174 Gephyrea Spoon worm 

.176 Phoronis Actinotrocha worm 

.178 Myzostomida 

.18 Rotifera Wheel animalcules 

.185 Echinoderes 

. 1 88 Gastrotricha 

.189 Dinophilus 

.19 Orthonectida 

.195 Dicyemida 

.2 Arthropod a 

.3 Crustacea 

.31 Entomostraca Cyclops, shrimps, etc. 

.315 Pantopoda Sea spider 

.32 Phyllopoda Leaf -footed crustaceans 

.323 Branchiopoda 

.324 Cladocera Water flea 

.33 Ostracoda 

.34 Copepoda Copepod, cy clops 

.-^45 Copepoda parasita Fish lice 

.35 Cirripedia Barnacles, etc. 


595.36 Malacostraca Sandbugs, crabs, lobsters, etc. 

.37 Arthrostraca 

.371 Amphipoda Sand flea 

.372 Isopoda Sow bug, wood lice 

.38 Thoracostraca Crab, shrimp, prawn, lobster 

.381 Cumacea 

.382 Stomapoda Sea mantle, glas crab 

.383 Schizopoda Opossum shrimp 

.384 Decapoda Lobster, crab, crayfish 

1 Macrura Lobster, crayfish 

2 Brachyura Crab 
.39 Gigantostraca 

.391 Merostomata 

.392 Xiphosura Horseshoe crab 

.393 Trilobita Trilobites 

.4 Arachnida Spiders Scorpions Mites see also 632.654 Pests 

.41 Linguatulida Tongue worm 

.412 Tardigrada Water bear 

.42 Acarina Mites 

.43 Phalangida Harvest spider 

.44 Araneida True spider 

.45 Pedipalpi Whip scorpion 

.46 Scorpiones Scorpion 

.47 Pseudoscorpiones False scorpion 

.48 Solifugae Weasel-spider 

.5 Onychophora 

.6 Myriopoda Centiped, etc- see also 632.656 Pests 

.61 Chilognatha Milliped 

.62 Chilopoda Centiped 

.63 Symphyla 

.64 Pauropoda 

.7 Insecta Hexapoda Insects see ako 632.7 Pests 

.709 Geografic distribution 

Divide like 930-990 

.71 Thysanura Bristletails, springtails, etc. 

.711 Campodeidae 

.713 Poduridae Snow flea, springtail 

.715 Lepismatidae Bristletail 

.72 Orthoptera Grashoppers, etc. 

.721 Dermaptera Earwig 

.722 Cursoria Cockroach 

.723 Gressoria Walking insect 

.724 Phasmidae Walking stick, leaf insect, walking leaf 

.725 Mantidae Praying insect, camel insect 

.726 Saltatoria Leaping or jumping insects 

.,727 Acrididae Locust 

.728 Locustidae Green grashopper, katydid 

.729 Gryllidae Cricket 


595-73 Pseudoneuroptera Dragon-flies, white ants, etc. 

.731 Thysanoptera Thrip 

.732 Corrodentia Booklice, white ant, death watch 

.733 Odonata Dragonfly, darning needle, mosquito hawk 

.734 Ephemeridae Mayfly, dayfly, shadfly 

.735 Perlidae Stone fly 

.74 Neuroptera Caddis flies, etc. 

.741 Planipennia Ant lion, scorpion fly 

.742 Megaloptera Ant lion 

.743 Sialidae Hill grammite fly 

.744 Panorpidae Scorpion fly 

.745 Trichoptera Caddis fly 

.746 Strepsiptera 

.75 Hemiptcra Rhynchota Bugs, etc. 

751 Aptera Wingless insects 

2 Pediculidae True lice, crab lice, body lice, head lice 

4 Mallophaga Bird lice 

.752 Homoptera 

2 Phytophthires (Phytophtires) Stenorhyncha (Sternorhyncha) 

3 Monomera Coccidae Scale-insects, coccids 

4 Dimera 

5 Aphidae Aphids, plant-lice 

6 Aleurodidae Moth-blight insects 

7 Psyllidae (Psylloidae) Flea-lice 
.753 Auchenoryncha Trimera 

1 Cicadidae Cicada 

2 Fulgoridae Lantern-flies 

3 Cercopidae Triecphoridae Froghoppers, cuckoo-spits, 

4 Membracidae Tree-hoppers 

5 Jassidae Jassids, leaf-hoppers 

.754 Heteroptera Squash bug, stink bug, etc. 

.76 Coleoptera Beetles 

.761 Pentamera 

.762 Adephaga Whirligig, tiger beetle, water beetle, etc. 

.763 Clavicornia Burying beetle, larder beetle 

.764 Lamellicornia Dung beetle, June beetle, rose chafer 

.765 Sternoxia Click beetle, wireworm 

.766 Malacodermata Ship-timber beetle, powder-post beetle 

.767 Heteromera Blister beetle 

.768 Tetramera Weevil, leaf beetle 

.769 Trimera Lady-bird beetle 

.77 Diptera Flies, etc. 

.771 Nematocera Gnat, midge, mosquito, gall midge fly 

.772 Brachycera Gadfly, botfly, fleshfly, aphis-fly 

.774 Pupipara Lousefly, bee lice 

.775 Aphaniptera Flea 

.78 Lepidoptera Butterflies, moths 

.781 Heterocera Moths 

.782 Microlepidoptera Small lepidoptera: clothes moth, 
codling moth 


595.783 Macrolepidoptera Large lepidoptera 

.785 Geometrina Mesuring worm, canker worm 

.786 Noctuina Owlet moth 

.787 Bombycina Silkworm, gipsy moth, tent caterpillar 

.788 Sphingina Sphinx moth 

.789 Rhopalocera Butterflies 

.79 Hymenoptera Bees, wasps, etc. 

.791 Terebrantia Boring hymenoptera 

.792 Entomophaga Boring insects 

.793 Phytophaga Sawfly, horntail, gallfly 

.794 Aculeata Stinging hymenoptera 

.795 Chrysididae Cuckoo wasp 

.796 Formicidae Ant 

.797 Fossoria Digger wasp 

.798 Vespidae True wasp 

.799 Apidae Bee 

596 Vertebrates 

597 Fishes Pisces 

.09 Geografic distribution 

Divide like 9JO-999, uzing .09.2 for oceans, further subdivided like 551.46 
and .47; e. g. fishes of Gulf of Mexico 597.0923 

.1 Pharyngobranchii Lancelet 

Leptocardii, Amphioxus, Acraniata 

.2 Marsipobranchii Lampreys 


.3 Elasmobranchii Sharklike fishes 

.31 Selachii Plagiostomes Notidani True sharks 

.35 Tectospondyle Ray Rajidae Skate 

.38 Holocephali Chimera 

.4 Ganoidei Sturgeons, garpikes, etc. (covered with hard 
bony plates) 

.41 Amiidae Bowfin 

.44 Chondrostei Acipenseridae Sturgeon 

.46 Crossopterygii Fringe-fin 

.47 Euganoides Heterocerques Lepidostei Garpike 

.48 Dipneusti Dipnoi Lung fish 

.5 Teleostei True bony fishes 

.53 Lophobranchii Pipe fish, sea horse 

.54 Plectognathi File fish, globe fish, box fish 

.55 Physostomi Salmon, herring, carp 

.56 Anacanthini Cod, halibut, flounder 

.57 Pharyngognathi Wrasses, parrot fish 

.58 Acanthopterygii Perch, bass, mackerel 

.6 Batrachia (Amphibia) 

.7 Ophiomorpha 

.8 Anura Toads, frogs 

.9 Urodela Salamanders 


598 Reptils Birds 

.1 Reptils 

. 1 1 Lacertilia Lizards 

.13 Ophidia Snakes 

.121 Nonvenomus snakes 

.126 Venomus snakes 

.13 Chelonia Turtles 

.14 Crocodilia Crocodiles 

.15 Ichthyopterygia 

.16 Sauropterygia 

.17 Anomodontia 

.18 Pterosauria 

.19 Dinosauria 

.2 Birds Aves 

.29 Geografic distribution 

Divide like 930-999 

.3 Grallatores Waders 
.3 1 Fulicariae 

Coot, rail, sungrebe 

.32 Alectorides 

Seriema, sun bittern, trumpeter, kagu. crane, courtaa 

.33 Limicolae Shore birds 

Plover, snipe, sand piper, stilt, oyster catcher 

.34 Herodiones 

Heron, bittern, stork, ibis, spoonbill, flamingo, umbrettc 

.4 Natatores Swimmers 

.41 Anseres Lamellirostral swimmers 

Duck, goose, swan, merganser, screamer, sheldrake 

.42 Longipennes Long-wingd swimmers 

Jaeger, skua, gull, tern, skimmer, albatross, petrel 

.43 Steganopodes Totipalmate swimmers 

Tropic bird, cormorant, pelican, darter, gannet, man-o'war bird 

.44 Pygopodes Diving birds 

Grebe, loon, auk, murre, puffin, penguin 

.5 Cursores Ratitse Runners 
.51 Struthionidae Ostrich 

.52 Rheidae Rhea 

.53 Casuariidae Cassowary Dromaeidae Emu 

.54 Apterygidae Kiwi Dinornithidae Moa 

.6 Rasores Scratchers 
.61 Gallinae Gallinaceus birds 

True fowl, grouse, quail, hoatzin, fesant, turkey 

.65 Columbae 

Pigeon, dodo 


598.7 Scansores Climbers 
. 7 1 Psittacidae 

Parrot, macaw, parakeet, cockatoo, lory, kaka, nestor 

.72 Picidae 

Woodpecker, pufbird, barbet, jacamar, honey guide, wryneck, toucan 

.73 Trogonidae Trogon 

.74 Cuculidae Cuckoo 

.8 Insessores Perchers 

.81 Acromyodi Singing passerin birds 

Warning, thrush, finch, swallow, warbler, flycatcher, o riolc, bobolink, sparrow 

.86 Mesomyodi Non-singing passerin birds 

Crow, raven, ant bird, broadbill 

.89 Picariae Non-passerin birds 

Kingfisher, roller, swift, humming bird 

.9 Raptores Birds of prey 

.91 Falconidae Falcon family Vulturidae . Vulture 

Hawk, falcon, eagle, buzzard 

.97 Night raptores 

Strigidae: owl 

599 Mammals Mammalia 

.1 Monotremata Duckbild platypus, duckmole 

.2 Marsupialia Kangaroos, opossums 

.3 Placentalia Monodelphia 

.31 Edentata Armadillo, anteater, sloth 

.32 Rodentia Rat, rabbit, woodchuck 

.33 Insectivora Shrew, mole 

.4 Cheiroptera Bats 

.5 Cetacea Sirenia Whales, etc. 

.51 Mysticete Balaenoid whale, whalebone whale 

.53 Denticete, Odontocete Tootht whale 

.55 Sirenia 

.6 Subungulata 

.61 Proboscidea 

Eiefant, mammoth, mastodon 

.615 Barytheria Barypoda 
.62 Hyracoidea 

Hyrax, cony 

.625 Embrithopoda 

.63 Notoungulata Toxodonta 

.632 Typotheria 

.64 Homalodotheria Homalodontotheria Entelonychia 

.642 Astrapotheria 
.643 Toxodontia 
.65 Litopterna 
.6 55 Pyrotheria 

.66 Amblypoda Short-footed ungulates 

.67 Condylarthra Slender ungulates 


599.7 Ungulata Carnivora 

See also 636 Domestic animals 

. 7 1 Ungulata Hoof t mammals 

.72 Perissodactyla Od-toed ungulates 

.722 Chelodactyla Normal perissodactyls 

.723 Hippoidea 

.724 Palacotheriidae 

.725 Equidae Monochcla Solidipcda Solid ungula 


Horse, ass, zebra, quagga etc 

.726 Titanotheroidca Titanothcria 

2 Palaeosyopidae 

4 Titanotheriidae Brontotheriidae 

.727 Tapiroidea 

2 Tapiridae Tapirs 

4 Lophiodontidae 

.728 Rhinocerotoidea 

2 Hyracodontidae 

4 Rhinoccrotidae Rhinoceros 

.729 Ancylopoda Ancylodactyla Chalicotheria Chalico- 

theroidea Clawd perissodactyls 

.73 Artiodactyla Even-toed ungulates 

Bisulca, Dichela 

.732 Nonruminantia 

.733 Selenobunodontia 

2 Anthracotheriidae 

3 Dichobunidae 

4 , Trigonolestidae 

.734 Suina Bunodontia Swine 

2 Cebochoeridae 

3 Leptochoeridae 

4 Suidae Pigs 

5 Dicotylidae Tagassuidac 


6 Entelodontidae Elothcriidae 

Giant pigs 

7 Hippopotamidae Hippopotamas 
.735 Ruminantia Selenodontia Ruminants 

2 Oreodonta 

3 Anoplotheriidae 

4 Tylopoda Cameloidea 

Camel, dromedary, llama, alpaca, vicuna etc 

5 Tragulina Traguloidea 
52 Gelocidae 

54 Hypertragulidae 
56 Tragulidae 

Chevrotain or mouse-deer 

6 Pecora 

7 Cervicornia Antlerd or solid-bornd ruminants 

72 Giraffidae 

Giraf, okapi 
74 Cervidae Deer 

76 Merycodontidae Deer-antelope 

8 Cavicornia Hollow-hornd ruminants 
82 Antilocapridae 

Prongbuck or pronghorn antelope 
84 Bovidae Bovines 

Ox, sheep, goat, antelope, gazel, chamois etc 


599.74 Carnivora Flesh-eating mammals, beasts of prey 

.743 Creodonta Primitiv carnivora 

.744 Vissipedia Land carnivora 

2 Aeluroidea Ailuroidea Herpestoidea 

22 Viverridae 

Civet, genet, linsang etc 

23 Nandiniidae 

African palm or tree civet 

24 Herpestidae 


25 Cryptoproctidae 

Foussa or fossa 

26 Protelidae 

Aard wolf 

27 Hyaenidae 


28 Felidae Cats 
4 Arctoidea 

42 Canidae 

Dog, wolf, fox, jackal etc 

43 Procyonidae 

Raccoon, coati, kinkajou, cacomistlc, bassarisk etc 

44 Ailuridae Aeluridae 

Common panda 

45 Ailuropodidae Aeluropodidae 

Pandarctos, great or giant panda 

46 Ursidae Bears 

47 " Mustelidae 
472 Mustelinae 

Weasel, marten, sable, mink, stoat, ernjin, polecat, ferret, 

wolverine etc 

474 Mclinae 

Badger, ratel etc 

475 Mephitinae 

Skunk etc 

478 Lutrinae Otters 

.745 Pinnipedia Fin- or paddle-footed carnivora, aquatic 

or marine carnivora 
.746 Otariidae Eard seals 

Fur seal, sea lion, sea bear 

.747 Odobaenidae Odobenidae 


.748 Phocidae Earless or true seals 

.8 Quadrumana Apes Primates 

.81 Prosimiae Lemur 

.82 Pitheciinae: couxio Cynopithecidae : monkey, baboon 

Catarrhina: gorilla, chimpanzee, orang Platyrrhini: 
American monkey 

.88 Anthropomorpha Anthropoid ape 

.9 Bimana Man See also 573 Nat. hist, of man; 610 Median 

Useful Arts 
Applied Science 

600 Useful arts Applied science 

601 Filosofy Theories, etc. 

602 Compends, outlines 

603 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

604 Essays, lectures, addresses 

605 Periodicals, magazines, reviews 

606 Societies Fairs Exhibitions 

Special exhibitions go with their topics. This is general only 

607 Education Schools of technology 

Divided like 040-999 

608 Patents Inventions 

609 History of useful arts in general 

For iti history, see each special department 



For full list of form divisions see Table 2 following Relativ index. Note special sub 
divisions below which may be applied as needed thruout 61 1-619 
.7 Study and teaching .71 Medical schools .714 Medical education for special 
classes: women etc. .73 Training schools, for nurses Nursing Regular form 
divisions may be added here as needed; e.g. 610.7307 Study and teaching of nursing, 
610.7300 History of nursing .74 Medical museums .75 Diagnosis .731 Pulse 
.752 Tongue .753 Eye, skin, etc. .754 Auscultation, percussion .755 Ther- 
mometry .756 Chemistry Urin analysis .757 Microscopy, radioscopy, etc. 
.758 Pathologic anatomy .759 Postmortem examination E.g. 616.0756 Chemic 
diagnosis of disease, 616.241075 Diagnosis of pneumonia 

I Anatomy 

See also 501.4 Comparativ anatomy; 591.8 Zoologic histology 
61 1 .0 1 Theory 
.012 Teratology 
.013 Embryology 
.014 Anthropologic anatomy 
.016 Paleontologic " 
.018 Histology 

.019 Comparativ anatomy • 
.1 Circulatory system 
.2 Respiratory " 
.3 Digestiv " 
.4 Glandular and lymfatic system 
.6 Genito-urinary system 
.7 Motor and integumentary system 
.8 Nervous system 
.9 Regional anatomy 

.01 Theory 

.0111 Notion, definition, value 

.or 12 Classification, division 

.0114 Terminology 

.012 Teratology Anomalies 

Divided like 617.3 Orthopedic surgery 

.013 Ontogeny Embryology 

See also physiology, 612.6 Reproduction and development 

j Germinativ cells 

1 1 Sperm 

12 Spermatogenesis See also 611.63 Male genital organs 

15 Ovum 

16 Ovogenesis See also 611.65 Female genital organs 

17 Maturation Corpus luteum 

2 Copulation Fecundation Fertilization 

See also Fecundation, in botany 581.166; in zoology 591.166 

3 Germ layers 

31 Segmentation Cleavage Blast ula 

314 Blastula 

32 Gastrula 

33 Primitiv streak 

34 Blastopore Primitiv mouth 

35 Archenteron Primitiv gut 

36 Neurenteric canal 

37 Entoderm, entoblast, hypoblast or endoderm 

38 Ectoderm, epiblast or ectoblast 

39 • Mesoderm or mesoblast 

395 Mesenchyme 

.0134 Entodermic, entoblastic or hypoblastic organs 

41 Notochord 

5 Ectodermic, epiblastic or ectoblastic organs 

Epidermal layci 

51 Neural furrows, folds and canal or medullary plates 

Se» also 61 1.8 Nervous system 


611.0136 Mesodermic organs 

61 Protovertebrae Mesoblastic somites, or primitiv 


64 Somatopleure, body wall, or musculocutaneous plate 

Outer lamella of lateral plates 

65 Splanchnopleure, fibrous wall of alimentary canal, or 
gut fiber plate 

Inner lamella of lateral plates 

66 Coelom, pleuroperitoneal or body cavity 

See also 611.389 Coelom 
68 Blood or primitiv vessel wall 

See also 611. 0185 Histology of blood 

7 External form of embryo 

8 Fetal appendages 
81 Vitellin sac 

32 Allantoi9 

S3 Amnion 

835 Amniotic fluid 

84 Chorion 

85 Placenta Umbilic cord 

9 Experimental embryology 
.014 Anthropologic anatomy 

See also 572 Anthropology 

.016 Paleontologic anatomy 

See also 560 Paleontology 

.018 Histology 

Microscopic structure of organs 

1 Cells Cytology 

See also 576.3 Cytology For special cells see tissues to which 

they belong 
1 1 Protoplasm 
13 Nucleus 

15 Cell division See also 611.01331 

16 Centrosome 

18 Cilia Cellular membrane 

2 Connectiv tissue 

Connectiv, cartilage and bone tissue together known as 'sup- 
porting tissues ' 

21 Connectiv tissue cells 

22 Connectiv tissue fibers 

23 Ground substance or matrix 

24 Reticular and adenoid tissue 

Areolar or interstitial tissue Reticulum 

25 Mucous or gelatinous tissue Mesenchyme 

See also embryology, 611.013395 Mesenchyme 

26 Adipose or fat tissue 

27 Elastic or yellow fibrous tissue 

28 Fibrous or white fibrous tissue 

29 Pigment and pigment cells 

3 Cartilaginous tissue 

True or hyalin cartilage, cartilage cells or chondroblasts For 
Elastic, yellow fibrocartilage, or reticular cartilage see 
611. 01827; for Fibrocartilage, fibrous or white fibrocartilage 
see 611.01828 
34 Perichondrium 


611.0184 Bone or osseous tissue 

41 Bone cells 

Osteoblasts Osteoclasts Howship't lacunae Myato- 

plaques of Robin 

43 Ground substance or matrix 

Spongiosum, spongy substance, or cancellated or spongy bone 

Compact substance 

Structure: lacunae, canaliculi, lamellae, Haversian canals 
Volkmann's canals 

44 Periosteum 

Osteogenetic layer or cells; fibers of Sharpey 

46 Bone marrow or medulla 

5 Blood 

See also physiology, 612. 11 Blood 
1 For sperm, see 611.01311 and 612.6:6 

57 Lymf 

See also 612.42 Lymfatic system 

6 Muscular tissue Sarcoplasm 

61 Smooth, unstriped, unstriated or involuntary muscle 

63 Striped, striated or voluntary muscle 


63 Cardiac muscle 

64 Histology of muscular contraction 

7 Epithelial tissue 

73 Glandular system 

73 Mucous membranes 

74 Serous " Endothelia 

8 Nervous tissue 

81 General structure Tectology Neurone 

8a Nerv cells 

Nissl's chromophilic bodies 

83 Prolongations and nerv fibers 

Cylinder-axis process; cylinder axis. AppendUea, varicosities 

833 Neurilemma Schwann's sheath 

834 Myelin Ranvier's nodes Medullary sheath 

835 Adventitious sheath, perineurium Epineurium 

837 Dendrites 

84 Neuroglia Ependymal cells, amyloids 

86 Terminations 

861 Motor terminations 

866 Sensory 

,019 Comparison with anatomy of lower animals 

Usually better clast in 591.4 

Form divisions 

.02 Compends 

.03 Dictionaries Cyclopedias 

.04 Essays Addresses 

.05 Periodicals 

.06 Societies Clubs 

MEdicin: anatomy 

611.07 Teaching Methods 

.07 a Laboratories Dissection 

.077 Pedagogic methods 

.078 Instruments Apparatus 

.08 Polygrafy 

.09 History 

.1 Circulatory system 

. 1 1 Pericardium 

. 1 2 Hart 

. u> Left hart 

.11 j Right hart 

.124 Ventricles 

a Right s Left 

.125 Auricles 

a Right s Left 

.126 Endocardium 

3 Valvs 

4 Auriculoventricular valvi 
41 Mitral or bicuspid valvs 
46 Tricuspid valvs 

j Valvs of aorta and of pulmonary artery 

Sinuses of Valsalva 

5* Aortic valvs 

56 Pulmonary or semilunar valvs 

6 Valvs of right auricle 

a Eustachian j Coronary 

.127 Myocardium 

.13 Arteries 

.131 Pulmonary artery 

a Right branch 5 Left branch 

.132 Aorta 

1 Aortic arch Ascending aorta 

2 Coronary arteries 

a Right 5 Left 

5 Innominate artery 
.133 Carotid arteries 

1 Common carotid 

2 External " 

11 Superior thyroid 

it Lingual 

»3 Facial, or external maxillary 

14 Ascending pharyngeal 

aj Posterior auricular 

j6 Occipital 

*7 Superficial temporal 

»8 Internal maxillary 

ail Sphenopalatin arteries 

»8« Middle or great meningeal 

3 Internal carotid 

32 Ophthalmic artery 

33 Cerebral arteries, anterior and middle 

For posterior cerebral artery see 611.1349 


61T.134 Subclavian arteries 

1 Axillary 

Superior thoracic, acroraiothoracic, long thoracic or external 
mammary, alar thoracic, subscapular, posterior and anterior 


2 Brachial or humeral 

Superior and inferior profunda, nutrient, anastomotica magna, 


3 Forearm arteries 

31 Radial 
35 Ulnar 

4 Hand arteries 

5 Internal mammary Superior epigastric 

6 Costocervical trunk 

7 Thyrocervical trunk 

8 Posterior, or dorsal scapular, transversa colli 

Q Vertebral Basilar, posterior cerebral, circle of Willit 

.135 Thoracic aorta and branches 

1 Parietal branches 

4 Intercostal " 

Subcostal, diaframatic, vas aberrans 

5 Visceral branches 

Bronchial, esofageal, pericardial, mediastinal 

136 Abdominal aorta and branches 

1 Inferior frenic 

2 Lumbar 

3 Middle sacral; caudal 

4 Celiac axis 

Celiac mesenteric, umbilic mesenteric or omphalomesenteric 
41 Hepatic 

Pyloric, gastroduodenal, superior pancreaticoduodenal, right 

gastro-epiploic, cystic 
4i Splenic, lienalis 

Pancreatic, vasa brevia, left gastro-epiploic 
43 Left gastric, gastric, or coronary gastric 

5 Mesenteric 

Si Superior mesenteric 

Rami intestini tenuis, or branches of small intestin; inferior 
pancreaticoduodenal; middle, right and ileocolic; terminal and 

appendicular branches 
5a Inferior mesenteric 

Left colic, sigmoid, superior hemorrhoidal 

6 Middle suprarenal 

7 Renal 

8 Spermatic 

9 Ovarian 
.137 Iliac arteries 

1 Common iliac 

2 Hypogastric, or internal iliac 

3 Parietal branches 

4 Lateral sacral 

5 Obturator 

medicin: anatomy 

61 1. 1376 



Superior gluteal 


Inferior gluteal Sciatic 


Visceral branches 


Umbilic, superior vesical 


Inferior vesical and deferential 


Uterin and vaginal 


Middle hemorrhoidal 


Internal pudic 


External iliac artery- 


Inferior epigastric, or deep epigastric 


Deep circumflex iliac 



Deep femoral, profunda femoris 

a External circumflex 5 Internal circumflex 


Arteria genu suprema, or anastomotica magna 




Anterior tibial 


Tibiofibular trunk, truncus tibioperoneus 


y 1 

Po^tprior tihial 




Arteries of foot 


Dorsalis pedis 

Tarsal, metatarsal, dorsal interosseous, dorsalis 



• I 4 





Cardiac or venae cordis 


Subintestinal, or fetal portal vein 




UUUti iui VCUCl vd V U 

Innominate veins Veins of neck 


111 Lei iidi vein 

Thyroid veins 


Cerebral veins Sinuses of dura mater 


Emissary vein 

1 5 

Superior ofthalmic 


Tnfprinr ' 

illlCl IKJ 1 




External jugular 


Posterior external jugular and vertebral 


Subclavian and axillary 


Deep veins of upper extremity 


Superficial veins of upper extremity 

2 Basilic s Cephalic 




Spinal veins 

Decimal clasification 

6 i i. i 46 Inferior vena cava 

1 Lumbar veins 

2 Renal 

3 Suprarenal " 

4 Hepatic " 

5 Inferior frenic 

6 Spermatic 

Pampiniform or spermatic plexus 

7 Ovarian 
.147 Iliac veins 

1 Hypogastric or internal iliac 

Hemorrhoidal plexus 

2 External iliac 

3 Femoral Popliteal 

33 Long, or internal saphenous 

37 Tibial veins 

38 Short, or external saphenous 

39 Veins of foot 

.149 Portal vein 

1 Superior mesenteric 

* Inferior " 

3 Ventricular coronary, gastric, or venae gastricae Pyloric 

4 Splenic, or lienalis 
3 Cystic 

7 Fetal hepatic veins Omphalomesenteric 

Ductus venosus Aranzii, or sinus venosus, large vein | 
directly thru fetal liver 

8 Umbilic 

. 1 5 Capillaries 

.2 Respiratory system 

.21 Nose 

See also 611.86 Organs of smell 
.an External nose 

.22 Larynx 
.221 Cartilages 

Epiglottis, thyroid, arytenoid, cuneiform, coraicular 
.323 False vocal cords 

.334 Ventricles 

.225 Cavity of larynx Glottis 

True vocal cords Rima glottidis or chink of glottis 
.337 Ligaments 

.229 Muscles of larynx 

.23 Trachea and bronchi 
.231 Trachea 
.233 Bronchi 

See also 611.34 below 

.24 Lungs, or pulmones 

.25 Pleura 

.26 Diafram 

.27 Mediastinum 

.38 Gills 

See comparativ anatomy, 591.43 Respiratory organ* 
.so Other organs, including air bladder, swimming bladder See 591.4* 

medicin: anatomy 


















■ 343 

■ 344 







Digestiv system 

Mouth, buccal cavity or cavum oris 



Palate, palatum, or roof of mouth 
velum pendulum palati Uvula 
Salivary and other glands of mouth 

Submaxillary and sublingual glands 
Parotid glands Stenson's duct 


Soft palate, or 


Abdominal section. 


Faucial tonsils 

Pharyngeal or Luschka's tonsils 
Lingual, buccal or 4th tonsil 
Other tonsils: laryngeal, nasal 
Topografy or regions of pharynx 
Nasal or epipharynx 
Oral, buccal, or meso pharynx 
Laryngeal or hypo pharynx 


1 Cervical 2 Thoracic section 
including diaframati~ 


Gastric glands: true, oxyntic o r peptic; pyloric; cardiac 

Greater curvature, or lower convex surface 
Lesser " upDer concave " 


Small intestin 

3 Meckel's diverticulum 

3 Peyer's patches, or tonsillae intestinales 

4 Plicae circulares 

5 Glands of Lieberkuhn and solitary glands 
Duodenum Brunner's glands 



Ileocecal valv 
Vermiform appendix 

Large intestin 

Including cecum Appendices epiploic** 


Sigmoid flexure 

Rectum Anus 

Rectum Houston's or rectal valva 


Perineum See also 611.96 


611.36 Liver 

.361 Bile ducts Bile capillaries or canaliculi 

.363 Hepatic duct 

. 3 66 Cystic duct Gall bladder 

.367 Common bile duct, or ductus communis choledicut 

Process and ampulla of Vater 

.37 Pancreas 

.373 Pancreatic duct, or canal of Wirsung 

3 75 Duct of Santorini 

.376 Glandular portion 

.377 Interalveolar cell-ilets, intertubular cell masses, ilands of Langerhans 

.38 Peritoneum Mesentery Omentum Coelom 
.381 Peritoneum 

a Parietal 5 Visceral 
,38a Omentum, epiploon 

Lesser or gastrohepatic, great or gastrocolic, gastrosplenic 
.383 Mesentery 

Transverse and sigmoid mesocolon; mesorectum; mesoappendix 
.384 Retroperitoneal fossae 

.389 Coelom or pleuroperitoneal cavity 

.39 Adipose bodies 

.4 Glandular and lymfatic system 

Put glands of any special system with that system. See 611.36, Liver; 
611. 61, Kidneys; 611. 316, Salivary glands; 61 1.69, Mammary glands. But 

class here chromaffin tissue in general 

.41 Spleen 

■415 Malpighian bodies 

.418 Capsule of spleen 

.42 Lymfatic vessels or lymfatics and capillaries 

For lymfatics of an organ or tissue, see name of organ or tissue 

Lymfatic spac 


Lymfatics by region 












Pelvic region 


Upper extremity 

a Arm 4 Forearm 6 Hand 


Lower extremity 

a Thigh 4 Leg 6 Foot 



■ 4>3 

Receptaculum chyli or cistern of Pecquet 


Thoracic duct (left) 


Right lymfatic duct 

436 Lacteals 

5 Villi 

43 Thymus 

43 S Accessory thymus 

44 Thyroid gland 

445 Accessory or aberrent thyroids 

447 Parathyroids 

45 Suprarenal capsules or bodies 

Accessory suprarenal capsules 

medicin: anatomy 

6i ' 46 Lymfatic glands 

461 Glands of bed 

4i* " " face 

Internal maxillary Submental 

163 Glands of neck 

1 Suboccipital or occipital 

a Mastoid, retroauricular or postauricular 

6 Retropharyngeal 

7 Cervical or jugular 

8 Subclavian 
464 Glands of thorax 

1 Diaframatic 

a Mammary lymf 

3 Intercostal 
„ Mediastinal 

.465 Abdominal lymf glands 

I Iliac and hypogastric: sacral, lumbar 

a Abdomino-aortic 

a 1 Juxta-aortic 

aa Preaortic: gastric, splenic, hepatic 

ai Retroaortic 

4 Glands of small intestin : mesenteric 
6 Glands of large intestin: colic, rectal 

.467 Lymf glands of upper extremity 

1 Axillary 

a Epitrochleal or supratrochleal and other glanda 

5 Pectoral 

.468 Lymf glands of lower extremity 

1 Inguinal 

a Femoral 

3 Popliteal 

4 Anterior tibial 

.47 Carotid gland or body 

.48 Coccygeal gland 

.6 Genito-urinary system Brests 

.61 Kidneys 

Class here urinary organs in general 

.615 Uriniferous tubules 

.617 Ureter 

.618 Pronephros 

.619 Mesonephros 

.62 Bladder Urethra 

.621 Bladder 

3 Urethral openings 

.622 Ligaments: urachus 

For pedicle of allantois see also embryology, 611.0138s 

,623 Urethra 

For female urethra see 6:1.674 

I Prostatic part 

Verumontanum or caput gallinaginis 
Sinus pocularis or uterus masculinus 

a Membranous part 

3 Spongy, cavernous or penial part 

4 Lacunae Littr^'s glands 
.6a7 Bulbo-urethral or Cowper's glands 
.619 Urogenital sinus 


611.63 Male genital organs 

Oji Testicles or testes 

I Seminiferous tubules 

Straight tubules, tubuli recti or v«s* recta; coni vaacttloti or 
vasa efferentia 

j Tunics of testes: vaginalis, albuginea, vasculosa 

f Mediastinum testis or Highmore's body; rete testis of Haller or 

Haller's network 
.631 Epididymis 
.633 Appendixes of testes 

Vasa aberrantia; hydatids of Morgagni, or pedunculated bodies; 

paradidymis or organ of Giraldet 
.634 Vas deferens 

.6 3 5 Ejaculatory ducts 

.636 Seminal vesicles 

.6 j 7 Prostate 
.63S Scrotum 
4 Dartos 
.639 Spermatic cord 

Infundibula; intercolumnar or spermatic and cremasteric fascia 

.64 Penis 

.641 Root 

.64s Body Prepuce 

.64) Glans penis, or acorn 

.644 Meatus 

,645 Corpora cavernosa 

.646 Corpus spongiosum 

.647 Bulb of urethra 

.65 Female genital organs Adnexa 

.651 Ovaries 

I Medullary substance Stroma 

t Graafian follicles 

Capsule of ovum, membrana granulosa, discus proligerui 

3 Cortical layer 

,65a Corpus luteum or corpora lutea 

See also embryology 611.013x7 
.656 Fallopian tubes 

.66 Uterus 

.663 Endometrium 

.664 Cornua 

.665 Body or parenchyma 

.660 Neck, cervix 

.667 Ligaments 

For placenta see embryology, 611.01385 and gynecology 618.3d 

■ Broad or lateral 

t Round Canal of Nuck 

4 Uterosacral and uterolumbar Pouch of Douglas 

Posterior ligaments 

6 Epoophoron, parovarium, or organ of Rosenmuller Gartner's duct 

7 Paroophoron 

669 Muller's duct Oviducts of lower vertebrates 

Class oviducts of lower vertebrates in 591.46 except In com- 
parison with human organs 

.67 Vagina Vulva 

.671 Vagina 

.67s Hymen Vestibulum 

.673 Vulva 

1 Mons veneris 1 Labia majora 3 Labia minora 

.674 . Female urethra 

.67s Clitoris Bulbus vestibuli 

.677 Bartholins, or vulvo-vaginal glands 

.69 Brests 

.691 Nipple and areola Glands of Montgomery 

.69s Acini, acinous glands 

.603 Galactoforoui or lactiferous ducts 


1.7 Motor and integumentary systems 

.71 Osteology Bones Skeleton 

.711 Spinal colum 

1 Cervical vertebrae 

» Atlas 

j Axis or epistropheus 

5 Thoracic or dorsal vertebrae 

6 Lumbar vertebrae 

7 Sacrum or sacral vertebrae 

8 Coccyx 

.712 Ribs Thorax 

5 Costal cartilages 

.713 Sternum or brest bone 

Manubrium; gladiolus; xiphoid or ensifonn 

.714 Bones of hed Skull 

1 Calvaria or cerebral cranium 

Sutures, fontanelles, supernumerary or Wormian bono* 

3 Base of cranium 

6 Orbits 

7 Nasal cavity Inferior conchae 

.715 Cranium, cranial bones 

1 Occipital 

* Sphenoid 

3 Temporal 

4 Parietal 

5 Frontal 

6 Ethmoid 

7 Lacrimal 

8 Nasal 

9 Vomer 

.716 Bones of face or visceral cranium 

l Maxillary, upper jaw or superior maxillary 

a Palate 

3 Malar or zygomatic 

4 Mandible, lower jaw or inferior maxillary 
41 Alveolar limbus 

43 Ramus of mandible 

5 Hyoid 

6 Skeleton branchiae Better clast in 591.47 

.717 Bones of upper extremity 

1 Scapula, shoulder blade 

Shoulder girdle as a whole Acromion 

a Clavicle or collar bone 

3 Coracoid process 

4 Humerus 

5 Radius 

6 Ulna 

7 Carpus, carpal bones or wrist bones 

71 Scaphoid or navicular 

7 a Semilunar, or os lunatum 

73 Cuneiform, or os triquetrum 

74 Pisiform 

j j Trapezium, or os multangulum majus 

76 Trapezoid or " " minus 

77 Os magnum, or os capitatum 

1% Unciform or hook or os hamatum 

79 Central 

8 Metacarpus, metacarpal bones 


611.7179 Phalanges of hand 

91 Basilar or proximal phalanges 

93 Middle phalanges 

95 Ungual or distal phalanges 

99 Sesamoid 

.718 Bones of lower extremity 

For pelvis see 611.96 

I Hip bone, or os coxae or innominatum 

Acetabulum or cotylo : d cavity 

II Ilium 

12 Ischium 

13 Pubis 

4 Femur 

45 Patella See also 6H.7383 Knee joint and 611.983 Knee 

5 Tibia 

6 Fibula 

7 Tarsus 

71 Astragalus, ankle bone, or talus 

73 Calcaneum, heel, or os calcis 

75 Cuboid 

76 Scaphoid or navicular * 
78 Cuneiform or wedge bones 

Internal or first, middle or second, external or third cuneiforir 

8 Metatarsal bones 

9 Phalanges of foot 

91 Basilar or proximal phalanges 

93 Middle or second 

95 Ungual or third " 

99 Sesamoid bones 

.72 Ligaments Joints 

.721 Articulations of vertebrae and of cranium 

J Occipito-atlantal and occipito-axial 

3 Intervertebral articulations 

5 Atlanto-axial or atlo-axoid and atlanto-odontoid 

6 Lumbosacral 

7 Sacrococcygeal 

8 Coccygeal 

.722 Costovertebral articulations 

.723 Costosternal, costochondral, chondrosternal, interchon- 
dral, intersternal 

.724 Jaw joint, temporomandibular, temporomaxillary or 

mandible joint 

.727 Articulations of upper extremity 

1 Sternoclavicular joint and costoclavicular or rhom 
boid ligament 

2 Articulations of shoulder 

7i Shoulder joint 

34 Acromioclavicular or scapuloclavicular joint Coracoclavicular and 
coracoacromial ligaments 

3 Elbow joint 

31 Humeroulnar joint 

33 Humeroradial join; 

34 Superior radioulnar or radioulnaris proximalis 

4 Wrist joint 

41 Inferior or distal radioulnar joint 

44 Radiocarpal 


611.7275 Intercarpal articulation 

54 Middle carpal joints 

6 Carpometacarpal articulations 

7 Intermetacarpal " 

8 Metacarpophalangeal " 

9 Phalangeal or finger joints 

.728 Articulations of lower extremity 

1 Articulations of pelvis 

Sacroiliac and pubic, or symphysis ossium pubis; sacrosciatic liga- 
ment or symphysis sacrocuccygea 

2 Hip joint, or articulu coxae 

Iliofemoral, Y or Bigelow's ligament; ligamentum teres 

3 Knee joint 

31 Crucial or femorotibial ligaments 

33 Semilunar fibrocartilages 

34 Anterior or ligamentum patellae 
38 Tibiofibular ligaments 

4 Ankle joint 

41 Inferior tibiofibular joint 

44 Tibiotarsal ligaments 

5 Intertarsal ligaments 

51 Astragalocalcaneal, calcaneoastragaloid or talocalcaneum; astraga- 
loscaphoid; calcaneoscaphoid or calcaneonavicular ligaments 

53 Calcaneocuboid ligaments 

54 Mediotarsal articulations 

55 Cuboidcuneiform " 

56 Scaphoidcuboid or cubonavicularis, scaphoidcuneiform or cuneonavic 
ularis articulations 

58 Intercuneiform articulations 

6 Tarsometatarsal articulations 

7 Intennetatarsal " 

8 Metatarsophalangeal " 

9 Toe joints 
.729 Classes of joints 

2 Synarthrosis or fixt joint 

4 Amphiarthrosis or mixt joint 

6 Diarthrosis or movable joint 

61 Arthrodia or gliding joint 

6a Condylarthrosis or knuckle joint 

63 Enarthrosis or ball and socket joint 

64 Ginglymus or hinge joint 
6s Trochoid or pivot joint 

.73 Muscular system Myology 

.731 Dorsal muscles 

1 Spinohumeral or humerospinal muscles 

1 1 Trapezius 

12 Latissimus dorsi 

13 Rhomboid 

14 Levator scapulae 

2 Spinocostal or serrati posteriores 

3 Spinodorsal 

Sacrospinalis, lumbosacral, erector spinae, transversalis cervicis 

31 Iliocostal 

36 Longissimus dorsi 

4 Splenitis and complexus 


611.7315 Spinalis dorsi 

6 Transversospinales 

61 Semispinalis 
6s Multifidus 
68 Rotatores 

7 Breves spinae 

71 Interspinals 

76 Intertransversarii 

8 Oblique muscles of hed 

9 Recti capitis posterior and lateralis 
.732 Muscles of hed 

See also 611.7318-9 and 611. 7337-8 

1 Platysma myoides 

2 Occipitofrontalis or epicranial 

3 Muscles of nose 

Pyramidalis nasi, compressor nasi, compressor nartum minor, 
depressor alae nasi or myrtiform, dilatores nasi 

4 Muscles Of ear Attrahens, attollens, retrahens 

5 Palpebral and orbital muscles of eye 

Orbicularis palpebrarum, or sphincter of eyelids; corrugator super- 
cilii; levator palpebrae; levator palpebrae superioris; tensor tarsi 
See also 6 11. 8461 

6 Buccal muscles 

Buccinator, orbicularis oris, levator anguli oris, levatores labii 
superioris, levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, zygomatic, levator 
labii inferioris, levator menti, depressor labii inferioris or quadratut 
menti; depressor angulae oris or triangularis menti; risorius, or 

Santorini's muscle 

7 Muscles aiding mastication and deglutition 

71 Masseter 
7» Temporal 
73 Pterygoid 

75 Muscles of palate and pharynx 

76 Palate 

Levator palati, tensor palati, azygos uvulae, palatoglossus, pala- 
topharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus 
78 Pharynx 

Inferior, superior and middle constrictors, stylopharyngeal 

•733 Muscles of neck 

1 Sterno-cleido- mastoid 
1 " hyoid 

3 Omohyoid 

4 Sternothyroid 

5 Thyrohyoid 

6 Longus colli 

7 Rectus capitis anticus major, or longus capitis 

8 Rectus capitis anticus minor, or rectus capitis anterior 

For rectus capitis lateralis see 611. 7319 

9 Scaleni: anticus, medius and posticus 

.734 Hyoid muscles 

Depressors of lower jaw or elevators of hyoid. For tung see 61 1.3 13 

1 Digastric 
4 Stylohyoid 
6 Mylohyoid 
8 Geniohyoid 

medicin: anatomy 

611.735 Thoracic muscles 

1 Pectoralis major 

i " minor 

3 Subclavius 

4 Levatores costarum 

5 Serratus magnus or serratus anterior 

6 Intercostal 

7 Subcostal 

8 Transversus thoracis or triangularis sterni 

.736 Abdominal and coccygeal muscles 

1 Rectus abdominis 

1 Pyramidalis abdominis 

j Oblique abdominal 

6 Cremaster 

7 Transversalis or transversus abdominis 

8 Quadratus lumborum 

9 Coccygeal 

,737 Muscles of upper extremity 

I Shoulder or axillary 

II Deltoid 

12 Supraspinatus 

ij Infraspinatus 

14 Teres minor 

1 s Teres major 
16 Subscapular 

2 Arm 

31 Biceps brachii, or biceps flexor cubiti 

33 Coracobrachial 

33 Brachialis (anticus) 

34 Triceps brachii, or triceps extensor cubiti 

35 Anconeus 

3 Forearm 

4 Pronator muscles 

41 Pronator radii teres 

45 " quadratus 

5 Flexors of forearm 

5t Flexor carpi radialis 

S3 Pal maris longus 

53 Flexor carpi ulnaris 

54 " digitorum sublimis 
53 ma profundus 
56 " pollicis longus 

6 Extensors and supinators 

61 Brachioradialis 

63 Extensor carpi radialis longus 

63 " " " brevis 

64 " " ulnaris 

65 Extensors of fingers, or extensores digitorum 

66 Supinator 

67 Abductor pollicis longus 

68 Short and long extensors of thum, or extensores pollicis brevis 
et longus 

69 Extensor of index finger, or extensor indicis proprius 

7 Muscles of hand 

71 Lumbricales 

73 Palmaris brevis 

73 Short abductor of thum, or opponens pollicis 

Short flexor of thum, or flexor brevis pollicis. Adductor pollicis 

76 Muscles of little finger 

Abductor digiti quinti (or minimi) brevis; opponens digiti quinti 
short flexor of 5th or little finger, or flexor brevis digiti minimi 

19 Interosseous musclea 


1.738 Muscles of lower extremity 

1 Hip and nates 

1 1 Iliopsoas 

12 Uiacus 

13 Psoas major and minor 

14 Gluteal 

15 Tensor fasciae latae, tensor fasciae femoris or tensor vaginae femoris 

16 Piriformis 

17 Obturator internus 

18 Gemelli or gemini 

19 Quadratus femoris 

2 Thigh muscles 

21 Sartorius 

22 Quadriceps femoris or quadriceps extensor femoris 

Rectus femoris, vastus externus, vastus internus and crureus or 
vastus intermedius 

22s Articularis genu, or subcrureus 

23 Pectineus 

24 Adductors: longus, brevis, magnus and minimus 

25 Gracilis 

26 Obturator externus 

27 Biceps femoris or biceps flexor cruris 

38 Semitendinosus 

39 Semimembranosus 

3 Le g 

4 Anterior muscles 

41 Anterior tibial or tibialis anticus 

42 Extensor digitorum longus 

43 " hallucis " or proprius 
46 Peronaeus tertius 

5 Other muscles of leg 

51 Peronaeus longus 

52 " brevis 

53 Gastrocnemius 

54 Soleus, triceps suxae 

55 Plantaris 

56 Popliteus 

57 Posterior tibial 

58 Flexor digitorum longus 

59 " hallucis " 

7 Muscles of foot 

8 Back of foot 

Extensor brevis digitorum 

Sole of foot or plantar region 

Adductor hallucis (obliquus and transversus), adductor digiti 
minimi, abductor hallucis; flexor hallucis brevis, flexor 
digitorum brevis, flexor accessorius, flexor digiti minimi 
brevis, lumbricales, interosseous muscles 

.739 Electric organs Better clast in comparativ anatomy 

.74 Tendons Fasciae 

May be divided like 611.73; e. g. Achilles tendon 611.74854 

.75 Bursae Sheaths of tendons 

.751 Hed 

.752 Neck 

.753 Back 

.754 Shoulder 

•757 Upper extremity 

.758 Lower " 

.76 ConneCtlV tiSSUe See also 611.018J Histology of connectiv tissul 

medicin: anatomy 

611.77 Skin Glands of skin 

.771 Cuticle, scarf skin or epidermis 

Horny and Malpighian layers 
.77a Glands of skin 

.773 Sebaceous 
.774 Sudoriferous or swet 

.775 Ciliary glands 

.776 Circumanal " 

.777 Ceruminous" 

.778 Corium, cutis vera, true skin or dermis 

Reticular and papillary layers 
S Pigmentation 
.779 Subcutaneous areolar tissue, tela subcutanea or paniculus ad : posus 

.78 Hair, nails, scales, fethers, etc. 

For teeth see 61 1.3 14 Fur, scales, fethers, horns, etc. bettor clait in 

comparativ anatomy 501.47 
.781 Hair 
.783 Scales 
.786 Nails 
.787 Fethers 
.788 Horns 

.8 Nervous system Sense organs 

.8 1 Encephalon Brain 

Mesureraent Weight 

.811 General structure of brain and cerebrospinal axis 

.812. Localizations 

.813 Telencephalon, or endbrain Prosencephalon, or fore- 

brain Hemisferes 

Longitudinal and transverse fissure 

1 Pallium, brain mantle or cerebral cortex 

11 Frontal lobe 

Broca's convolutions 

12 Parietal lobe Central fissure, sulcus centralis, or 
Rolando's groove 

Opercula insulae 

13 Temporal or temporosphenoid lobe Fissure of Sylvius* 
or fissura cerebri lateralis 

14 Limbic lobe Gyrus fornicatus 

Hippocampal gyre, or gyrus hippocampi Callosal gyre 
Dentate gyre, or fascia dentata hippocampi Fasciola Fim- 
bria, taenia fornicis or taenia hippocampi Hippocampus 
major or cornu ammonis Dentate fissure, hippocampal 
sulcus, or subiculum cornu ammonis Callosomarginal fissure 
Amygdala, almond nucleus, or amygdaloid tubercle 

15 Occipital lobe 

Occipital or parieto-occipital fissure 

16 Paracentral gyre or lobule 

17 Cuneus Calcarin fissure 

18 Precuneus, or quadrate lobe 

19 Insula, iland of Reil, central lobe, or gyri operti 

2 Striatum, striate body, or corpus striatum 

Basal ganglion of hemisfere 

21 Caudatum, taild nucleus, or nucleus caudatus 

22 Lenticula, lenticular nucleus, or nucleus lentiformis 

Globus pallidus, or pallidum, and putamen 

23 Claustrum 

25 Tenia, taenia semicircularis, stria terminalis or corneae 


6 1 1 . 8 1 3 3 Rhinencephalon or rhinencefal 

Olfactory bulb tract, substantia perforata anterior, precribrum, etc 

Broca's area, or parolfactoria 

7 Centrum ovale majus (of Vieussens) Centrum 
semiovale Internal capsule 

8 Paraceles or lateral ventricles 

y Callosum or corpus callosum Fornix 

Septum pellueidum or lucidum, or septum Cavum septi pe^lucidi, 
5th ventricle or pseudocele 

.814 Diencephalon, diencefal, thalamencephalon or interbrain 

1 Hypothalamus or subthalamic tegmental region 

Nucleus of Luys or nucleus hypothalamics 
Postcommissure or posterior commissure 

2 Corpora albicantia, albicans, or corpus mammillare 

Bundle of Vicq-d'Azyr, or fasciculus thalamomammillaris 

3 Hypophysis 

Hypophysis cerebri, pituitary body or somatic brain 

Tuber or tuber cinereum Infundibulum- 

4 Optic tract Optic chiasm or commissure 

5 Epithalamus Pinea, pineal body, conarium or epi- 
physis Habenula, habena, or pedunculus conarii 

6 Geniculate bodies, or geniculum Metathalamus 

7 Thalamus or optic thalamus 

Thalamic radiation: ansa peduncularis, ansa lenticularis 
For Nissl's bodies see 61 1. 01882 

8 Third ventricle, or diacele 

Porta or foramen of Monro, or foramen interventriculare 

.815 Mesencephalon, midbrain or mesencefal 

3 Quadrigeminum 

Corpora or tubercula quadrigemina Quadrigeminal arms 

4 Pedunculi or crura cerebri, crura or crus 

41 Substantia nigra (Sommering) or intercalatum 

See also nucleus of Luys 611.8141 

42 Foot of peduncle, basis or pes pedunculi, or crusta 

43 Tegmentum 

4.1 Red nucleus, nucleus ruber, or rubrum 

5 Nuclei of oculomoto and trochlear nervs 

6 Aqueduct of Sylvius, aqueductus cerebri, or mesocele 
.816 Isthmus rhombencephali 

3 Valv of Vieussens, or superior medullary velum 

/y Superior cerebellar peduncles 

Prepeduncles, brachium coniunctivum cerebelli, or crura ad cerebrum 

h Lemniscus: mesial and lateral fillets 

medicin: anatomy 

611.817 Metencephalon or epencephalon, epencefal or hindbrain 

Pons (Varolii) 
1 Cerebellum 

xx Lobes, fissures, valv of Tarinus, velum medullare posterius, or kilos 

13 Cerebellar centers of gray matter Nuclei olivaris superiores: roof 

nuclei, dentate nuclei, dentatum, etc. 
15 White substance of cerebellum Arbor vitae 

3 Pons Varolii Tegument For reticula see 6n.8aa6 

4 Nuclei of trigeminus system 

41 Nucleus motorius or motor nucleus of 5th nerv 

43 Nucleus of spinal tract or sensory nucleus of 5th nerv 

5 Nucleus or nidus of abducent nerv 

6 " " " " facial nerv 

68 Salivary nucleus 

7 Cochlear nidi or nucleus of cochlear nerv 

Ventral root of 8th nerv 

76 Trapezium or trapezoid body 

77 Nucleus of superior olivary body 

78 Acoustic striae, striae acusticae or medullares 

8 Vestibular nidi or nucleus of vestibular nerv 

Dorsal root of 8th nerv 

.818 Myelencephalon, medulla, bulb or afterbrain, 

postoblongata or medulla oblongata 

1 Pyramids Pyramidal decussation 

2 Dorsal colum, posterior fibers, or funiculi dorsales 
Arcuate fibers Restis or restiform body 

Fasciculus of Rolando, cuneatus and gracilis 

3 Lateral fibers Oliva or olivary bodies 

Anterolateral ground bundle or fasciculus proprius anterolateralis; 
anterolateral cerebellar tract or fasciculus anterolateralis super- 

4 Interolivary stratum, fillet or lemniscus 

5 Fourth ventricle or metepicele 

Metapore or foramen of Magendie Foramina of Luschka, Key 
and Retzius Obex Lingula Calamus scriptorius 

6 . Nucleus of glossopharyngeal system Solitary tract 

7 Nuclei of vagus and accessory nervs 

75 Ambiguous nucleus 

78 Dorsal nucleus of vagus 

9 Nucleus of hypoglossal system or hypoglossal nidus 
.819 Meninges and cerebral meninges 

1 Pia mater or pia 

2 Telae choroideae, velum interpositum, choroid plexus 

3 Arachnoid villi 

Glandulae Pacchioni, Luschka's villi or granulations 

4 Cisterns, or subarachnoid cisterns 

5 Dura mater, or dura Tentorium and falx cerebelli 
Falx cerebri 


611.82 Spinal cord, or my el 

.821 Enlargements or intumescentia ; general structure 

j Cervical cord or myel, pars cervicalis 

3 Thoracic or dorsal cord or myel, pars thoracalis 

4 Lumbar cord or myel, pars lumbaris 

5 Sacral cord 

6 Terminal cone, or conus (medullaris) Filum Cauda (equina) 
8 Grooves and fissures, sulci and fissurae 

.822 Gray substance or matter, entocinerea or cinerea Gray 

cornua or colum 

1 Anterior or ventral colum or cornu or funiculus anterior 

1 Posterior or dorsal " " " 

3 Clarke's colum, nucleus dorsalis or Stilling's nuclei 

4 Gelatinosa or gelatinous matter, substantia cinerea geiatinosa Sub- 
stantia spongiosa 

6 Reticula or formatio reticularis 


.824 White substance, or alba 

.825 Anterolateral colum 

Anterior plus lateral colums 

2 Pyramidal tract or bundle or fasciculus cerebrospinal!* 

Direct or uncrost tract, fasciculus cerebrospinalis anterior, or 


Crost pyramidal tract, or cerebrospinalis lateralis 

3 Direct cerebellar tract, or dorsolateral cerebellar tract 

4 Gower's tract, cerebellar path of anterior funiculus, or fasciculus 
anterolateralis superficial ascendens or anterolateral ascending 
cerebellar tract 

5 Fasciculus sulcomarginalis, or marginal tract of Spitzka and Lissauer 

6 Lateral colum or anterolateral descending cerebellar tract or colum 
of Marchi and Lowenthal 

7 Anterolateral ground bundle or fasciculus proprius anterolateralis 

8 Anterior or ventral commissure 

.826 Posterior or dorsal colums 

1 Ascending fibers 

Tracts of Burdach (posterolateral or cuneatus) and of Goll 
(posteromedian or gracilis) and fasciculus of Rolando 

5 Descending fibers Comma tract in Burdach's colum 
8 Radicular fibers 

5 Posterior or dorsal commissure 

.827 Roots of nervs 

Works tracing nerv roots into spinal cord; for microscopic studies on 

nerv roots see 611.832 
r Anterior or ventral roots 

a Posterior " dorsal " 

.828 Spinal canal Ependyma or endyma 

Rhomboidal sinus Reissner's fibers 

.829 Spinal membranes, or meninges spinales 

1 Spinal pia mater 

3 " arachnoid 

5 " dura mater 

medicin: anatomy 

611.83 Periferal nervous system Nervs 

.831 Cranial nervs and ganglia 

1 Olfactory, or 1st cranial 

a Optic, or 2d cranial 

3 Motoroculi, 3d cranial or oculomoto 

4 Trochlear, pathetic, or 4th cranial 

5 Trifacial, trigeminus, or 5th cranial 

i^arge or great superficial petrosal branch 

51 Ofthalmic nerv of Willis 

54 Superior maxillary nerv or maxillary nerv 

542 Infraorbital branch 

56 Mandibular or inferior maxillary 

6 Abducent, external motoroculi, oculomoto, or 6th cranial 

7 Facial, 7th cranial nerv, or portio dura 

73 Other collateral branches 

74 Terminal branches 

75 Pars intermedia of Wrisberg (nervus intermedius) Chorda tympanl 

8 Auditory, acoustic or 8th nerv 

81 Cochlear nerv or path, or central auditory path 

85 Vestibular path or nerv 

9 Glossopharyngeal or 9th nerv 

91 Pneumogastric, vagus or 10th nerv 

git Parietal branches: auricular and lateral nerv* 

914 Pharyngeal branches 

915 Superior cardiac nervs 
9:6 Superior laryngeal nerv 

917 Inferior or recurrent laryngeal nerv 

918 Pulmonary branches 

919 Esofageal and gastric branches 
9a Spinal accessory or nth nerv 
93 Hypoglossal or 12th nerv 

.832 Spinal nervs 

Including in 5-6 microscopic studies on nerv roots. See also 611.8:7 

1 Dorsal or posterior blanches 

1 Ventral or anterior " 

$ Dorsal or posterior roots See also 611.827a 

6 Ventral or anterior " See also 61 1.82 71 

.833 Cervical nervs 

I Dorsal or posterior branches of cervical nervs Small and large sub. 

occipital nervs 

* Vtntral anterior branches of cervical nervs 

3 Cervical plexus 

32 Large auricular nerv 

33 Cutaneous nerv of neck 

34 Supraclavicular nervs 

3d Frenic or internal respiratory nerv of Bell 

4 Brachial plexus 

41 Supraclavicular part 

47 Infraclavicular part 

5 Median nerv 

6 Ulnar or cubital nerv 

7 Radial nerv 


8 Musculocutaneous nerv 

9 Antibrachii ulnaris 

Cutaneus brachii medialis, or nerv of Wrisberg 

.834 Thoracic nervs 

1 Posterior branches 

■ Anterior " Intercostal nerve 


611.835 Lumbar and sacral nervs 

1 Posterior branches 

2 Anterior " 

3 Lumbosacral plexuses 

4 Lumbar plexus 

41 Great iliohypogastric nerv 

43 Ilioinguinal 

43 Genitofemoral or genitocrural 

44 Lateral or cutaneous nerv of thigh 

5 Femoral nerv or anterior crural nerv (femoralis) 
5 1 Middle cutaneous nerv 

5 a Internal " " 

53 Muscular branches of posterior division of anterior crural ntrv 

54 Long or internal saphenous nerv 

6 Obturator nerv 

61 Accessory obturator, or accessory anterior crural nerv of Winilow 

68 Lumbosacral cord 

7 Sacral or sciatic plexus 

71 Superior gluteal 

72 Inferior " 

73 Small sciatic nerv (cutaneus femoris posterior) 

8 Great sciatic nerv or ischiadicus 

81 External popliteal, or peronaeus communis or peroneal 

8a Sural or lateral cutaneous branch, or cutaneus surae lateralis 

84 Musculocutaneous or superficial peroneal 

86 Anterior tibial nerv or deep peroneal 

87 Internal popliteal or tibial 

88 Sural or plantar nervs 

9 Genital, pudic or pudendal plexus 
93 Collateral branches 

95 Pudic nerv 

.836 Coccygeal plexus Coccygeal nervs 

.839 Sympathetic system 

1 Cervical and cephalic part 

11 Superior cervical ganglion 

1 2 Internal carotid nerv and plexus 

Cavernous plexus 

13 External carotid nerv and plexus 

14 Common " plexus Superior cardiac nerv 

1 5 Middle " ganglion Middle " " 

16 Inferior cervical " 

17 " cardiac nerv Cardiac plexus 

2 Thoracic part of gangliated cord 

3 Abdominal and pelvic part of sympathetic system 

31 Solar or epigastric plexus or plexus coeliacus 

.84 Eye Organ of vision 

See also 611. 7146 Orbit, including capsule of T^non 

.841 Fibrous coats or tunics of eye 

1 Conjunctiva 

3 Cornea 

5 Sclerotic coat or sclera 

Canal of Schlemm Spaces of Fontana 

.842 Vascular coats of eye Uveal tract 

1 Iris Pupil 

3 Choroid 


5 Ciliary body, muscle and processes 

.843 Retina 

Optic disc; macula lutea For optic nerv see 611.831c 

medicin: anatomy 

611.844 Refracting media 

1 Crystallin lens 

1 Zonule of Zinn or zonula ciliaris 

7 Vitreous humor Posterior chamber 

Hyaloid membrane Hyaloid or Stilling's or Cloquet's canal 

Canal of Petit 
9 Aqueous humor Anterior chamber 

.846 Accessory organs of eye 

1 External muscles, musculi oculi 

4 Tear apparatus 

7 Lacrimal gland 

g " canals and puncta 

9 " sac and nasal duct 

.847 Eyelids or palpebrae 


5 Eyelashes or cilia 

6 Eyebrows or supercilia 

.85 Ear Organ of hearing 

See also 6 n. 83 18 Auditory nerv 

.851 Internal ear 

.852 Membranous labyrinth 

1 Cochlea, scala media, or ductus cochlearis 

a Organ of Corti, or Corti's fibers 

4 Saccule 

5 Utricle 

6 Semicircular canals 

.853 Osseous labyrinth 

Vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea, modiolus or columella 

.854 Middle ear or tympanum 

Atrium or tympanic cavity proper 
$ Attic 

7 Mastoid cells 

855 . Membrana tympani, or drumhed 

.856 Eustachian tube or tuba auditiva 

.857 Bones of ear 

Malleus or hammer; incus or anvil; stapes or stirrup; muscles o( 
tympanum, stapedius and tensor tympani 

.858 External ear 

Meatus, pinna 

.86 Organs of smell; olfactory organs 
.87 " " taste 

.88 " touch and senses in general 

889 Organa lateralia 

.89 Ganglions 

Class ganglions here if separately treated 

.801 Cranial ganglions 

S Semilunar ganglion or Gasserian 

53 Ciliary " 

54 Sphenopalatin or Meckel's ganglion 

56 Otic or Arnold's submaxillary ganglion 

7 Geniculate ganglion 

81 Spiral or Corti's ganglion 

85 Vestibular ganglion 

9 Petrosal and superior glossopharyngeal ganglion 

91 Jugular and nodose ganglions 

.893 Ganglions of spinal nervs 

See also 611.832 Spinal nervs 

.899 Sympathetic ganglions 

For chromaffin tissue see 61 1.4 


1.9 Regional anatomy 

.91 Hed 

.92 Face 

.93 Neck 

.94 Thorax 

.942 Front or pectoral 

.946 Back or dorsal 

.95 Abdomen 

.951 Epigastric region 

.955 Mesogastric " 

.957 Hypogastric " 

.959 Lumbar " 

.96 Pelvic and perineal region 

.962 True pelvis 

.964 False " 

1 Inlet 2 Cavity 3 Outlet 

.966 Position and size 

.968 Difference between male and female pelvis 

.97 Upper extremities 

.971 Shoulder or axilla 

.972 Arm 

.973 Elbow 

.974 Forearm 

•975 Wrist 

.976 Hand 

.977 Fingers 

.98 Lower extremities 

.981 Hip Nates Sulcus ingu/aalis 

1 Hip 

a Nates 

3 Sulcus inguinalis 

4 Inguinal canal 

5 Cmral or femoral canal 

.982 Thigh 

.983 Knee Popliteal space 

.984 Leg 

.985 Ankle 

.986 Foot 

.987 Toes 

.99 Toil 

medicin: physiology 

612 Physiology 


612.013 Vitalism 

.014 Cells and organisms 

.015 Physiologic chemistry 

.1 Blood and circulatory -.ystem 

.j Respiration 

.3 Digestion 

.4 Glandular system 

.5 Animal heat 

.6 Reproduction Development 
.7 Motor and vocal apparatus 
.8 Nervous system 
.ox General theory of physiology 

.0111 Notion, definition, nature 

.0113 Classification, division 

.0114 Terminology, notation, symbols 

.0118 Methods 

.012 Physiologic theories and generalities 

.013 On the nature of life and deth Vitalism 

This place is provided for the physiologist who prefers to keep related 
topics with his subjects. Usually the heds under this number are 
better clast in their broader relations; i. e. see 577.3 for the nature 
of life; 577.7 for the nature of deth; 613.67 for deth as a stage in 
vital history 
I Signs of real deth See 577.7 

I Experiments on executed persons 

4 Tneories of life and the soul Vitalism 

See metaphysics, 128 

5 Comparisons of animals and plants See 577.5 

6 Organism and inanimate matter See 577.1 

7 Vital energy See 577.6 

8 Experiments on surviving organs See 577.6 

.014 General physiology of cells and organisms 

See 576 and note under 613.013 

1 Chemistry of cells 

II Aerobic and anaerobic cells 

2 Physiologic morfology of cells 

3i Functions of protoplasm 
22 " " nucleus 

24 " " chromosome bodies Chromatolyslg 

26 " " centrosome 

3 Physiologic characteristics of cells 

31 Irritability in general 

33 Fatigue 

4 Influence of environment on cells and organisms 

41 Effects of barometric pressure 

See also 613.27 Influence of barometric pressure on living being! 

42 Action of electricity Electrophysiology 

421 Electrophysiologic technic 

See also 615.84 Electrotherapy 

3 Static electricity 

4 Dynamic electricity 
f Alternating currents 

7 Electric mesurements 

8 Special instruments 

1 Electrodes 3 Telefone microfone 6 Galvanometers 
411 Electric resistance Conductibility 


Electric fenomena of organisms 

For electric fenomena of muscles see 613.743, of nervs and muscle* 

see 612.813 
Theory of electric fenomena 
Negativ variation 
Electro tonus 

Electric fenomena of tissues in repose and in action 
Action of electricity on organisms 

Everything concerning effect of electricity on function rmy be clait 
here by adding and dividing like 612; e. g. action of electricity on 
red corpuscles 61 2.01442401 1 1, as .111 is the lubdivinon of 612 
meaning red corpuscles. Action of electricity on bilj 61 2.0144240357, 
as .357 means bile 

Action of static electricity 

* * atmosferic " 
" " dynamic " 

* " alternating currents 
Deth by electric shock; by lightning 
Magnetic action 

Electrotherapy from physiologic point of view 
Action of heat and cold See also 6i2.5y 
Action of light See also 612.843 

Fosforescence , 
Heliotropism Fototropism 
See also 615-831 Fototherapy 
Action of sound and its vibrations 

See also 612.85876 
Poisons and chemic substances 

Poisons and definit chemic substances ar preferably clast in 6157. 
general toxicology in 615.9. This number is for topics of special physi- 
ologic interest 
Effects of water 

Reviviscent animals 

Quantity of water in organisms and tissues 
Physicochemic forces 

Molecular concentration in organic fluids Crvoscopy 

Subdivisible with o like 612; e. g. Cryoscopy of gastric juice 

Relation between secretion and osmotic pressure 

Relation between osmosis and electric action : ions 

Colloid substances: coagulation, agglutination, etc. 

See also 612.398133 Theory of histologic conservation 

Reaction, acid or alkalin 


Superficial tension 
Other physicochemic forces 
Action of mineral salts on organisms 

" " air, normal and abnormal; of oxygen and ozone 
" " anesthetics 
" " antiseptics 
Chemotaxis Chemotropisra 
Action of other chemic forces 
Action of mechanical forces 
Other physical forces 
Various rays 

Physiologic effect of X rays 

To express effect of X rays on a specific organ or tissue, ad o and 
subdivide like 612; e.g. effect of X rays on sight 612. 014481 1084 
Effect on lower organisms 
Effect of radioactiv substances; Becquerel rays 
Production and action of N rays 

medicin: THYSIOLOGY 

612.015 Physiologic chemistry in general 

1 Ferments 

11 Oxydants Reducing ferments 

12 Hydro lytic 

13 Proteolytic 

14 Lipolytic 

15 Amylolytic and sucroclastic 

16 Glycolytic 
161 Alcoholic 

2 Normal composition of the body and its products 

See also 612.3926, 612 396-. 398 

21 Extracts of organs 

3 Metabolism 

31 Of mineral substances 

See also 612.3926 

32 Of carbon 

See also 612.22 

33 Of nitrogen 

See also 612.46123 

34 Of substances foren to the normal organism 

Elimination of poisons 

Most material will be clast under 615.7 and its subdivisions 
See also special organs 

346 Metabolism of nonnitrogenous substances 

347 " crystallizable nitrogenous substances 

348 " albuminoids 

349 after deth Autolysis 

Subdivisable with o like 612; e. g. autolysis of the liver 
612 01334903s 

35 • Influence of temperature on metabolism 

See also 612.59 

36 Reductions, hydrations and syntheses in organisms 

37 Influence of other agents on metabolism 

38 Influence of nervous system on metabolism 

39 Metabolism in disease 

4 Staining substances and pigments 

.016 Means of attack and defense 

Comparativ physiology; usually better clast in 591.57 

1 Autotomy 

2 Mimicry 

1 Physiology of parasites 

.019 Comparativ physiology 

May be subdivided like 590 to signify kind of animal; e. g. Reptils 
being 598.1, comparison of reptil and human physiology 13612.01981 
Class here only books written distinctly from physiologist's point 
of view. Other works en comparativ zoology are better in 591.1 
Form divisions 

.oa Compends 

.03 Dictionaries Cyclopedias 

.04 Essays Addresses 

.05 Periodicals 

.06 Societies Clubs 

.07 Study and teaching 

.072 Vivisection 

See also ethics, 179.4, and laws, 614.2a 

.08 Polygrafy 
.09 History 


6 1 2. i Blood and circulatory system 

.109 History of circulation of blood 

. 1 1 General properties of blood 
.111 Red corpuscles 

I Chemic composition 

II Hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin 

14 Carboxyhemoglobin 

Action of CO on blood, carbon monoxid hemoglobin 

15 Spectroscopy of blood 

16 Methemoglobin and derivates 

Hematin or hematoxylin, hematoidin, globin, hemin or Teich- 
mann's crystals, hematochromogen, hcmatoporphyrin 

17 Isotony of corpuscles Osmotic permeability 
19 Chemic substances in corpuscles 

Lecithin, urea, cholesterin, etc. 

3 Number of corpuscles 

Technic of counting 
ai Volume of corpuscles 

3 Formation of corpuscles 

See also 6 12. 119 Sanguification 

4 Action of poisons on corpuscles 

See also 61 2. 1 1 1 14 Action of CO on blood 

44 Agglutinating substances 

45 Hemolytic substances 

6 Corpuscles in disease 

7 Other red corpuscles than erythrocytes 

8 Coloring matters of invertebrate blood 

e. g. hemocyanin 

9 Other similar coloring matters 

e. g. chlorophyl and derivate-.: pY.-llocrythrin 

.112 Leucocytes and ameboid cells 

1 Chemistry of leucocytes 

1 1 Ferments of leucocytes 

Influence of leucocytes (lymphocytes) on digestion 

2 Movements and irritability of leucocytes 

3 Phagocytosis 

4 Diapedesis 

5 Effect on coagulation of blood 

6 In disease and intoxications Leucocytosis 

For digestiv leucocytosis see 6n.mii 

7 Counting and its technic 

8 Numeric relations of white and red corpuscles 

9 Varieties Physiologic morfology 
.113 Arterial blood 

.114 Venous " 

.115 Coagulation of blood 

I Fibrin Fibrinoplastin 

II Composition and chemic properties 

u Fibrogenous and fibrinoplastic ferments Fibrinogen Thrombin 

ij Estimating quantity of fibrin 

3 Substances modifying coagulation 

$1 Retarding agents 

if Accelerating agents 

medicin: physiology 

612.116 Total quantity of blood 

a Hemorrhage Anemia 

Subdi visable with o like 61 a; e. g. physiologic Influence of anemia 
on kidneys 612.1162046 For pathologic etiect aee 616.343, 

iz Hemostasia 

3 Transfusion 

Effect on system receiving transfused blood 

.118 Physical and biologic properties of blood 

1 Physical 

11 Osmotic pressure 

See also 613.11117 Osmotic permeability 
1 1 Effect of various injections 

14 Viscosity 
ij Cryoscopy of blood 

Method of studying isotony and similar phenomena by relativ 

freezing points of solutions 

2 Biologic properties 

• 1 Toxins and antitoxins 

Physiologic effect For chemic action see 61 j jgH May 
be used for those not produced by the blood, e. g. cytotoxtns 
an Theory of toxic and antitoxic action 

aa Toxic and antitoxic action of blood 

Limited to blood toxins and antitoxins. See also 612.3988 
an Specific reaction of blood and albuminoids 

Blood in legal medicin 
aaa Natural immunity 

a 23 Effect of blood on bacteria 

Class here physiologic aspect of opsonic theory, opsonins and 
opsonic index See also 615.37 Serotherapy 
14 Various toxic and antitoxic substances of blood 

7 Varieties of blood in different parts of body 

.119 Hematopoiesis or sanguification 

See also 6 12. 11 13 Formation of red corpuscles 

.ia Chemic properties of blood 
.121 Reaction and density 

Color reaction Specific gravity 

.122 Carbohydrates in blood 

x Glucose a Glycogen 3 Glycolytic ferments 

.123 Fats, lipoids, cholesterin, saponin, glycerin 

.124 Albumins and albuminoids Uncrystallizable nitrogen 


See also 613.39813 Blood serum 

.125 Crystallizable nitrogen compounds 

1 Staining substances of serum 

.126 Mineral salts 

.127 Blood gases 

1 Technic for determining quantity a Oxygen 3 Carbonic acid. 

.128 Ferments 

.129 Other chemic substances 

Abnormal substances 


612.13 Hydraulic principles of circulation 
.133 Arterial circulation 

Sounds and murmurs 
See also 613.143 

.134 Venous circulation 

See also 613.144 

1 Air in the veins 

2 Venous pulse Flebogram 
.135 Capillary circulation 

.14 Blood pressure 

.141 Technic of mesuring pressure 

Sphygmograf Sphygmomanometry 

.143 Pressure in arteries 

See also 613.133 

.144 Pressure in veins 

See also 613.134 

.145 Pressure in capillaries 

See also 613.13s 

.146 Influence of various agents on pressure 

1 Influence of respiration Asphyxia 

See also 613.313 

2 Effect of drugs and organic extracts 

3 Pressure in disease 

.148 Pressure in lesser or pulmonary circulation 

.15 Rapidity of circulation 

In arteries, veins or capillaries Technic of mesuring 

.16 Pulse 

For dicrotic pulse see 616.0751 Pulse in diagnosis 
See also 613.1343 Venous pulse 

.166 Pulse in disease 

. 1 7 Hart 

.171 Mechanism of cardiac contraction 

Impulse or apex beat Change of volume and position of beating 
hart Systole Diastole 

i Technic of cardiac contraction Cardiografy 

3 Valvs System of valv closure 

5 Hart sounds 

56 " " in disease 

7 Action of abnormal hart: misplaced or malformd 

.172 Hart as a muscle 

Cardiac irritability, contractibility and physiologic morfology 

1 Action of blood and coronary arteries Cardiac 

2 Rhythm Excitation wave Frequency of beats 

3 Electric stimulation of hart and refractory period 

4 Electromotiv force 

5 Surviving hart Artificial respiration 

Solutions maintaining beat of hart 

6 Physiologic morfology 

61 Conduction of stimulation 

medicin: physiology 

612.173 Work of the hart 

Chemic, dynamic and thermic fcnomena 

1 Chemic composition of hart 

2 Intracardiac pressure 

.174 Effect of toxins on the hart 

1 Atropin 

2 Anesthetics 

.176 Hart in disease 

.178 Innervation of hart 

1 Pneumogastric or vagus 

See also 613.819911 

2 Sympathetic 

See also 613.897 

3 Ganglions of hart 

4 Action of cerebrum 

See also 613.8338 

5 Action of medulla oblongata 

See also 613.838 

6 Cardiac syncopes and reflexes 

7 Depressor nerv 
.179 Prenatal circulation 
. 1 8 Vasomotors 

.181 Action of nervs and nerv centers on bloodvessels 

1 Action of cerebrum 

2 " " medulla oblongata 

3 " " spinal cord 

4 " " great sympathetic 

.182 Influence of vasomotors on arterial pressure 

.183 Vasoconstrictors 

.184 Vasodilators 

.185 Effect of poisons on vasomotors 

.186 Vasomotors in disease 

.187 Vasomotors in organs 

Divide like 612 Physiology; e. g. 

613.18724 Effect of vasomotors on lung capacity 
612.1878431 Effect of vasomotors on iris 
612.1875 Influence of vasomotors on temperature 
612.187556 Vasomotors in fever 

.188 Erectil tissues 

See also 612.613 

.189 Change of volume of organs 

Plethysmografy Quantity of blood in various organs 

.19 Action of special organs on circulation 
.2 Respiration 

See also 612.793 Cutaneous respiration 

. 2 1 Respiratory movements Mechanics of respira- 

.211 Pneumografy Respiratory types 

\ Respiratory excursion 

.212 Pulmonary elasticity and intrapleural pressure 

Intrapulmonary and intrathoracic respirations 


612.213 Influence of respiration on circulation 

See also 6 1 2. 1461 

.215 Special physiology of respiratory apparatus 

1 Bronchi 

2 Trachea 

3 Smooth pulmonary muscles 

4 Primary paths of respiration : nose and pharynx 

5 Pleura 

8 Pulmonary circulation 

See also 61 2.148 

9 Pulmonary absorption of liquids 

See also 612.385 

.216 Respiratory frequency and rhythm 

1 Respiratory sounds 

2 Pulmonary ventilation 

3 Artificial respiration, artificial changes of respiration 
.217 Action of muscles Mechanical fenomena . 

Dimensions and expansibility of thorax 

i Action of diafram 

.219 Other mechanical fenomena 

Modified respiratory acts: snoring, laughing, crying, sighing, yawning, 
coughing, hawking, sneezing, blowing nose, gargling 

.22 Respiratory exchange of gases Respiratory 

02 Action of oxygen and ozone on organisms 

08 Composition of normal air (only in its physiologic bearing) 

.221 Technic of gaseous exchange 

.222 Effect of various agents on gaseous exchange 

.223 Effect of quality of air 

Hyperpnea, polypnea, thermopnea 

1 Composition of abnormal air 

11 Carbonic acid 

ia Activ oxygen or ozone 

2 Influence of barometric pressure 

See 612.27 

3 Influence of climate 
.224 Influence of food 

.225 " " temperature 

.226 Effect of disease and intoxications 

.227 Influence of organs 

1 Influence ot muscular movements 

Motion, rest, work 

2 Influence of nervous system 

3 " " circulation 
.229 Influence of animal kind 

Variability of gaseous exchange in animal kinds 

1 Influence of stature 

2 Aquatic animals 

medicin: physiology 

612.23 Gaseous exchange in the blood 
.231 Expired air Respiratory quotient 

.232 Asphyxiation 

In legal medicin 

1 Artificial respiration in asphyxiation 

2 Asphyxiation by submersion 

3 Hart in asphyxiation 

4 Toxic action of carbonic acid (CO2) 
.233 Respiration in confined air 

.234 Toxic action of carbonous oxid (CO) 

See also 612.11114 and 615.96 

.235 Exchange of gases between air and blood 

1 Theory 

.24 Lung capacity Vital capacity 

Residual, reserv, respiratory or tidal and complementa! air 

25 Exhalation of water from lungs 

26 Internal or tissue respiration 

.261 Exchange of gases between tissues and blood 

.262 Accumulation of oxygen in tissues (cells) 

.27 Influence of barometric pressure on living beings 

See also 612.01441. For effect on absorption of oxygen and exhalation 
of carbonic acid see 612.2232 

.273 Toxic effects of oxygen and ozone 

.274 Effect of more than normal pressure 

Physiologic aspect of caisson disease 

.275 Effect of less than normal pressure 

I Physiologic and therapeutic effects of high altitudes 

II Mountain and aeronautic sickness 

.276 Effect ot pressure on fermentations 

Effect of removing pressure 

.279 Maximum pressures 

Effect on aquatic animals 

.28 Respiratory centers 

Influence of nervous system on respiration 

.281 Action of cerebrum and of will 

.282 " " medulla oblongata and vagus nucleus 

.283 " " spinal cord 

.284 " " chemic substances and abnormal blood gases 

1 Toxicology of center 

2 Apnea, acapnea, dyspnea 

See also 612.232 

.287 Action of pneumogastric or vagus nervs 

See also 612.819912 

.288 Respiratory reflexes 

See also 612.833 2 

.29 Influence of other organs on respiration 


612.3 Digestion 

May be subdivided by 01-09 for form, if needed 

.31 Mouth Teeth Salivary glands 

.311 Mastication and prehension 

1 Physiology of teeth 

.312 Deglutition or swallowing 

2 Tonsils 3 Tung 

.313 Salivary glands Saliva 

1 Composition of normal saliva 

2 Action of saliva on food Ptyalin 

3 Salivary secretion 

j i Toxic effect of saliva 

4 Action of chemic substances 

See also Therapeutics, 615.741 Sialagogs 
41 Elimination 

41 Action of atropin and of pilocarpin 

5 Physiologic morfology 

6 Pathologic changes of saliva 

61 Salivary fistulas 

63 Bacteriology 

64 Salivary calculi 

69 Abnormal substances 

8 Action of nervous system on salivary secretion 

8a Action of sympathetic nervs 

See also 61 2.898 
87 Action of chorda tympani 

See also 612.81977 

.314 Salivary venoms and venoms in general 

1 Chemic composition 

2 Toxic action 

3 Natural immunity and resistance to venoms 

4 Attenuation and neutralization of venoms 

5 Treatment of venom poisoning Serotherapy 

See 615.94 Duplicated here for physiologist only 
5: Antitoxins 

See also 612.11822 Antitoxins of serum 

.315 Esofagus 

.32 Stomach Gastric juice Vomiting 

.321 Normal composition of gastric juice 

1 Gastric fistulas, experimental and pathologic 

2 Determination of acid in gastric juice 

5 Proteolytic ferments: pepsin 

6 Milk curdling ferments, inorganic and organic 
.322 Digestiv power of gastric juice 

1 Starch and analogs 

2 Sugars " " 

3 Fats 

4 Albuminoids 

45 Nature and properties of peptone* 

See also 612.39817 

5 Antiputrefactiv properties of gastric juice 

6 Mixture of bile or other secretions of digestiv tract 
and gastric juice 

medicin: physiology 

612.3227 Absorption in stomach and transformation (into 

mucus) of products of digestion 

See also 612.386 
73 Absorption and transformation of sugars 

73 ■..■«•■ f ats 

74 " nitrogenous substances (peptones) 
7 5 " " salts Effect on stomach 

.323 Stomach secretion 

2 Formation and destruction of pepsin 

ai Pepsin in urin 

3 Formation of hydrochloric acid (HC1) 

4 Autodigestion of stomach 

5 Effects of removing stomach 

.324 Action of chemic substances (poisons) on gastric secre- 
tion and their elimination 

.325 Physiologic morfology of stomach 

Relation between morfologic changes and stimulation 

.326 Pathologic changes of stomach secretion 

3 Bacteriology 

5 Gastric juice in disease 

9 Abnormal substances in gastric iuice 

.327 Movements of stomach 

1 Muscular irritability of stomacn 

2 Motor action of pneumogastric See also 613.819913 

3 Evacuation of stomach 

5 Merycism and rumination 

7 Vomiting 

8 Action of emetics or vomitories 

See also under therapeutics, 61S.731 Emetics 

.328 Action of nervous system on stomach 

1 Psychic influence on stomach secretions 

8 Sensibility of stomach 

.33 Intestin 

Middle intestin and glands of middle intestin in invertebrates 

.331 Normal composition of intestinal juice 

1 Intestinal fistulas, experimental and pathologic 

7 Intestinal gases Fermentiv process due to bacteria 

.332 Intestinal digestion 

2 Carbohydrates 

3 Fats 

4 Albuminoids and derivates Erepsin 

7 Absorption and changes of food in intestin 

See also 612.386 
73 Carbohydrates 

73 Fats Chyliferous vessels See also 612.426 

74 Albuminoid derivates 

75 Other substances 

751 Inorganic substances Water and salts 

8 Action of intestinal juice on other secretions and 

See also 613.3336 
•4 Enterokinasis and secretin 


612.333 Intestinal secretion 

.334 Action of chemic substances on the intestin and their 


4 Purgativs 

See also therapeutics, 615.7323 Cathartics 

•335 Physiologic morfology of intestin 

5 Intestinal circulation 

.336 Pathologic changes of intestinal secretion 

3 Parasites and microbes 

31 Bacterial fermentation Physiologic effect of microbes 

.337 Movements of intestin 

1 Movement of chyme in intestin 

.338 Action of nervous system on intestin 

1 Action of nervs and nerv centers on secretion 

•339 Peritoneum Omentum 

1 Absorption in peritoneum 

See also 612.387 

.34 Pancreas Pancreatic juice 

.341 Normal composition of pancreatic juice 

1 Pancreatic fistulas 

.342 Action of pancreatic juice on food Tryptic digestion 

1 Starches and analogs 

2 Sugars 

3 Fats Steapsin or ptyalin 

4 Albuminoids Trypsinogen Trypsin 

5 Effect on other digestiv fenomena 

51 On bile and gastric juice 

See also 612.3226 

•343 Pancreatic secretion 

.344 Action of special substances on pancreatic secretion and 


.345 Physiologic morfology 

Relation between morfologic changes and stimulation 

.346 Pathologic changes of pancreatic juice 

.348 Action of nervous system on pancreas 

.349 Pancreas as an internal gland Hands of Langerhans 

1 Pancreatic glycosuria 

Physiologic fenomena only. See also 612.35216, 6i: 46621, and 
diseases 616.63, where most material belongs 

•35 Liver 

.351 Hepatic circulation and chemic composition 

I Chemic composition 

I I Ferments 

5 Hepatic circulation 

51 Ligature of portal vein 

6 Effect of extracts from hepatic tissue 

«l Hepatic opotherapy 

medicin: physiology 

612.35a Effect of liver on absorbd foods 

I Glycogenesis Glycogen of liver and its tissues 

See also 612.39611a Chemistry of glycogen 

II Determination of amount of sugar and glycogen: technic 
it Sugar of the blood See also 612.123 

13 Action of nervs on glycogenic function Experimental diabetaa 

14 Fermentation of glycogen Glycogenolysis 

16 Glycosuria (diabetes) in general 

See also 612.3491, 612.46621 and pathology 616.6) 

17 Glycogen of other organs 

15 Glycogen of muscles See also 613.7441 1 

19 Relations between glycogenesis and alimentation 

a Fat Adipogenic function 

.353 Hepatic chemic fenomena 

1 Formation of urea See also 612.461a 

•354 Action of poisons on liver 

1 Toxic steatoses 

2 Antitoxic action of liver 

•355 Temperature of liver s ee also 612.563 

.356 Hematopoietic function of liver and effect on blood 

See also 612. 119 

.357 Bile 

1 Normal composition of bile 

11 Biliary fistulas 

13 Coloring matter Bile pigments 

Bilirubin, biliverdin For origin see 33 below 

14 Mineral salts 

13 Biliary acids and their salts 

Glycocholic and taurocholic acida 

2 Action of bile in the intestin 

Final fate of bile 

3 Bile secretion 

31 Quantity 

3* Origin of bile acids 

33 " " " pigments 

4 Action of chemic substances on bile secretion 

See also therapeutics, 615.742 Cholagogs 

5 Elimination of poisons by bile 

6 Pathologic physiology of bile 

For general works and medical aspect see 616.36 

64 Biliary calculi 

65 Obliteration of bile ducts Icterus Jaundis Cholemia 

See also pathology, 616.36 Liver and bile ducts 

66 Bile in disease 

67 Toxic effects of bile 

69 Abnormal biliary substances 

7 Biliary excretion Physiology of ducts 

71 Gall bladder 

73 Absorption in biliary ducts 

73 Contractility of ducts 

8 Innervation of bile ducts 
.358 Action of nervous system on liver 

•359 Ablation, regeneration, cicatrization and other mor- 

fologic fenomena 

1 Volume of liver 

2 Fatty or starchy degeneration 


612.36 Defecation Large intestin 

Proctodeum and its appendages in invertebrates 

.361 Chemic composition of excrements 

.363 Cecal digestion Vermiform appendix 

.364 Absorption in large intestin 

.365 Defecation 

.366 Rectum 

.367 Movements of large intestin 

.368 Innervation " " " 

.38 Absorption 

.381 Imbibition Transudations and exudations Edema 

.382 Osmosis See also 613.0144621 

1 Dialysis of mineral salts 

2 " " sugars 

4 " " albuminoids 

.383 Diffusion 
.384 Absorption by skin 

See also 613.79 

.385 Absorption by lungs 

See also 612.2159 

.386 Absorption in digestiv tract 

General : see also specific part of tract 

.387 Absorption by mucous and serous membranes 

See also 6 1 2.3391 

.388 Parenchymatous absorption 

Absorption by cellular tissue (after injection) 

.39 Nutrition Metabolism 

.391 Hunger Thirst Inanition 

3 Hunger, thirst and nervous centers Mechanical 
action of hunger 

4 Inanition in man 

6 " " disease 

9 " " animals 

92 Inanition in poikilotbermic animals 

96 " " homoiothermic " 

.392 Foods 

1 Assimilation of carbon 

2 " " nitrogen 

See also 612.46123 

3 Assimilation of water 

4 " of sulfur, fosforus and iron 

3 Sulfur 4 Fosforus s Iron 

5 Thermodynamic value of food 

6 Mineral foods 

1 Sodium salts 3 Potassium salts 3 Calcium salts 

7 Vegetable foods 

71 Vegetarianism See also hygiene, 613.26 Vegetable diet 

While the strictest vegetarians confine themselvs to a purely vegetable 
diet, the majority use some forms of animal food, e. g. milk, butter and 


73 Fruits and fresh vegetables 

73 Cereals 

74 Bred 

medicin: physiology 

612.3928 Animal food 

See also hygiene, 613.38 Meats in diet 

81 Meats 

8a Soup Meat extracts 

83 Egs 

84 Milk 

See also 613.664 

841 Sterilization and artificial changes in milk 

8s Cheese 

86 Butter 

9 Special artificial foods 

•393 Condiments and stimulants 

1 Alcohol as food Fermented drinks 

See also hygiene of nervous system, 613.81 Alcohol 

2 Coffee Tea 

See also hygiene of beverages, 613.37 

9 Condiments 

.394 Ration or food requirement during growth 

2 Of man Nourishment of newborn 

3 " animals 

.395 Ration or food requirement of adults 

1 "Working ration Normal ration 

1 j Working ration for man 

13 " " " animals 

2 Subsistence ration 

33 Subsistence ration for man 

23 " " " animals 

5 Relations of ration to external conditions, 
e. g. climate 

6 Food requirements in disease 
.396 Carbohydrates 

1 Chemic composition 

11 Polysaccharids 

in Starch Inulin 

113 Glycogen 

113 Cellulose 

12 Gums and analogs: dextrin 

13 Monosaccharids: glucose, mannose, galactose, fructose, etc. 

14 Disaccharids: sugar, lactose, maltose, etc. 
17 Combined carbohydrates 

See 612.3981453 Glycoproteids 

17a Chitin 

175 Glycosids: amygdalin, salicin, phlorizin, saponin, etc. 

19 Other carbohydrates: pentose, inusitum 

2 Changes of sugars in organism Glycolysis 

2i Products of carbohydrates; e. g. glycuronic acid 

32 Alcohol in tissues 

3 Hydrolytic ferments of carbohydrates and analogs 

31 Amylasis, inulasis, cytasis, etc. 

3a Saccharoclastic ferments Inversion 

4 Formation of carbohydrates in organism 

5 Thermodynamic value of carbohydrates 

7 Quantity of carbohydrates in foods and tissues 


612.397 Fats 

1 Chemic composition 

2 Changes of fats in organism 

11 Fatty degeneration and infiltration See alto 612.3592 

ss Products of fats 

aj Acids 

•4 Glycerins 

3 Lipolytic ferments 

4 Formation of fats 

5 Thermodynamic value 

7 Quantity of fat in food and tissues Adiposity 

8 Lipoids 

81 Cholesterin 
8a Lecithin 

.398 Albuminoids and nitrogenous substances 

1 Chemic composition 

11 Composit albuminoids 

For eg albumin see also 613.39383 
1* Blood serum and other serous fluids of body 

See also chemical properties of blood, 613.124 Albuminoids 

13 Simple albuminoids 
131 Albumin 

133 Globulins: fibrinogenic and fibrinoplastic substances, myosin, etc. 

133 Coagulated albuminoids Fibrin Coagulation of albuminoids 

135 Albuminoids as acids or bases 

136 Nucleoalbumins, simple phosphorated albuminoids 

138 Protamins 

139 Other albumins 

14 Other albuminoids 

145 Proteids 

Albumin + a complex organic compound 
1 Nucleoproteids 

Albumin + nucleic acid, products of nucleic acid and specific 

a Hemoglobin and analogs 

Albumin + an iron compound. See also 613.11111 
i Glycoproteids 

Albumin + a carbohydrate. See also 613.3967 

146 Albuminoids: glutin, elastin, amyloid, etc. 

15 Vegetable albuminoids 

16 Albuminoid products and nitrogen compounds 

17 Albuminoses and peptones 
171 Thermodynamic value 

175 Changes of substances derived from albuminoids by digestion 

19 Products of complete change of albuminoids Nitrogen compounds 

191 Protaminic nucleus See also 61 3.398138 

193 Amidic acids 

193 Urea Uric acid See also 613.4613, 613.46135, 613.398195 

194 Ammonia and ammonia compounds 

195 Bases (alkaloids), purin compounds 

196 Aromatic compounds 

197 Nonnitrogenous products of albuminoids 
199 Other products 

2 Changes of albuminoids in organism 

3 Proteolytic ferments 

Only general works See specific nitrogen compounds for their 
derivates, ferments and properties For milk curdling ferments 
see 613.3316 and 613.664171 

5 Thermodynamic value of albumins and derivates 

Albumin as food 

medicin: physiology 

612.3986 Formation of albuminoids in general 

7 Quantity of albuminoids in food and tissues 

8 Toxins, antitoxins Chemistry of poisons 

For action, see 612.11821; for animal poisons, see 612.314; /or 
ptomains, Ieucomains. etc. se* 612.39819s above 

.4 Glandular system Secretion Excretion 

.401 Effect of circulation on glands 

.40a " " glands " circulation and blood 

.403 " " " " nutrition 

.404 " " nutrition " glands 

.405 Physics and chemistry of secretion 

.407 Effect of glands on nervous system 

.408 " " nervous system on glands 
See also 6 1 2.817 

.409 Physiologic morfology of secretions and glandular epitheliumi 

.41 Spleen 

.411 Hematopoietic action Effect of spleen on blood 

.412 Splenotomy Circulation in spleen 

.413 Contractility of spleen 

.414 Spleen in relation to other organs 

1 Effect on digestion 

.416 Function of spleen in disease, in experimental infections 

and in wounds 

.418 Chemic fenomena 

.42 Lymfatic system and lymf 

For lymfocytes see 612. 112 

.421 Lymf Chemic composition 

.422 Quantity and origin of lymf 

•423 Lymfatic circulation 

1 Thoracic duct 

.414 Lymfatic harts 

.425 Innervation of lymfatic system 

.426 Lymfatic absorption 

See also 612.33273 

.427 Lymfatic fistulas 

.428 Lymf glands 

. 43 Thymus 

.44 Thyroid gland 

.441 Chemic composition 

.442 Parathyroid glands or accessory thyroids 

.445 Thyroidectomy Destruction of thyroid 

Including pathologic destruction 

.448 Effects of thyroid extracts 

.45 Suprarenal capsules 

.451 Chemic composition 

.455 Excision and destruction 

.458 Effect of capsular extract 


612.46 Kidneys Urin 

.461 Chemic composition of urin 

1 Reaction and physical properties 

11 Reaction 

1 3 Density 

13 Temperature 

17 Urinary technology 

174 Staining reactions 

175 Spectroscopic examinations 

176 Polarimetric " 

177 Histochemic " 

178 Pathologic urinary technology 

179 Densimetry and cryoscopy of urin 

2 Urea and nitrogen compounds 

31 Determination of quantity of urea Ureametere 

33 Determination of total nitrogen 

23 Excretion and metabolism of nitrogen 

331 In relation to alimentation 

333 " " " work 

334 Effect of chemic substances (poisons) 

335 Influence of temperature 

336 " " disease 

338 " " nervous system 

339 " " animal kind 

Variability of process in animal kingdom 

35 Uric acid See also 6 1 2.398193 
351 Determination of quantity 

354 In animals 

355 " normal man 

356 " man in disease: uric diathesis 
359 " other tissues and fluids than urin 

36 Other nitrogen products of urin 

361 Bases Xanthin bases See also 613.398193 

363 Ptomains 

363 Allantoin 

364 Peptones See also 61 3.46668, 61 2.3981 7 

366 Hippuric acid 

367 Ammonium and other urates See also 613 398194 
a68 Ferments See also 612.32331 

369 Physiologic albuminuria 

37 Coloring matter Pigments: urobilin, urochrome 

6 Salin substances in urin 

61 Chlorin salts 

63 Fosforus and its compounds 

63 Sulfur and its compounds 

64 Gases of urin 

8 Nonnitrogenous organic constituents of normal urin 

8a Sugars Physiologic glycosuria 

.462 Urinary toxicity 

1 Internal secretion of kidneys 

,463 Urinary secretion 

1 Quantity of urin 

2 Elimination of urin 

4 Renal circulation 

5 Influence of blood and circulation 

6 Comparativ secretion of the two kidneys 
8 Effect of nervous system 

81 Glycosuria, polyuria after lesion of medulla oblongata 

medicin: physiology 

612.464 Action of poisons on urinary secretion and their elimina- 


1 Diuretics Polyuria 

See also 615.761 Diuretics in therapeutics 

2 Toxic albuminurias 

See also 6 1 3.46632 

3 Elimination of poisons by urin 

4 Toxic glycosuria Phlorizin 

Sec also 611.46631 

.465 Physiologic morfology of kidneys 

.466 Pathologic physiology of kidneys and urin 

1 Urinary calculi 

2 Urin in disease 

3i Urin in diabetes Chemistry of glycosuria For physiology ol 

diabetes see 612.33216 
as Urin in albuminuria Albuminuria in feneral 

See also 612.461269, 612.4642 and 616.634 
23 Resection and lesion of kidneys, experimental and pathologic 

Ligature of ureter, etc. 
231 Uremia See also 616.638 

26 Urin in fever 

6 Abnormal substances in urin 

61 Acetonuria Acidosis 

62 Chyluria 

63 Other abnormal products of metabolism 
631 Glycuronic acid See also 612.39621 

64 Products of intestinal putrefaction Indican 

67 Biliary pigments Choluria 

68 Albuminoses and peptones 

69 Hematuria and hemoglobinuria 

7 Urinary fermentation Putrefaction of urin 
.467 Urinary discharge 

1 Physiology of bladder, ureters and urethra 

1 1 Micturition 

2 Absorption in urinary passages 

3 Innervation of vesical apparatus 

For prostate see 612.617 For action of nervous system on func- 
tion of kidneys see 612.4638 

.49 Other glands and secretions 
.491 Bone marrow 

.492 Hypophysis or pituitary gland Somatic brain 

.493 Scent glands of animals 

.494 Bartholin's glands 

495 Carotid gland 

499 Other glands 

See also 613.664, 612.791 


2.5 Animal heat 

.51 Sources Thermogenesis Calorimetry 

.511 Direct calorimetry 

6 Calorimetry in disease 

.512 Indirect calorimetry 

1 Influence of alimentation 

3 Effect of respiration 

.52 Loss of heat Radiation Thermolysis 

Conduction of animal tissues 

.521 Cutaneous radiation 

1 Physiology of clothing 

.523 Loss by pulmonary evaporation 

.524 " " cutaneous evaporation 

•53 Regulation of temperature Heat balance 


.531 Influence of vasomotors 

.532 " " muscular movement 

See also 612.7453 

.533 Effect of perspiration 

534 " " respiration Thermic polypnea 

•535 Thermic centers 

.54 Other conditions affecting temperature and ther- 

.541 Effect of baths 

.543 " " inanition 

See also 6:2.391 

.544 Effect of poisons 

.55 Variations in production and regulation of heat 

.556 In disease : fevers 

.56 Temperature of body 

.563 Thermic topografy 

.58 Hibernating animals 

.59 Heat and cold; effect on organism 

Subdivisable with o like 612; e. g. 612.59074 Effect on muscles 

612.5908 " nervous system 

See also 612.01443 

.591 Effect of heat Deth from heat Thermic rigidity 

.592 Effect of cold Deth from cold Rigidity from cold 

medicin: physiology 

Reproduction and generation Development 

Spontaneous generation 

See origin and beginnings of life, 576 ' 
Transplantation Animal grafting 

May be divided by organs like 611 
Cicatrization Regeneration 

May be divided by organs; e. g. 613.60344 Regeneration of thyroid 

612.60384 " eye 

Reproduction of lower organisms 

Protozoa, etc. 

Asexual: fission, division, gemmation or budding or sprouting 
Sexual : conjugation or concrescence 

Variations: alternation of generations » »r metagenesis, pedogenesis, partheno- 

Morfogenesis in general Heredity 

See 575 Evolution 

Variation, including artificial 



Only for physiologic aspect, for pathology see 616.99a 
Proportion and determination of sexes 

See also Biology, 577.8 Sexes in nature, sexuality 
Consanguinity Incest 

Theory of evolution Natural selection, darwinism 

See S7S Evolution 

Male functions of generation 

For semen see 613.616 


Including also the function in general, in either or both sexes See 
also 613.188 

Copulation and fecundation 


Artificial parthenogenesis 

Testicles Orchitic fluid Sperm 

Effects of castration Resection or injury, experi- 
mental or pathologic, of testicles or of sexual glands 
in general 

Physiology of spermatozoa 

Testicles as internal glands Interstitial cells 
Appendages of male organs : semenif erous ducts, seminal 

Female functions of generation Ovulation 

See also 612.613 and 613.6161 

Physiology of ovaries 

See also 613.6303 

Ablation or injury of ovary, experimental or patho- 

See also 613.6161 

Physiology of ovum 
Physiology of uterus 

Uterin circulation 
Innervation of uterus 


612.63 Impregnation Pregnancy Parturition 

See also 613. 6i< 
01 Period of pregnane/ 
03 Ovary in pregnancy Corpus luteum 

.64 Development of embryo 

For embryology see 61 1.013 ; for abnormal development see 61 1.01 2 Tera- 
tology, 617.3 Deformities 

.646 Physiology of embryo 
.647 " " fetus 

.648 " " newborn 

649 Appendages of embryo Amniotic fluid 

See also 611.0138 Fetal appendages (in embryology) 

.65 Growth after birth 

See also 6 1 2.64 

.651 Metamorfosis of lower animals Larvae 

.66 Period of full development 

.661 Puberty 

.662 Menstruation 

.663 Fecundity 

.664 Lactation and milk 

Physiology of mammary glands 

i Physics and chemistry of milk 

1 a Sugars 

13 Fats Butter 

14 Albuminoids 

16 Mineral substances 

17 Lactic fermentation Milk ferments 

171 Milk curdling ferment*- Coagulation of milk 

18 Other constituents 

181 Abnormal substances 

19 Comparison of milk of various animals 
191 Human milk 

3 Lactic secretion 

31 Quantity 

33 Formation of sugars 

33 " " fats 

34 " " albuminoids 

35 Colostrum 

_j Effect of various agents on secretion 

4 Action of poisons on milk secretion and their elim- 

5 Physiologic morfology of milk 

6 Pathologic changes in lactic secretion 

7 Digestion of milk 

8 Innervation of mammary glands 
.67 Period of decline Deth 

See also 577.7 

.68 Longevity 

See also 368.3 Life insurance; sig.s Probabilities; 614.11 Deth rates 

medicin: physiology 

612.7 Motor and vocal apparatus Skin 

. 7 1 Protoplasm 

See also 613.014 General physiology of cells and organisms 

.72 Vibratil cilia 
.73 Smooth muscle 

Divided like 612.74 

.74 Striped muscle 

Muscle in general, including smooth muscle 

741 Muscular contraction 

1 Myografy 

12 Single contraction of muscle fiber Jerk contraction 

ij Tetanic contraction 

14 Tonic contraction 

x 5 Influence of chemic substances on muscles 

16 Myografy in disease 

2 Change of volume of muscle 

3 Muscle wave 

4 Elasticity of muscle 

Myotonometry Effect of weight Tension 

6 Muscular irritability Influence of blood 

61 Circulation in muscles 

62 Effect of stimulation 
6} " " electricity 

7 Latent period 

Time e'apsing between moment of stimulation and response by an 
activ tissue 

8 Muscle murmur 

9 Physiologic morfology of muscles 

Histologic phenomena of contraction 

.742 Muscles after deth Rigor mortis 

1 Chemic phenomena after deth: autolysis 

.743 Electric phenomena of muscles 

.744 Chemistry of muscle 

1 Normal composition 

ir Carbohydrates 

See also 612.35218 Glycogen of muscles 

14 Albuminoids 

15 Other organic substances 

16 Mineral substances 

Including water Muscle salts 

17 Gases 

2 Chemic effects of muscular contraction 

3 1 Fatigue 

2:1 Ergografy Dynamometry Work in general 

32 Consumption of oxygen and production of CO2 in work 

23 " Function of carbohydrates 

24 Relation of chemic changes to work Metabolism in relation to 

.745 General effect on organism of muscular contraction or 


See also 612. 532 

I Dynamic effects 

3 Thermic 

5 Relations between work and heat 


612.746 Pathologic physiology of muscles 

1 Contractures 

4 Tremors Shuddering 

5 Nutrition of muscles Atrofy Degeneration 


Including nerv influence See also 612.818 

.75 Bones, joints and connectiv tissues 

.751 Chemic composition of bone and connectiv tissue 

See also 613.398146 

1 Bone 

2 Cartilage 

3 Connectiv tissue 
.752 Nutrition of bones 

•753 Growth, cicatrization and regeneration of bone 

.754 Periosteum Perichondrium 

.755 Tendons 

.76 Locomotion 

Principles of animal mechanism; comparativ study of locomotion prefer 
ably clast in 591.47 

.761 Chronofotografy : technic 

.763 Special movements Combined movemeuts 

Physiology of violin playing, etc. 

.766 Human locomotion 

.1 Physiology of exercise and work 

2 Rest 

.767 Animal locomotion Special organs of locomotion 

Swimming bladder of fishes 

.768 Flight 

.769 Biologic adaptation of movement 

.77 Electric and phosphorescent animals 

Preferably clast 591.57 
.771 Electric animals 

.772 Phosphorescent animals 

.78 Voice and speech 

See also 784.9 Vocal hygiene; 808.5 Elocution; 534 7 Sound 

.781 Sensibility of larynx 

.782 Movements and innervation of larynx 

1 Influence of spinal accessory nerv 

See also 612.819923 

2 Influence of pneumogastric 

See also 612.819917 

3 Laryngoscopy 

4 Movements of glottis 

5 Epiglottis 
.783 Artificial larynx 

.784 Singing Timbre, quality Voice register 

.785 Larynx in deglutition and other laryngeal function^ 

See also 6 1-3.3 ' 2 
.786 Organs of sound in lower animals 

.f88 Larynx of birds 


612.789 Speech Language 

1 Function of mouth and nose 

a " " lips and soft palate 

3 Innervation of organs of speech Aphasia 

See also 6 16.855 

4 Vowels and consonants 

5 Ventriloquism 

See also 791. 1 Ventriloquism as an amusement 

.79 Skin 

.79015 Chemic composition 

.791 Absorption 

See also 612.384 

1 Penetration by solids 

2 Absorption of fats 

3 " " solutions 

4 urn iiq U i(j s 

5 " " gases 

.792 Cutaneous glands and secretion 

1 Swet Chemic composition 

la Toxic action of swet 

4 Action of chemic substances on swet secretion 

41 Elimination of poisons by swet 

5 Physiologic morfology of swet 

6 Pathologic changes of swet 

8 Action of nervous system on cutaneous exhalation 

9 Other cutaneous secretions 
•793 .Cutaneous respiration 

4 Effect of suspended transpiration; closing pores by 
liniments, etc. 

5 Effect of chemic substances on skin 

See also 612.7924 

.794 Cutaneous sensibility 

' .795 Electric conductibility and resistance of skin 

See also 612.01443a 

.796 Chromatophores and skin pigments 

.798 Trofic nervs of skin 

•799 Growth and physiology of nails and hair 


612 .8 Nervous system 

.801 Theory cf nervous system and innervation 

1 Dynamogenesis and inhibition 

2 Action of nervous system on chemic fenoraena 

3 Effect on morfogeny and evolution 

See also 612.605 

.81 Peripheral nervous system Nerv fibers 
.811 Distinction between sensory and motor nervs 

3 Ganglions of sensory nervs 

4 Influence of sensibility on movement and of move- 
ment on sensibility 

.812 Recurrent sensibility 

.813 Electric fenomena of nervs and muscles 

Muscle-nerv experiments as indicativ of nervous process 
For muscle fenomena see 612.743 

a Negativ variations 

3 Electrotonus 

.814 Chemic and thermic fenomena of nervous stimu- 

For stimulation of nerv centers see 61 3.822.1 

.815 Physiologic morfology of nervous stimulation 

1 Sensory terminations 

a Motor " 

.816 Irritability of nervs and muscles 

Nerv-muscle or nerv-gland physiology 

i Action of electricity 

a Theories of nerv waves 

3 Nervous conductibility 

4 Effect of blood on nervs Anemia 

5 Rapidity of nerv waves 

6 Nerv fatigue 

7 Action of chemic substances on nervous irritability 
.817 Effect of nervs on muscles and glands 

1 Chemic substances Curare poisons 

a Voluntary contraction 

3 Tonicity Atrofy of muscles after cutting nervs, 

See also 613.7465 

.818 Trofic nervs 

5 Degeneration, regeneration and cicatrization 

I Degeneration a Regeneration 3 Cicatriaation 

medicin: physiology 

612.819 Special nervs 

Whenever possible class according to function rather than according 
to a particular nerv, classing here only special nerv physiology 

i i st pair: olfactory 

a 2d pair: optic 

See also 6 1 2.843 

3 3d pair: motoroculi or oculomoto 

31 Innervation of iris 

See also 612.8422 

32 Innervation of eyelids 

See also 612.847 

33 Innervation of eye muscles 

4 4th pair: trochlear or pathetic 

5 5th " : trigeminal 

52 Sensory action 

53 Trofic action 

6 6th pair: external oculomoto or abducent 

7 7th " : facial 

71 Effect on facial muscles 

73 " " respiration 

74 " " hearing 

75 " " deglutition and taste 

77 " " salivation Chorda tympani 

See also 6 1 2.3 1387 

78 * Pathology Facial paralysis 

8 8th pair: auditory 

See also 61 2.8585 

9 9th pair: glossopharyngeal 

91 10 th " : p'neumogastric or vagus 

911 Effect on hart and circulation 

See also 612.1781 

912 Effect on respiration 

See also 6 12.287 

913 Effect on digestiv organs 

See also 612.328, 612.338, 612.348, 612.358, 612. 36S 
915 Effect on kidneys and other glands 

See also 612.4 

917 Effect on voice production 

See also 612.7822 

918 Section of vagus and pneumogastric 

92 nth pair: spinal accessory 
921 Anastomosis with vagus 

923 Innervation of respiratory organs 

See also 612.28 

923 Innervation of vocal organs 

See also 6 1 2.7893 

93 12th pair: hypoglossal 

94 Spinal nervs in particular 
941 Phrenic nerv 


612.82 Nervous centers Brain 
.821 Physiologic psychology 

Usually better clast in 131 Mental physiology 

i Time of reaction to stimulation Psychometry 

3 Attention Memory Association Imagination 

3 Instinct Intelligence Emotions Sensibility 

j 1 Comparativ psychology 

311 Nonautomatic actions of animals Anticlisis 

]i) Automatic u m m 

For physiologic aspect see 612.839 
313 Instincts of animals Behavior See also 591.51 

33 Emotions Sensibility 

34 Inhibition of movement Will Habit Impulse 

35 Associated movements 

4 Action of poisons on intelligence 

See also 613.8 Hygiene of nervous system 
" " 615.9 Toxicology 
41 Alkaloids 

43 Nonalkaloid anesthetics 

See also Therapeutics, 615.96 Cerebral poisons 

44 Alcohol , 

See also Therapeutics, 615.964 Alcohol as cerebral poison 
Pathology 6 16.86 r Alcoholism 

5 Effect of disease on intelligence 

6 Psychic reflexes 

7 Sleep Hypnotism 

See also 135 Sleep, Dreams 
71 Hypnotism See also 134 Hypnotism 

73 Theories of sleep 

74 Cerebral circulation in sleep 

75 Chemic fenomena of organism in sleep 

76 Dreams 

8 Sense in general and theories of perception 

88 Psychophysical laws 

89 Sensory delusions 

For optic illusions see also 612.84374 

822 Nerv cells and nerv centers 

1 , Chemistry of nervous tissue 

Metabolism in nervs 

2 Chemic fenomena of nervous excitation 

For stimulation of nerv fibers see 612.814 1 

3 Electromotiv fenomena of nervous excitation 

4 Thermic 

5 Physiologic morfology " " " 

53 Effects of fatigue 

54 * " poisons 

56 Degeneration and regeneration of centers 

6 Effects of removal and experimental, pathologic or 
teratologic lesion of nerv centers 

61 Movement in a circle (motus oircularis. manege) 

7 Decapitation 

8 Action of central nervous system on chemic 
fenomena of organism 

See also 612.01538, 612.801s 
gi Effect of chemic changes on centers 

medicin: physiology 

612.823 Weight and general morfology of brain 

5 Conduction in centers 

.824 Cerebral circulation 

I Neurolymf , neurolymfa or cerebrospinal fluid 

Meninges Choroid plexus 
Brain movements 

3 Cerebral vasomotors 

4 " anemia 

5 Pressure on nerv centers 

55 Compression and concussion of brain Abnormal pressure 

6 Temperature of blood in nerv centers 

Effect of abnormal pressure 

.825 Cerebral convolutions (cortex)* 

1 Cortical excitability 

2 Psychomotiv centers Localizations 

23 Inhibitory actions 

See also 61 2.8338 

24 Localization in man 
249 Speech Aphasia 

See also 612.7893 

25 Localization in animals 

26 Topografy of localizations 

261 Frontal lobe 

262 Occipital " 

263 Parietal " 

264 Temporal " 

265 Central " 

266 Olfactory " 

3 Cortical epilepsy 

See also 616.853 

5 Sensory functions of convolutions 

Convolutions as seat of senses 

54 Sight 

55 Hearing 

56 Smell 

57 Taste 

58 Muscular sense 

See also 6 1 2 885 

5g Touch 

See also 612.88 

8 Intellectual functions 

Only for physiology of these functions 

.826 Cerebral ganglions, commissures, etc. 

1 Optostriate body and callosum 

Or optic thalami. striatum and callosum 

a Conduction in the brain 

See also 6 1 2.8*35 

3 Crura or cerebral peduncles Epiphysis Infundi 


5 Quadrigeminum Optic lobes 

7 Cerebellar peduncles or prepeduncles 

8 Pons 


612.827 Cerebellum 

.828 Medulla oblongata or postoblongata 

.Sag Special physiology of central nervous system of invertebrates 

See also 612.8316 

1 Regulating effect of ganglia Circular movements (manege) 

t Chain of ganglions Network of nervs, or rete nervosum 

j Reflex movement 

Locomotion in respect to physiology of nervous system 

31 Reflexes proper 

3 » Rhythm Refractory period 

33 Tonicity Tonic reflex 

34 Coordination 

.83 Spinal cord or myel 
,831 Conduction in the cord 

See also 613.833; 

.832 Excitability of cord 

.833 Reflex action 

Subdivide like 613; e. r. 613.83317 Cardiac reflexes 
613.833637 Uterin " 
613.83376 Limb reflexes; knee jerk 

8 Action of superior nerv centers on reflexes 

9 Other phenomena of reflex action 

91 Rapidity of reflexes 

92 Pathology 

93 Effect of anemia 

94 Action of poisons on reflexes 

95 Rhythm in general 
051 Refractory period 

96 Coordination 

97 Other f enomena 

e. g. reflexes according to nature of impulse: fatigue, etc. 

.834 Cord as center of innervation 

.835 Degeneration and regeneration of cord Atrofies 

.84 Physiologic optics Sight 

.841 Fibrous tunics of eye 

1 Cornea Conjunctiva Anterior chamber 

5 Sclera 

.842 Vascular tunics , Iris Choroid Ciliary body 

1 Iris accommodation Pupillary reflex 

See also 612.844 for general papers on accommodation 

11 Pupillometers 

2 Action of nervs and nerv centers on pupil 

3 Effects of light 

4 Action of chemic substances on iris Atropin See 615.784 

5 Choroid Eye pigments 

6 Ocular circulation Intraocular pressure 
3i Ofthahnometers 

medicin: physiology 

612.843 Optic nerv Retina 

See also 612.8192 2d pair of cranial nervs; optic 

1 Physiologic morfology Retinal purple 

12 Ofthalmoscope 

13 Retinal circulation 

14 " purple 

15 Physiologic morfology of retina 

Blind spot, yellow spot 

2 Irradiation Simultaneous induction 

3 Color sense Chromatic sensibility 
301 Theory 

6 Miscellaneous theories of color sensation 

63 3-color theory (Young-Helmholtz) 

64 4-color theories 

642 Color-contrast theory (Hering) 

643 Gradation theory (Wundt) 

644 Genetic theory (Ladd-Franklin) 
647 Zone theories 

2 Duplex or duplicity theory (von Kries) 

3 Theory of indirect values (Miiller) 

31 Color sight 

Power to distinguish colors 

For color blindness see 612.845s; 617.75 

32 Sensitivness to color Color preferences 

For pathology of chromatic sensibility see 612.8455 

34 Mixture of colors 

35 Contrast " " 

3501 Theory 

16 Miscellaneous theories of color contrast 

167 Psychologic theory 

Deception of judgment (Helmholtz) 
166 Physiologic theory (Hering) 

352 Simultaneous contrast 

353 Successiv " 

4 Entoptic fenomena 

Purkinje's figures or images, Sanson's images 

5 Persistence of retinal impressions 

52 After images or after sensations Successiv images 

522 Positiv 

523 Negativ or complementary 

6 Field of vision Visual acu tenets and sensibility 

61 Photometry 

Photometric teknic 

62 Field of vision 

622 Direct vision 

623 Indirect vision Perimetry 

63 Visual acuteness and sensibility 

632 Retinal adaptation and fatigue 

633 Twilight vision Purkinje fenomenon Purkinje spectrum 
Sensibility to contrast 

7 Conduction in the brain Perception 

71 Histology of fibrillae Center of sight 

72 Optic perceptions Localization of image in space 

721 Binocular and monocular perception 

722 Stereoscopy Binocular fusion and rivalry Pseudo- 
scopic vision 


Perception of distance, size and form 

Perception of differences in night of surface. For movement 

see 612.8462 


Miscellaneous theories of visual distance 
Theory of identical points 
" 1 projection 

* " distance as an optic sensation 

Kinesthetic eye sensations 

Accommodation strains 
Convergence ■ 


Binocular parallax 
Parallax due to hed movements 
Associativ aids 
Apparent size 

" brightness 

" rapidity of movement 
Linear perspectiv 
Haze and other atmosferic effects 
Lights and shadows 

Relations among objects in field of vision 

Cooperation of other senses 


Impression of color suggested by sound, auditus coloratus 
Optic illusions 

Primary illusions 

Illusions of movement 
Proofreaders illusion 
Double images 
Geometric illusions 

Of distance, size, direction, form etc 
Theories of geometric illusions 
Miscellaneous theories 
Eye-movement theory 
Perspectiv " 
Dynamic " 
Association or confusion theory 
Reversible perspectiv 
Illusions of extent 

Muller-Lyer illusion, etc 
Illusions of direction and angles; conrluxion and contrast 

Poggendorf , Zollner, twisted cord, etc illusions 
Illusions of form 
" " area 

Apparent size of planets at horizon, etc 
Secondary illusions 
Mixt illusions 
Observations on those born blind 
Degenerations of optic nerv and fibrillae 

Refractory apparatus Ocular refraction Dioptrics 

See also 612.8421 Iris accommodation 

Crystallin lens 
Aqueous humor 
Vitreous " 

medicin: physiology 

612.845 Functional disorders or pathology of sight 

Blindness etc. See also 617.75 Disorders of vision from medical view- 

1 Myopia 

2 Hypermetropia 

3 Astigmatism 

4 Presbyopia 

5 Daltonism Color blindness 

See also 61 2.84.5.) 1 Color sight, 617.75 Disorders of vision 

6 Hemeralopia 
.846 Movements of eye 

2 Binocular vision Convergence 

For perception see 611. 8437*1 

3 Action of 3d cranial or oculomoto nerv 

4 " ■ 4 th " ■ trochlear 
6 " " 6th " " abducent 
8 Strabismus Diplopia 

.847 Palpebral and lacrimal apparatus 

.848 Tests of visual perception 

.85 Hearing 

.8501 Theory 

12 Clasification of sounds 

122 Tones 123 Vocables 124 Noises 

16 Miscellaneous theories of hearing 

l6l Psychologic theories 

166 Physiologic " 

1 Resonance or simpathetic vibration theory (Helmholtz) 

2 Telefone theory (Rutherford, Lipps) 

3 Standing wave theory (Ewald, Lehmann) 

4 Advancing wave theory (Hurst) 

5 Propeld " " (ter Kuile) 

6 Displacement " (Meyer) 

.851 External ear: functions 

.854 Middle ear 

.855 Tympanic membrane or drumhed Tympanum 

.856 Eustachian tube 

.857 Bones 

.853 Internal ear 

1 Conduction of sound in internal ear 

2 Utricle Saccule 

3 Semicircular canals 

See also 613 8863 and 616.841 Vertigo 

4 Cochlea Corti's organ or fibers Spiral organ 
Basilar membrane 

5 Acoustic nerv 

6 Endolymf Perilymf 

7 Acoustic perception Conduction of acoustic exci- 
tation in the brain 

71 Auditory acuteness 

712 Tonal gaps and ilands 

72 Auditory center in brain 

See also 01283555 


612.85873 Subjectiv sensations 

74 Musical physiology and psychology 

Distinction of tones and quality or tone color (timbre) 

742 T^nal caracteristics 

2 Pitch 

3 Loudness, strength or volume 

4 Caracter, quality, timbre, tone color or brightness 

743 Analisis of tones 

2 Simple tones 

3 Compound tones or natural harmonics Clang 

32 Overtones 

33 Partial tones 

4 Combination or Tartini's tones 

41 1 st order 

412 Difference or differential tone 

413 Summational tone 

42 Higher orders 

744 Consonance and dissonance: intervals 

1 Theories of consonance and dissonance 

12 Theory of beats (Helmholtz) 

13 « « t ona i fusion (Stumpfl 

14 Genetic theory (Moore) 

745 Melody and rithm 

746 Sensitivness to tone Tone preferences 

75 Binaural and monaural hearing 

751 Localization of sound in space Estimation and effect 
of distance 

2 Interaural differences of sound intensity 

3 Complexity of pitches 

4 Movements of hed 

76 Sensibility of living beings to sound and vibrations 

77 Pathology Defness etc 

See also 617.8 Diseases of ear 

78 Tests of auditory perception 
8 Auditory reflexes 

.86 Smel 

See also 612.82556 Seat of smel 

.861 Organs of smel 

.867 Perceptions Conduction in brain 

1 Olfactory acuteness 

2 " center in brain 

3 Subjectiv odor sensations 

4 Fusion of odors 

7 Pathology 

8 Tests of olfactory perception 
.87 Taste 

.875 Function of lingual nerv 

See also 612.8195 

.877 Function of chorda tympani 

See also 612.81977 

879 Function of glossopharyngeal nerv 

See also 612.8199 

medicin: physiology 

612.88 Touch Tactil sense Equilibrium 

.881 Notion of space 

.882 Sense of temperature 

.883 Sense of pressure 

Including all related phenomena; e. g. tickling 

i Esthesiometers 

.884 Sensibility to pain 

.885 Muscular sense Power sense 

.886 Sense of equilibrium 

1 Sense of direction and orientation 

2 Seasickness 

3 Vertigo 

See also 6 1 3.8583 

9 Function of special organs 

Function of lateral line of fishes and other special organs of lower 

.887 Anesthesia, hyperesthesia, synesthesia 

.89 Sympathetic nervous system 

.8903 Trofic action 

.8905 Reflex fenomena 

.891 Cervical ganglions and plexus 

.892 Thoracic 

.893 Abdominal " 

.896 Action on eyes; iris 

See also 6 1 3.8432 

.897 Action on hart 

See also 613.1783 

.898 Action on digestiv tract ; alimentary canal 

See also 613.3 and special subdivisions 

.899 Effect on blood vessels 

3<»e also 613.18 


613 General and Personal Hygiene 

Care of Health; Prophylaxis; Individual Health; Laws of Health. 

.03, Compends; .03, Dictionaries. Cyclopedias: .04, Ess.iya: .os. Periodicals; 

.06, .Societies; .07, Study and Teaching; .078, Sanitary Appliances; .08, Collections; 
.09, History. Description, Reports, etc., divided li!:e 930-999, 

.1 Air and Light. 

For Air Analysis, see 543-71 Air Pollution, 614.7; Ventilation, 638.8. 
.11 Climate. Acclimation. See ssi-5, Meteorology; 61S.834, Therapeutics 

614.43, Geographic distribution of disease. 

.u Health Resorts. Mountain. Sea-shore. 

Regions exempt from special diseases. 

.13 Seasons. Time of Day. 

.14 Malaria. Moisture. Ground Air. See Public Health, 6:4-775. 614. 77j 

and 614.773. 

.15 Purification of Air. 

.16 Special Influences. Ozone, Electricity, etc. 

.17 Quantity of Air Necessary. 

.18 Temperature. See also 536.5, Heat; S5i-5>. Meteorology. 

.19 Sunlight. 

.2 Food. Dietetics. 

For Food Analysis, see 543.1; Adulterations, 614.31; Digestion and Nutrition. 

.21 Dietaries. 

Including food for special classes of people; literary men, soldiers, etc. 

32 Food for Infants. 

.33 Food for the Sick. 

Including means for giving nutrition, baths, enemata, forced alimentation, 

.24 Fasting. Famine. Starvation. 

.25 Excess of Food. 

.26 Vegetable Food. 

.27 Fruits. 

.38 Animal Food. Meats. 

.29 Fish, Oysters, etc. 

.3 Beverages. 

For alcoholic beverages, see 613.81 and 178, Temperance Ethics; Inspection ol 
beverages, 614 34. 
.31 Water as a Beverage. 

.32 Impurities in Water and Ice. See also 638.16 Water supply of towm. 

.33 Microscopic Analysis. For Chemical Analysis, see 543-3- 

.34 Biologic Analysis. 

.35 Purification. Filtration, Boiling, Chemical, etc. See also 6>8.i6 

Water Supply. 
.36 Cold Drinks. 

.37 Hot Drinks. Tea, Coffee, etc. See also 614 347. Adulterations. 

38 Mineral Waters, Carbonated Waters, etc. See also 614-348, Adultera 

tions; 615.79, Therapeutics 

.35 Other Beverages. 

medicin: hygiene 

613.4 Cleanliness of Body. Clothing. 

Se^ also 646, Clothing, Toilet, etc.; J91, Customs, Care of Person, Bathing 
Toilet. For Therapeutic baths, electric, sulphur, etc., see 61s. 67. 

.41 Baths. 
.42 Warm. 

.43 Cold. For Swimming, see 797-2. 

.44 Douche or Shower. 

.45 Sea. Salt. 

.46 Hot Air. Turkish. Russian. Roman, etc. 

.47 Public. 

.48 Clothing. 

1. Material, wool, cotton, etc. 

2. Quantity. 

3. Cleanliness. 

4. Pressure. Corsets, garters, tight boots, support from hips, etc. 

.49 Care of special parts of body. 

.5 Human Habitation and Resort. 

For Heating, see 697; Ventilation, 628.8; House drainage, 628.6; Sanitation o 

towns, 628.4; Industrial sanitation, 628.3. 
These subjects, partly Public and partly Private Hygiene, ar (or convenient r 

groupt together here. 








Schools. Colleges. See School hygiene, 371-7 


Churches, Theaters, Halls, etc. 


Hospitals. Asylums. 


Prisons. Reformatories. 



House Furnishing. 

1, Bed and Bedding. 

a. Curtains. Tapestries. 

3, Carpets. Rugs. Floors. 

4, Wall Paper. 

9, House Cleaning. 

.6 Hygiene of Employment. 

For Labor of chil Iren, see 33 1.3 ; Mining darners and Fvcidents, 622.8; see also 
Laboring classes, 331.8; Industrial sanita 1 >n, 628.5; Nuisances, 614.7. 

.61 Over-hours. Over-work. 

Occupations made Injurious. 

.62 By Inhalation ot Vapors and Gases. 

Bleachers, match-makers, lard refiners, etc. 
.63 By Inhalation of Dust or by Absorption. 

Grinders, stone-cutters, millers, wool operativs, hair pickers, 
type founders, grocers, etc. 
.64 By Elevated, Low, or Variable Temperature. 

Bakers, forgemen, mariners, fishermen, farmers, laborers, etc. 
65 By Over-use of certain Organs. By Constrained Attitude and 

Sedentary Life. 

Engravers, public speakers, copyists, printers, salesmen, clerks, 
literary men, etc. See also Mental hygiene, 13 1.3 
.66 By Accidents. See Public health, 614.8, Protection from accidents. 

Machinists, quarrymen, caisson-workers, manufacturers of ex- 
plosivs, etc. 

.67 Military Hygiene. Barracks, Camp and Tent Life. 

.68 Naval Hygiene. Ship Life. 

.69 Hygiene of Travel and Exploration. 


Hygiene of Recreation and Sleep. 

Gymnastics. See also 371.73. School Hygiene, Care of Body 

For Curativ gymnastics, see 615.8a, Massage. 
Athletics and other Muscular Exercise. 

See also 796, Out-door sports. 
Training and Overstrain. See also 371.75. Championship game*. 
Amusement or Play. 

See also 796, Out-door sports, and 371.74, Recreations. 

Some subjects more properly placed in Public Health, ar groupt here by 


Vacations. See also 371.33, School Vacations. 
Holidays. See also 371.23, School Holidays. 

Rest and Sleep. Late Hours. See 613.86, Insomnia. 
Hygiene of Nervous System. 

Including the action of Stimulants and Narcotics. See also 615.78, Drugs 
acting on Nervous System; 615.95, Neurotic Poisons. 
For Mental overwork, see 131336 Mental hygiene. Sre a1s> 17S Temperance 
Alcohol. See also Temperance, 178; Beverages, 613.3; Inspection of I<ever 

ages, 614.34. 
Opium and Hashish. See also 178.8. 
Chloral and Caffeine. See also 178.8. 

Tobacco. See also 178.7. 

Other Narcotics. 

Insomnia. See also 613.79, Rest and Sleep. 

Morbid Habits. Bad Social Customs. See also Social Ethics, 177; 

Late Hours, 613.79. 
Luxury. Privation. 

See also Fasting; Famine; Starvation, 613.24 
Celibacy. Monogamy. Polygamy. 

See also Polygamy and Monogamy, 173.2; Sexual Ethics, 176; Ceitbacy 01 

Clergy, 25,5 ; Asceticism, 248. 

Hygiene of Offspring. Heredity. 

See also Heredity, 575.1. 
Congenital Defects of Body. 

See also Monstrosities, 573.9; and Orthopaedic Surgery, 617.3. 

Inherited Mental Disability. 

See also 131 Mental physiology and hygiene, 133 Mental derangements, 136.3 

Mental hereditv 

Transmitted Disease. 

See also special diseases in 616. 
Stirpiculture. Eugenics, 

medicin: public helth 

614 Public helth 

Public hygiene Public sanitation State medicin Preventiv medicin 
See also 628, Sanitary engineering; 352.4 Boards of helth 

.02 Compends .03 Dictionaries, cyclopedias .04 Essays .05 Periodicals .06 So- 
cieties, conventions .07 Education .078 Sanitary appliances .08 Collections .00 His- 
tory, description, legislation, reports, etc. Divided like 930-999, e. g. 614.0542 
Public helth in England 

.1 Registration and vital statistics Sec also 312 Population 
. 1 1 Births and birth rates Divided uke 930-999 

. 1 2 Deths and deth rates 

Divided geograficly like 930-999, e. g. Deth rate in England, 614.1242 

.13 Mortality at different ages 

For life insurance, life tables, biometry, etc. see Life insurance, *68.j 
and Life contingencies, 5i9 S; Longevity, 613.68 

.131 Stillbirths 

.132 Infant mortality 

.133 Mortality in childhood 

.134 " ■ adult life 

.135 " " old age 

.14 Mortality of sexes, races, etc. 

.141 " " the sexes 



.144 " " races: colored, white, Indian, etc. 

.145 " " city and country 

.146 " " different occupations See also 613.6 

.147 " from special diseases Causes of deth 

.15 Morbidity 


. 1 7 Marriage 

,l8 Divorce See also 173- 1 Family ethics 

.2 State control of medicin 

.21 Medical education and degrees See 610.7; 378.2 Acade-nic degrees 

.22 Anatomy and vivisection laws See 179.4 Ethics 

.23 Expert testimony and other medico-legal relations 

See 340.6 Medical jurisprudence 

.24 Registration of physicians, dentists, pharmacists, etc. 

License to practis 
.25 Regulation of medical practis 

See 174-2 Professional ethics, physicians 

.26 Quackery and malpractis 

.27 Nostrums and patent medicins See auo 614.353 Adulterations 

.28 Sale of poisons See 615.9 Toxicology 

.29 Medical police 


614.3 Adulterations: inspection of articles liable to affect public 
helth Pure food laws 

Public analysts State laboratories For cbemic analysis see 543 

.3 I Inspection of food For chemic analysis see 543-1; Hygiene 613. 1 

.311 Sugars Sirups Confectionery 

.312 Cereals Starches Bred 

.313 Lards FatS Oils See 614.335-6 Butter, oleomargarln 

.314 Spices Condiments 

.3 1 5 Yeast Baking powders Cream of tartar 

.316 Fresh food Vegetables, fruits 

.317 Meats 'Fish (fresh) 

.318 Cand or prescrvd food Vegetables, fruits 

.319 Meat Fish Oysters (preservd) 

.32 Milk and milk products 

.321 Milk analysis See also chemistry, S43. 2; dairy, 637. 1377 

.322 Milk of known purity 

.323 Milk sold to consumer 

.324 Cream Skimd milk Condenst milk Buttermilk Kumis" 

.325 Butter and its imitations 

.326 Oleomargarin 

.327 Cheese and its imitations 

,33 Other articles of food 

.34 Inspection of beverages 

For chemic analysis see 543-1; hygiene, 613.3 

.341 Fermented 

.342 Wine 

.343 Brewd 

•344 Beer 

.345 Distild 

.346 Fruit drinks: lemonade, shrub, etc. 

.347 Tea CoHEee Chocolate Coco See also 613.37. Hygiene 

.348 Mineral waters Soda water 

See also 613.38, Hygiene; 615.79 Therapeutics 

.349 Mixt drinks 

.35 Inspection Of drugs For chemic analysis see 543-4 

.351 Officinal or pharmacopeial drugs 

.352 Nonofficinal drugs 

.353 Empiric or patent medicins see also 614 37 state control 

.354 Cosmetics 

.355 Poisonous cosmetics 

.36 Inspection of tobacco 

.37 Inspection of pigments, wall and other papers, textil 

fabrics, toys, etc. 

.4 Contagious and infectious diseases: general 

.41 Causes and origin 

See 585.95 B icteria. microbes; 6i6.or Germ theory of disease 

.42 Geografic distribution Climatology 

Divided like 930-999 

.43 Modes of propagation and communication 

medicin: public helth 

614.44 Prevention and restriction See also Ambulances. 6*488* 

.45 Isolation, lazarettos, etc. 

.46 Quarantine, etc. 

.461 Maritime and aeronautic quarantine 

.463 Inland quarantine 

.463 Control of rags, etc. 

.47 Protectiv inoculation 

•471 Against smallpox See also 616.9". Pathology 

•472 Variolation 

473 Vaccination 

1 Bovine vaccination 

2 Humanized vaccination 

3 Vaccinal syphilis 

4 Revaccination 

5 Vaccinisation 

6 Revaccinisation 

7 Retrovaccination 

8 Compulsory vaccination 

9 Optional vaccination 
.474 Antivaccination 

, 475 Against cholera See also 616.932, Pathology 

476 11 yellow fever See also 616.928 Pathology 

.477 " hydrophobia Pasteurism 

See also 616.953 Pathology 

.478 Against other diseases 

Divided like 616 

.48 Disinfection 

Houses, clothing, rags, workshops, cars, ships, camps, air, soil, persons, 
sewers, vaults, excreta. Ded, see 614.64 Embalming, etc. 

.481 Fumigating and other apparatus 

1 Stationary 

2 Portable 

.482 Disinfectants Antiseptics Deodorizers 

Treated with reference to public helth. See also Materia medlca 

6IS.777 and 615.778 
.483 Heat 
.484 Chemic disinfectants 

.485 Carbolic 
.486 Salicylic 
.487 Chlorids 
.488 Copperas 
.49 Epidemics Plagues 

Divided like 930-999 

.5 Contagious and infectious diseases: special 

These heds are for public helth discussions only. For treatment, etc. 1M 
Pathology, 616 

.51 Filth diseases 

.511 Typhoid or enteric tever 

512 Diftheria 

.513 Diarrheal diseases 

.514 Cholera 

.515 Cholera-infantum 

.516 Dysenter 

.517 Diarrhea 


614.52 Exanthemata 

.521 Smallpox 

.522 Scarlet fever 

.523 Measles 

.524 Rbtheln, rubella, rubeola 

.525 Chickenpox 

.526 Typhus 

.53 Malarial fevers 

.531 Intermittent fever 

.532 Remittent fever 

.54 Other contagious and infectious diseases 

.541 Yellow fever 

.542 Phthisis Tuberculosis 

•543 Whooping cough 

.544 Mumps 

.545 Puerperal fever see also 618.7a 

.546 Leprosy 

.547 Syphilis 

.548 Gonorrhea 

.55 Parasitic diseases 

See also 616.06 Pathology 

.56 Diseases communicated from lower animals 

.561 Anthrax Charbon 

.562 Trichiniasis 

.563 Hydrophobia 

.564 Glanders 

.6 Disposal of the ded 

See customs, 39J Treatment of the ded 

.61 Burial 

.611 Earth burial 

.612 Tomb burial 

.613 Burials in churches Intramural 

.614 Use of coffins 

.62 Cremation Crematories 

.63 Transportation of the ded 

.64 Embalming and disinfection of the ded Use of ice 

See 614.48 Disinfection; 615. 777 Disinfectants 

.65 Effect of cemeteries on helth 

.651 By water pollution 

.652 " air • 

.68 Morgues 

medicin: public helth 

614.7 Hygiene of the air and ground Nuisances 

See 613. 1 Air (Hygiene) ; 613.6 Hygiene of employment; 628.5 Industrial sanitation 

.71 Air pollution by dust and smoke [works 

.72 Air pollution by noxious gases, mineral trades, chemic 

.721 Carbon compounds 

.722 Carbonic oxid, carbonic acid, carburctted hydrogeii 

.723 Illuminating gases Gas works 

.724 Mineral oil refining 

.725 Sulfur compounds 

.726 Chlorin " 

.727 Nitrogen " 

.728 Phosphorus " 

.729 Other 

.73 Air pollution by vegetable trades 

.731 Brewing 

.732 Distilling 

•733 Vinegar making 

.734 Sugar refining 

.735 Charcoal burning 

.736 Varnish making 

.74 Air pollution by animal trades 

.741 Slaughterhouses Abattoirs Fish 

.742 Rendering works Boneboiling Tripe and gut cleaning 

.743 Pork packing Lard refining 

.744 Soap making 

.745 Tanning 

.746 Glue making 

.747 Lampblack 

.748 Commercial fertilizers 

.75 Storage and handling of noxious and offensiv materials 

.76 Ocher air pollutions See 628 Sanitary engineering 

.761 Stables Stable manure 

.762 Hog stys 

.763 Offal Ded and diseased animals and fish 

.764 Vaults Cesspools Water closets, privies, urinals, night ioil 

.765 Sewers and sewer outlets Sewer gas 

.77 Conditions of soil as affecting helth 

Topografy Sanitary Surveys 

.771 Analysis Of SOils See S43.7 Chemistry 

.772 Soil moisture 

Hygiene of natural water courses and of marshes. See 613.14 Hygiene 

773 Ground atmosphere See 613. 14 Hygiene 

.774 Solid constituents of soil 

.775 Malarious Soils See 613.14 Hygiene . 

.776 Recovery of soils from pollution 


614.78 Air and ground in towns 

.781 Laying out of towns and streets 

.782 Subways and elevated ways See 628.47 sanitation of town* 

.783 Parks Air spaces 

.784 Hight of bildings and proportion of occupiable area 

See 614.85 Bilding laws 

.8 Protection of human life from accidents, casualties, etc. 

Safety appliances 

See 613.66 Hygiene of employment 

.81 Drowning 

.811 Rescue of the drowning 

.812 Resuscitation of the drownd First help Pulmotors 

.82 Suffocation 

By gases, in vaults, mines, etc,; see also 622.8 Mining dangers. By illumlnat 

ing gases 

.83 Explosions Machinery inspection 

.831 Manufacture, storage and transport of explosivs and 

, See also 662 Chemic technology 

.832 Gunpowder 

.833 Dynamite, etc. 

.834 Inspection of kerosene, etc. 

.835 " of illuminating gas 

.836 * of electric apparatus 

.837 " of steam boilers 

.838 " of machinery 

.84 Fires 

.841 Fire prevention 

.842 " detection 

.843 " extinction See 352.3 Fire department 

.844 Automatic 

.84 s Chemic extinguishers 

.846 Fire engins Water towers See 621.68 Pumping engine 

.847 Fire escapes and other apparatus 

.848 " exits, etc from public bildings 

.85 Industrial safety Bilding laws and inspection 

See 614.784 Hight of bildings 

.86 Protection of travelers 

.861 Travel on land 

.862 " " highways 

863 " " railroads 

.864 " " water 

865 Lighthouses, buoys, etc. 

.866 Pilots 

.867 Boats, life preservers, etc. 

.868 Rescue of shipwreckt Lifesaving servis 

.87 Accidents under other special conditions 

Exposure to cold. Hospice of St. Bernard, ski safety, etc. 

.88 Aid to injured 

.881 Ambulance 

.882 Ambulance for contagious diseases s««aUo 614.44 

.883 Bed wagon 

medicin: therapeutics 

614.9 Hygiene of animals Veterinary sanitation 

.91 Infectious diseases of domestic animals 

.92 Parasites Of animals See 591-69 Economic zoology 

.93 Animal diseases communicable to man See also 614. a 

.94 Care and housing of animals 

.95 Feeding of animals 

.96 Transportation of animals 

.97 Methods of slaughtering 

.971 Painless extinction of animal life 

615 Materia medica and therapeutics 

.02 Compends .OS Pharmaceutic journals .06 Pharmaceutic societies 
.07 Education, schools of pharmacy .09 History 

.1 Materia medica Drugs Pharmacology 

For examining boards, laws, etc. see 614.24 Registration of pharma i ts. See 
also 614.35 Adulteration of drugs; 543-4 Chemic analysis 

. 1 1 Pharmacopoeias 

. 1 2 Dispensatories 

.13 Formularies 

.14 Prescription writing Posology 

.2 Inorganic and synthetic drugs 

Include here synthetic drugs clast according to most imp >rtant inorganic 

Divided like 546., e.g. 615.218 Phosphorus; 615.258 Mercury; 615.272 Iron. 
See also note to 615.7 

.3 Organic drugs 

See also note to 615.7 
.3 1 Carbon Compounds Divided chemicly like 547 

.32 Vegetable products Divided botanicly like 580 

.33 Organic products Divided by caracter 

1 Starches 2 Sugar 3 Glucosids 4 Tannins 5 Gums 6 Drug 

containing alkaloids 7 Bitters 8 Organic acids 

.^4 Fixt oils and acids 

.35 Ferments: diastase, pepsin, etc. 

.36 Organotherapy 

.37 Serotherapy Immunology 

Opsonic theory; see also physiology, 612.118223 
Vaccine therapy; see also public helth, 614.473 Vaccination 
.39 Animal products Divided zoologically like 590 

.4 Practical pharmacy 

.5 Therapeutics Action of medicins in general 

.51 Certainty of medicins 

.52 Antagonism of medicins 

.53 Law of similars Homeopathy 

Homeopathic works ar clast with the subjects treated. This hed is for 
Hahnemann's theory only 

.54 Influence of age 

Infant therapeutics Therapeutics of old age 

.55 Influence of sex 

.56 Influence of environment 

.57 Influence of idiosyncrasy 


615.6 Administration of medicins 

.61 By stomach 

.62 " rectum 

.63 " subcutaneous tissue Hypodermic medication 

.64 8 lungS Inhalation See also 612.38s Absorption 

.65 8 veins Transfusion of blood 

.66 " serous and mucous membranes Peritoneum, vagina, etc. 

See also 612.387 Absorption 

.67 8 skin Baths 

See also physiology 612.384 

.7 Medicins groupt by effects 

Treatises on specific drugs, digitalis, ergot, etc. ar cla^t ir> tb" iflvWn - mate : 
medica, 61S.2-.3: e.g. iron, 61s. 272: digitalis, 615.32381. But discussions uf 
drug in relation to a specific type of effect may be clast with that effect: e.g. Li. 
talis as a circulatory stimulant 6is.7H 

.71 Drugs acting on circulatory system 

.711 Stimulants 

Alcohol, ammonia, digitalis, coffee, ergot 

.716 Depressants 

Aconite, veratrum group, nitrites 

.72 Drugs acting on respiratory system 

.721 Expectorants 

.726 Errhines Sneezing 

.73 Drugs acting on digestiv system 

.731 Emetics 

Ipecac, mustard, metallic salts, apomorphin 

.732 Cathartics 

1 Laxativs 2 Salines 3 Purgativs 4 Hydragog9 5 Drastici 

6 Mercurials 

.733 Anthelmintics 
.734 Aids to digestion 

1 Bitters, tonics 2 Ferments, pepsin, pancreatin, etc. 3 Acida 


.735 Demulcents, emollients, etc. 

Bismuth, oxalate of cerium, etc. 

.74 Drugs acting on glandular system 

.741 Sialagogs (Saliva) 

.742 Cholagogs (Bile) 

.743 Diaphoretics (Perspiration) 

Pilocarpin, heat, exercize 

.75 Antipyretics Antiperiodics 

Quinin, salicylates, coal-tar products, kairin, antipyrin, antifebrin, cold, 
baths. See also 613.41 Baths 

.76 Drugs acting on geni to-urinary system 

.761 Diuretics 

Water, citrates, acetates, digitalis, caffein, copaiba 

.766 Uterins Oxytocics 

Viburnum, ergot, etc. 

medicin: therapeutics 


External agencies 








Epispastics Blisters 


Escharotics Caustic potassa 


Protectiv Emollient 

Pats, oils, powders, 6tarch, bismuth, oxid of zinc 


T^/a^/l nro trf"c T11 ctn T£»r»T a v\ t-o 

See 614.48 Disinfection; 614.64 Disinfection of ded 


Antiseptics Germicides 


DrUgS acting On nerVOUS System See also 6is.9S Neurotic poifon» 


Anesthetics Chloroform, ether 


Hypnotics Chloral, bromids 


Analgesics Opium 


Mydriatics Belladonna 


"p^Ypitanfc Strychnin 


uepressants ionium 



utner drugs 

Camfor, valerian, asafetida 


Mineral Waters See also 613-38 Hygiene; SS3.7 Occurrence in nature 


Other remedies 


Mechanical remedies 


Bloodletting Venesection Cupping 


Setons and issues 


"RQTlH^ CPC T .1 (73 "t~11 TPC 




Pneumatic aspiration 


Manipulation Exercise 

Massage, osteopathy, curativ gymnastics. See also hygiene, 613.71 Gym- 



Imponderable remedies 


Light Blue glass 


J. tlJlUll d L Lll C . llCct I , LU1U 

Q ~ ~ 



l^llIIldUti ^ ee also 01 3. 1 1 Hygiene 


Decrease of oxygen and increase of nitrogen with Increasing elevation 


Pneumatic differentiation 




Electricity Electrotherapeutics Radiotherapy 

See alio 537.87 and 631.3915 
















Mind cure Influence of mind on body 

Mental condition as affecting disease; occupation as remedy. 
See also 131.32 Mental helth 

Faith cure Christian science See 2 6s.s Religion 

See also state control of medicin, 614.24; Christian 3cienje theolo. 

230.9s; sects 280.5 

Hydrotherapy Water cure 
Food cures: grapes, milk, beef, etc. 
Thomsonianism Herb doctors 
Perkinism Metallic tractors 

Patent medicins 

Ancient and medieval remedies 

Including those of modern uncivilized peoples 

Toxicology Poisons 

For other relations see Poisons, in Relativ index following Tables 

Irritant poisons 
Mineral irritants 
Acid poisons 
Alkalin poisons 
Nonmetallic poisons 

Phosphorus See also 615.218 Drugs 
Metallic poisons 

Arsenic See also 615.219 Drugc 
Mercury See also 615.258 Drugs 

Led For painters colic see 717.97 See also 615.251 Drugr 
Copper Se< = also 615.256 Drugs 

Vegetable irritants 

Hellebore, aloes, croton oil, etc. 

Animal poisons 

Cantharides, diseased meat, ptomains, tyrotoxlcon, etc. 

Neurotic poisons 

See also 615.78 Drugs acting on nervous system 
Cerebral Or narcotic poisons Carbonic oxid and acid 
Prussic acid 

Chloral hydrate 

Spinal poisons 

Nux vomica, strychnia 

Cerebrospinal poisons 

Aconite, belladonna, lobelia 

Cerebrocardiac poisons 

Digitalis, tobacco 

medicin: diseases 

616 Pathology Diseases Treatment 

May be subdivided by o like 610, if wisht. Use 6i6.or for etiology, germ theory, 
bacteriology, classification of diseases. Use 616.075 for diagnosis, study of disease, 
and subdivide it as follows: 1 Pulse 2 Tung 3 Eye, s' in, etc, 4 Aus- 
cultation, percussion 5 Thermometry 6 Chemistry, urin analysis 7 Mi- 
croscopy, radioscopy, etc. 8 Pathologic anatomy 9 Postmortem examination 

.1 Diseases of circulatory system 

.11 Membranes of the hart 

.12 Hart Angina pectoris 

,13 Arteries 

.14 Veins 

.15 Blood 

.2 Diseases of respiratory system 

.201 Croup 

.202 Hay asthma, hay fever 

.203 Influenza, epidemic catarrh 

.204 Whooping COUgh See also 614.543 

.205 Coryza, catarrh 

.206 Asphyxia 

.21 Nose Naso-pharyngeal space 

.22 Larynx 

.23 Trachea Bronchi Bronchitis Asthma 

.24 Lungs 

.241 Pneumonia, lung fever 

.242 Congestion 

.243 Hemorrhage 

.244 Abscess 

.245 Gangrene 

.246 Phthisis, tuberculosis, consumption See also 614.54* 

.247 Embolism and aneurism of pulmonary artery 

.248 Emphysema 

.249 Collapse 

.25 Pleura Pleurisy 

.3 Diseases of the digestiv system 

For diseases of teeth see 617.6 

.31 Mouth: tung, fauces Sore throat, quinsy, mumps 

See also 614.544 

.32 Pharynx Esophagus 

•33 Stomach Gastritis, dyspepsia, vomiting 

.34 Intestins Hernia, diarrhea, constipation, colic 

.35 Rectum Anus Piles 

.36 Liver Gall bladder Jaundis 

.37 Pancreas 

.38 Peritoneum Omentum Mesentery Peritonitis 

.39 Dietetic diseases 

Surfit, starvation, scurvy, dyspepsia 


616.4 Diseases of lymfatic system and ductless glands 

.41 Spleen 

.42 Lymf a tics : thoracic duct 

.43 Thymus 

.44 Thyroid body Goiter, Graves disease 

.45 Suprarenal bodies 

.5 Dermatology Skin diseases 

.51 Inflammatory affections 

Diffuse, papular, scaly, nettlerash, hives 

.52 Catarrhal, vesicular, pustular Eczema, shingles 

See also 614.561 

.53 Disorders of sebaceous glands 

.54 Hypertrofies Atrofies 

Corns, warts, white hair, baldness 

.55 New formations Pigmentary changes 

Albinism, freckles 

.56 Disorders of swet glands 

■ 57 Parasitic diseases See 616.96 Parasitic disease* 

.58 Other skin diseases 

Chilblain, frostbite, chaps 

.6 Diseases of genito-urinary system 

For diseases of women, see 618 

.61 Kidneys Ducts Bright's disease 

.62 Bladder Calculus 

.63 Urinary disorders Diabetes 

.64 Male urethra 

.65 Prostate 

.66 Penis 

.67 Scrotum 

.68 Spermatic cord Testes 

.69 Functional diseases of male generativ organs Sper- 
matorrhea, impotence 

.7 Diseases of organs of locomotion 

.71 Bones (except spine) 

.72 Joints (except spine) 

.73 Spine Curvature 

.74 Muscles 

.75 Tendons Fascias 

.76 Bursae Sheaths of tendons 

.77 Connectiv tissue 

.8 Diseases of nervous sistem Psychiatry 

See also 132 Abnormal psychology 

.81 Diseases relating to cerebrospinal circulation Apoplexy 

.82 Diseases relating to cerebrospinal meninges 

.83 Structural diseases of brain and cord 

medicin: diseases 

616.84 Functional diseases of brain and cord 

.841 Vertigo 

.842 Paralysis 

.843 Neurasthenia Cronic nervous exhaustion 

.844 Spinal irritation 

.845 Eclampsia, COlivulsionS See also obstetrics 618.75 

.85 Neuroses Psychoneuroses 

.851 Chorea 

St Vitus dance, Huntington's chorea 

.852 Hysteria 

Shel shock, etc. See also 132.3 

Hypochondria, 132.4 Catalepsy, 
135. 5 Somnambulism 

2 Psychasthenia Obsessional or anxiety neurosis 

Obsessions, phobias 

3 Dissociation of personality 

32 Depersonalization 

33 Alteration or transformation of personality 

34 Fragmentary personality 

Dual, secondary, alternating and multiple personalities 

35 Fugues 

.853 Epilepsy Narcolepsy 

See also 616.898125 Alcoholic epilepsy 

.854 Tetanus Lockjaw 

.855 Aphasia Alexia Amusia Agraphia Apraxia etc 

.856 Anesthesia Hyperesthesia Hypesthesia Paresthesia 

.857 Megrim Sick hedake 

.86 Neuroses due to special poisons 

.861 Alcoholism 

See also 132.72 Dipsomania, 
616.80812 Alcoholic dementia 

.862 Metallic tremor 

.87 Diseases of nervs Neuralgia, cramp 

.88 Diseases of simpathetic sistem 

.89 Special psychoses and syndromes 

.892 General paralysis of insane Dementia paralytica 

.893 Confusional insanity 

Mental confusion: acute and primitiv. Delirium: acute, febri' 
collapse, etc. Acute organic reaction types 

1 Pathologic intoxication (mania a potu) 

2 Delirium tremens 

3 Abstinence delirium 

4 Traumatic " : immediate, protracted 

5 Exhaustion " Exhaustion psychosis 

6 Acute hallucinosis 

7 " pseudoparanoia 

8 Korsakow's psychosis 

9 Other 


616.895 Manic-depressiv insanity 

General unsistematized delusions; affectiv reaction types 

1 Manic type: mania, expansiv psychosis; euphoria 

12 Hypomania 14 Delirious mania 

13 Acute mania 15 Cronic " 

3 Alternating, periodic or circular type 

Circular insanity (folic circulaire) ; insanity of double form; 
cyclothymia, variability of mood 

4 Depressiv type 

Dcpressiv psychosis, pathologic sadness and grief, hypochondria, 

melancholia. See also 132.3 

42 Simple retardation 

43 Acute depression 

5 Stuporous type Depressiv stupor 

6 Mixt type 

62 Manic stupor 65 Depressiv mania 

63 Agitated depression 66 Depression with flight 

64 Unproductiv mania of ideas 

67 Akinetic mania 

7 Involution melancholia 

See also 132.35 Melancholia 

.897 Paranoid reaction types 

Partial, sistematized; unopposed, polymorfic diffused delusions; 
delusional insanity 

2 Paranoia 

22 Original 25 Latent 

23 Acquired 26 Paranoia querulans Querulous 

24 Abortiv paranoia 

3 Paraphrenia 

32 Sistematic 34 Confabulatory 

33 Expansiv 35 Fantastic 

4 Paranoid states Paranoid constitution 


.898 Dementia 

Cronic organic reaction types 

i Acute or furious dementia Primary dementia 

12 Alcoholic dementia 

See also 616.861 Alcoholism 

122 Alcoholic deterioration 

123 Cronic alcoholism 

124 Alcoholic pseudoparesis 

125 " epilepsy 

See also 616.833 Epilepsy 

126 Cronic hallucinosis 

13 Traumatic dementia 

132 Traumatic constitution 

Vasomotor neurosis, explosiv diathesis 

133 Post-traumatic mental enfeeblement 

medicin: diseases 

616.8982 Dementia precox and schizophrenic reaction types 

Neuroepithelial dementia, discordant insanity, secondary or 
terminal dementia. See also 616.895 Manic-depressiv insanity 

22 Simple type Schizophrenia simplex 

23 Katatonic type Katatonia Katatonic dementia 

24 Hebephrenic type Hebephrenia Hebephrenic 

25 Paranoid type Paranoid dementia 

See also 616.897 Paranoid reaction types 

26 Mixt type 

3 Senile dementia 

31 Simple senile 36 Deprest end agitated type 
deterioration 37 Senile and cronic pseudo- 

32 Presenile dementia paranoid type 

33 Senile delirium 38 Arteriosclerotic type 

Delirious and con- 382 Post-paralytic dementia 

fused types ^ Post . apoplectic « 

34 Presbyophrenia 39 Qther 

35 Alzheimer's disease 

.9 General diseases 

.91 Infectious diseases 

.911 Eruptiv fevers 

.912 Small pOX See also 614.471 and 614.521 

.913 Cowpox , 

.914 ChickenpOX See also 614.52S 

.915 Measles See also 614-523 

.916 Rubella, rubeola, rbtheln See also 614.524 

.917 Scarlet fever, scarlatina see also 614.522 

.92 Other fevers General works on fevers 

See also 612.57 Animal heat 

.921 Dengue, breakbone fever 

.922 Typhus See also 614 526 

.923 Plague 

.924 Relapsing fever, famin fever 

.925 Cerebrospinal fever 

.926 Simple continued fever 

.927 Enteric fever, typhoid fever 

.928 Yellow fever See also 614-476 and 614.541 

.93 Diftheria Cholera Malarial fever 

.931 Diftheria See also 614.512 

.932 Asiatic Cholera See also 6i4 47S and 614.514 

.933 Sporadic cholera 

.934 Epidemic diarrhea See also 614.517 

.935 Dysentery See also 614.516 

.936 Malarial fever See also 614.53 


6.94 Septic diseases 

.941 Phagedena 

.942 Erysipelas 

.943 Pyemia 

.944 Septicemia 

.95 Venereal diseases Hydrophobia, etc 

.951 Syphilis See also 614.547 

.952 Gonorrhea See also 614.54s 

.953 Hydrophobia See also 614.477 and 614-563 

.954 Glanders See also 614.564 

.955 Horsepox 

.956 Splenic fever 

.96 Parasitic diseases See also 614.55 Public helth 

.961 Animal parasites 

See 501.69 Economic zoology; 614.92 Parasites of animals 

.962 Entozoa 

.963 Trematoda, flukes 

.964 Cestoda, tapeworms 

.965 Nematoda Round worms, thredworms, etc 

.966 Acanthocephala, thornheded worms 

.967 Insecta parasitica Maggots 

.968 Ectozoa 

1 Insecta parasitica: mosquitoes, gnats, bedbugs, fleas, nee 

5 Arachnida parasitica: mites, tick? 

8 Suctoria parasitica, leeches 

.969 Vegetable parasites See 581.69 Economic botany 

.97 Effects Of poisons See 615 9 toxicology 

.98 Effects of injuries and climate 

.981 Presence of foren bodies 

.982 Mechanical injuries 

.983 Excessiv exertion and strain 

.984 Excessiv venery 

.985 Privation 

.986 Exhaustion 

.987 Chemic agents 

.988 Climate 

.99 Other general diseases 

.991 Rheumatism, rheumatic fever Gout 

.992 Tumors 

.993 Nonmalignant: cysts, wens 

.994 Malignant: cancer 

.995 Tubercle 

.996 Scrofula Rickets 

.997 Myxedema Cretinism 

.Q98 Leprosy See also 614.546 

medicin: surgery 

617 Surgery 

May be subdivided by like 610, if wiiht 

.1 Injuries 

. 1 1 Burns and scalds 

. 1 2 Lightning and electric shock 

.13 Contusions and abrasions 

.14 Wounds 

.141 Incised 

.142 Contused 

.143 Lacerated 

.144 Punctured 

.145 Gunshot See 617.99 Military surgery 

.146 With lodgment of foren bodies 

.147 With complete separation of parts 

.148 Poisond See 615.9 Toxicology 

. 1 5 Fractures 

.16 Dislocations 

. 1 7 Sprains 

.18 Asphyxia 

.2 Results of injuries 

Constitutional effects and other complications . Sea also 616.94 Septic diseases 

.21 Shock 

.22 Inflammation 

.23 Abscess Sinus Fistula 

.24 Ulcers Sores 

.25 Mortification Gangrene 

.26 Traumatic fever 

.27 TetanUS See also 616.854 

.3 Orthopedic surgery Deformities 

For convenience the whole subject of deformities is clast here, tho many 01 them 
hav no surgical treatment. See also 573.8 Dwarfs and giants; 573.9 Monstrosi- 
ties; 6x1. 013 Teratology; 613.91 Congenital defects 

.3 1 Incomplete development or growth 

Divided like 6 1 1 Anatomy 

.32 Incomplete coalescence of parts: harelip 

.33 Coalescence of parts 

.'34 Extension of commissure (Apparent duplication) 

.35 Coalescence of fetuses Siamese twins 

.36 Supernumerary parts or organs: extra fingers or toes 

.37 Disproportionate growth of parts 

.38 Transposition or displacement of parts 

.39 Congenital distortions, including talipes, club foot 


617.4 Surgical operations 

.41 Circulatory system 

.42 Respiratory system 

.43 Digestiv system 

.44 Glandular and lymfatic system 

.46 Genito-urinary system 

.47 Motor and integumentary system 

.48 Nervous system 

.5 Regional surgery 

.51 Hed Trephining 

.52 Face Mouth See 617.6, Dentistry; 617.7, Eye; 617.8, Uv 

.53 Neck Throat 

.54 Chest 

.55 Abdomen 

.56 Pelvis 

.57 Upper extremities Artificial arms, hands, etc. 

.58 Lower extremities Artificial legs, feet, etc. 

.6 Dentistry Diseases of teeth 

.61 Diseases of dental pulp 

.62 Diseases of dentin and cementum 

.63 Diseases of dental periosteum 

.64 Malposition and malformation of teeth 

.65 Odontalgia, toothake 

.66 Extraction of teeth 

.67 Stopping teeth 

.68 Transplanting teeth 

.69 Artificial teeth 

.7 Ophthalmic surgery Diseases of the eye 

.71 Conjunctiva Cornea Sclerotic Ophthalmia 

.72 Iris Choroid Ciliary body 

.73 Optic nerv Retina 

.74 Lens and its capsule Vitreous humor Affections of 

the globe Cataract 

.75 Disorders of vision 

Myopia, shortsightedness, astigmatism, colorblindness, daltonism. See also 
physiology, 612.845 

.76 Muscular apparatus Lacrimal apparatus 

Strabismus, squint 

.77 Eyelids 

.78 Orbit and neighboring parts 

.79 Artificial eyes 

medicin: surgery 


















Diseases of the ear 

Affections of external ear 

Auditory canal 
Affections of middle ear 

Membrana tympani 

Eustachian tubes 

Mastoid cells 
Affections of internal ear 

Operativ surgery 

See 615.781 Anesthetics 

Armamentaria Surgical instruments 
Orthopedic appliances Splints, trusses, etc. 

See 617.3 Orthopedic surgery 

Surgical dressings 
Amputation Resection 
Plastic surgery 

Military surgery 

Diseases of women and children 

Gynecology Diseases of women 


Fallopian tube 
Periuterin diseases 
Uterus and cervix 

Functional and symptomatic disorders 

Diseases of menstruation Leucorrnea Sterility 

Diseases of brest 


618.2 Obstetrics 

.21 Pregnancy Physiology 

.22 Diagnosis Signs of pregnancy 

.23 Duration 

.24 Hygiene Management 

.25 Multiple pregnancy : twins, etc. 

.3 Pathology of pregnancy 

Diseases of pregnancy and their treatment 

.31 Ectopic gestation Extra-uterin pregnancy 

.32 Pathology of ovum 

.33 Deth and retention of fetus 

.34 Pathology of fetal appendages 

.35 Decidua 

.36 Placenta 

.37 Amnion 

.38 Umbilic cord 

.39 Abortion Miscarriage Stillbirth Molar pregnancy 

See 173-4 Infanticide; 340.6 Medical jurisprudence; 343 Criminal law 

.4 Parturition Labor Physiology 

.41 Mechanism of labor 

.42 Presentations Positions 

.43 Clinic course and phenomena 

.44 Conduct of normal labor Management 

.5 Pathology of labor 

Abnormal labor from faults 

.51 of powers Anomalies of expellent forces 

.52 of passages Mechanical obstacles to expulsion of fetus 

.53 Of Child Abnormalities Of fetUS See 617 3 Deformities 


.54 Hemorrhage 

.55 Rupture or laceration of genital tract 

.56 Retention of placenta 

.57 Inversion of uterus 

.58 Prolapsus funis 

.59 Other complications 

medicin: gynecology 

618.6 Puerperal state Physiology 

Management, including care of child 

.7 Pathology of puerperal state Puerperal diseases 

.71 Diseases of lactation: milk fever, mastitis, etc. 

.72 Puerperal fever See 614.54s Public heith 

.73 Metritis Peritonitis See also 616.38 Cellulitis 

.74 Septicemia See also 616.944 Pyemia See also 616.943 

. 7 5 Convulsions See 616.845 Eclampsia 

.76 Puerperal mania See also 132.1951 Manic insanity 

.77 Phlebitis Venous thrombosis Phlegmasia dolens 

See 616.14 Diseases of veins 

.78 Other puerperal affections 

.79 Sudden deth after delivery 

.8 Obstetric operations 

8 1 Application of lever and forceps 

.82 Version 

.83 Embryotomy 

.84 Dilatation of os and cervix 

.85 Symphyseotomy 

.86 Cssarian section 

.87 Removal of placenta 

.88 Induction of labor Removal of ovum 

.89 Intra-uterin injections Antiseptics in midwifery 

.9 Diseases at special developmental periods 

.92 Pediatrics Diseases of children 

.97 Geriatrics " " old age 

619 Comparativ medicin Veterinary 

.1 Horses 

.2 Cattle 

.3 Sheep, goats 

.4 Swine 

.5 Poultry 

.6 Birds 

.7 Dogs 

.8 Cats 

.9 Other 


620 Engineering 

See also 690 Bilding; 731 Architectural construction 

620.1 Applied mechanics Engineering materials 

621 Mechanical engineering 

. 1 Steam engineering 

. 2 Hydraulic engins or motors 

.3 Electric engineering 

. 4 Heat, air and gas engins, etc. 

.5 Pneumatic machinery Refrigerating machines 

.6 Blowing and pumping engins 

. 7 Mills Factories Engineering works 

.8 Mill work Hoisting and conveying machinery 

. 9 Machine tools 

622 Mining engineering 

623 Military and naval engineering 
.8 Naval architecture 

624 Bridges and roofs 

62s Railroad and road engineering 

626 Canal engineering 

627 River, harbor and general hydraulic engineering 

625 Sanitary engineering 

629 Other engineering industries 

o 1 Statistics 

.02 Quantities and cost 

.03 Contracts and specifications 

.04 Designs and drawings 

.05 Executiv 

.06 Working and maintenance 

.07 Laws and regulations 

.08 Patents 

.09 Reports 

.1 Applied mechanics Engineering materials 

Class here general works on materials with reference to their fitness in engineer- 
ing See also 691 Bilding materials 

.11 Strength of materials General theory 

General works considering various materials. For particular i.iaterials see 
620. 1 2— . 1 9 Provision is made below for classing tests on 2 different bases: 
1) by character of test, 2) by material tested. Class under material rather 
than under test when the two conflict. See also note under 620.1:2 
For theory or mechanics of structures see 624; for theories of construction of 
bildings see 690. 1 

.111 General 

This hed is left for specialists wishing to analyze general works or collect 
clippings and notes too limited for . 11 yet not specific enough to be put 
with a particular test or material. Libraries are unlikely to need any 
genera! hed except 620.11 


•iia Tests Factors affecting strength 

Kinds of tests. Directions for making various tests, laboratory manuals 
See note to 620.11 
I General: influence of temperature, selection of test pieces, etc. 

a Corrosion Wcthcring Protection against deteriorating influences 

3 Elastic limit tests: plasticity, fatigue, deformation 

See also 620.11246 Repeated stress 
d Tension, compression, torsion, flexure, shearing 

Class here combined tests as well as general works covering these tests 
If wisht, subdivide farther as follows: 

41 Tensil tests 

42 Compression tests 

43 Torsion " 

44 Flexure (transverse) tests 

45 Shearing tests 

46 Repeated stress tests 

5 Impact Repeated shock tests 

Crystallization and formation of cleavage planes 

6 Hardness tests 

7 Special tests 

Varying for different materials 

8 Tests on special shapes and forms 
8a Plates and structural shapes 

Bars, rods, angles, beams: T, bulb, I, and channel beams 

83 Colums, bilt colums Tubes, pipes, cylinders 

84 Rollers Spheres, solid or hollow Ball bearings 

85 Springs 

86 Hooks Chains Hoops Rings 

87 Rivets Bolts Screws Nails 

Riveted joints of plates 

88 Wire Wire rope Cables Hawsers 

89 Other forms 

9 Other tests 

.12 Tests of timber See note to 620. ir 

.13 Stone Cement Concrete 

.132 Stone 

.135 Cement 

.136 Concrete 

.137 Reinforced concrete 

.139 Other: artificial stone 

.14 Brick, tile, glass, etc. 

See also 666.1 Manufacture of glass, 691.6 Glass as a bilding material 

.15 Masonry adhesivs 

Cement, mortar, plaster of paris, etc. See also bilding materials 691. 5 LimOt 
plaster, cement 

.17 Iron and steel 

.18 Other metals Uze as general number for metals 

.19 Other materials 

.195 Mineral: asbestos, mineral wool 

.196 Asphalt Tar 

.197 Vegetable: paper, hemp, etc. 

.198 Animal: hair, hide, bone, etc. 


.2 Compends Handbooks Kent, Trautwinc 

.3 Dictionaries, cyclopedias 

.4 Essays 

.5 Periodicals 

.6 Societies 

.7 Study and teaching Instruments 

.8 Tables and calculations 

.9 History of engineering 


621 Mechanical engineering 

May be subdivided like 630.0 and by form numbers 

.1 Steam engineering 

Subdivide like 620 and 620.0, but use 631. 101 as below. Other generalities ol 

steam engineering are in 62 1 . 1 1 and 62 1 . 1 8 
.101 Applied thermodynamics 

Theory and use of steam in steam engin General energy consideration; 
Steam economy 
1 General 

Expansion, entropy: extension of expansion approaching vacuum (con- 
densers) superheating, cylinder condensation, jacketing, etc. For 
condensers, superheaters, etc. see 6 2 1 . 197 

.11 Mechanism of steam engin Design of engin parts 
.111 General 

.112 Types of engins : structural 

Reciprocating engins in general. Types specified below are all recipro- 
cating, except 1 Primitiv and 9 Other 

1 Primitiv 

21 Single acting 

32 Double acting 

3 According to transmission of motion 

32 Direct connected 

33 Indirect: beam connected 

4 According to position 
42 Horizontal 

44 Vertical 

45 Oscillating 

46 Inclined 

5 According to terminal pressure 

52 Condensing 

In early period called 'low pressure* 

53 Noncondensing 

In early period called 'high pressure' 

6 According to expansion 
61 Single expansion 

63 Compound 

63 Double expansion: cross compound 

64 " " tandem " 

65 " " angle " 

66 Triple expansion 

67 Quadruple expansion 
9 Other types 

95 Steam turbins 

Better clast 621 . 165 

96 Rotary engins 

Better clast 62 1 . 166 

.12 Marine engins 

For propulsion see 623.8 Naval architecture 

121 General 

See also 6 2 1 . 1 1 and 621.18 

.122 Types of marine engins 

1 Primitiv 

Inventions of Papin, Perier, Fulton, Steven*, eM. 
a Beam and side lever engins 

4 Horizontal, inclined, vertical engins 

5 Oscillating 

8 Launch engins 

9 Other special engins 

.J23 Marine steam turbins 

See also 63 1 . 16} 


621.13 Locomotivs 

.131 Theory of the locomotiv 

1 Adhesion Tractiv force Horsepower 


j Tests 

.132 Types 

Variations modifying tractiv force and speed, and affecting more than 
1 class of mechanism. For variations in steam apparatus (oil burning 
locomotivs, etc.) see 621 . 133 and 621. 134 

1 Primitiv forms 


3 Types according to distribution of wheelbase and load 

Exprest by Whyte nomenclature for wheel combinations 


A Types according to purpose 

62 Freight or goods engins Hog engin 

63 Yard, switch or shunting engins 
65 Passenger engins 

67 Mountain " 

68 Mining " 

69 Other special locomotivs 

8 Peculiar types 

Combined 'engin and coach wagon' 

• Types in different countries 

Subdivided like 940-999; e.g. English locomotivs 631.13294a 

.1^3 Locomotiv boilers Production of steam 

Better clast in 621.18423, as boilers of locomotiv type serv many othes 
purposes For boiler management see 621 . 194 
I Combustion Fuels Petroleum Fuel consumption 

See also 621 . 18357 

• Grate and ashpit Firebox Stays 

See also 621 . 183s 
j Shell and tubes 

4 Smokebox and stack Spark arresters 

See also 621 . 1838 

5 Exhaust pipe 

6 Dome 

9 Miscellaneous fittings 

Gage cocks, safety valvs, whistles, pumps, injectors, etc. 

.134 Engin of the locomotiv 

X Driving mechanism Cylinders, pistons, rods 

a Steam distribution Valvs and valv gears 

33 Special types of valvs and valv gear 

4 Compound principle 

Distribution in compound locomotivs 

5 Lubrication of locomotiv 

9 Other parts of locomotiv: throttle, etc. 

.135 Running gear 
.136 Tenders 

1 Design, weight, brakes, etc. 

2 Appliances 

3 Taking water without stopping; track tanks; water scoope 

.139 Miscellaneous parts 

Cowcatcher or pilot, hedlight, bell, sandbox 












Traction engins Road locomotivs 

Selfprope'.ling ingins for hauling over roads or ground, or doing other work 
by locomotion. For railway engins see 631.13. For stationary hauling 

engins see 621.163 

Hauling may be accotnpusht either by engins applying their power 
directly and moving with the load, i.e. locomotiv (631.13) over rails; or 
traction engins (621 . 14) over ground or roads; or by engins applying their 
power indirectly thru cables, etc. and standing in a fixt position either 
temporarily (631.15) or permanently (631.16) 

Theory General 
Structural types 

Better clast in 631 . 18433 ; 631 . 143 if used is limited to discussion of 
those suitable to traction engins 

Types Traction engins for special uses 
Compressing machines Steam rollers 
Agricultural: plows, reapers, etc. 

Portable engins 

Engins that may be moved from place to place, but that remain in a fixt 
position when working. If selfpropelling, the selfpropulsion is incidental. 
For fire engins and other pumping engins see 621.64 

Theory General 
Types, structural, etc. 

Better claat in 631.18433. If used, limited to discussion ot those suit 
able to portable engins 

Portable engins for special purposes 

Hoisting, dredging, drilling, etc. See also 621.86 Hoisting and convey- 
ing machinery; 621.68 Fire engins, 627.7 Dredges 

Agricultural: threshers, etc. 

Semistationary engins 
Stationary engins 

Various types 

Engins fixt in position; e.g. those running factory machinery, cables, ele- 
vators, etc. For management see 621 . 193. For boilers see 621 . 18424 

Theory and general 

Types by use: hauling, dredging, etc. 

For pumps see 621 .64. For types clast by engin mechanism see 621 . 164 

Stationary boilers 

Better clast in 621 . 18434 with only reference here 

Types according to characteristics of engin mechanism 
or steam distribution 

When mechanism and steam distribution conflict, class according to 
mechanism; e.g. compound releasing-gear engins 621.1644 rather than 
621.1647 Each type may be subdivided like 621.11- e.g. vertical 
throttling engins b2i . 1642244 

Throttling engins 

Automatic shaft governor engins 

Releasing gear (Corliss) engins Drop cutoff 

Single acting engins. Westinghouse or Willans type 

Simple engins 

Compound engins, triple expansion, etc. 




1 1 









































Steam turbins 

See also 621 . 12.1 Marine steam turbine 

Methods of calculation 
Vanes and buckets 
Guide vanes and nozles 
Stresses in rotor or disc 

Velocity turbins 
Pressure turbins 

Combined velocity and pressure turbins 
Construction Details of design 

Vanes Buckets 
Guide vanes Nozles 
Rotor Discs 

Valvs, governors, safety devices 

Thrust balancing 


Casing, etc. 
Bearings, etc. 

Rotary engins 

Steam generation and transmission 

Fuels, furnaces, boilers, piping, power plants 
For steam heating see 607. 5 


Fuels Combustion 

Fuels for boiler heating 

For fuels in general and fuel analysis see 663.6 
Solid fuels: coal, lignite, wood, sawdust, peat 
Liquid fuels: tar, petroleum, alcohol 

Gaseous fuels: gas from blast furnaces, coke ovens: natural gas 
Composit fuels: city refuse, coal dust, trash 
Fuel consumption 

Practical experiments with a single fuel 
Comparativ consumption 

Practical experiments with various fuels 

Furnace Draft 


Heating and grate surfaces 
Types of furnaces 

Furnace parts and construction details 


Stationary grates 

Shaking, dumping and step grates 
Ashpits Furnace doors 
Burners for liquid fuel 
Mechanical stokers 
With traveling grate 

" rocking " 

" step grate (Roney grate) 

" plunger 

" screw 
Other appliances 

Pulverized fuel appliances 

Fuel and ash conveyers Ash removers 

See also 621 .86 Hoisting and conveying machinery 
Chimneys Stacks Draft appliances 

Smoke consumers. For smoke prevention see 621 . 194 1 Firing 
Natural draft Dampers Uptakes 
Induced draft 
Forced draft 


62I.184 Boilers For boiler plants see 631.19 

1 General 

13 Boiler economy Tests Feed water 

a Types 

a a Marine 

33 Locomotiv, traction, portable 

34 Stationary 

35 Firetube boilers (tubular) 
353 Internally fired 

353 Externally " 

36 Water tube boilers (tubulous) 

37 Flash generators Instantaneous vaporizing boilers 
5 Boiler construction Setting Parts 

5 a Shell Heds Tubesheets Domes Drums 
Riveted joints